Skip to main content

Full text of "Fact stranger than fiction : seventy-five years of a busy life, with reminiscences, of many great and good men and women"

See other formats

Wje library 

of tfje 

Unibergttpof Jgortfj Carolina 

Cnbotoeb bp Gftje Btalecttc 


ipbtlantfjroptc ^ocietiefi 





This book must not 
be taken from the 
Library building. 

This publicati on 

by fcheUniveis 
at Chapel Hil 

has been digmted 
ity of North Care iina 
Library and is available 

Form No. 471 










Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 


If gauged by the hosts of friends who recognize me, 
and the high esteem and kindly consideration manifested 
for me by my fellow citizens, of all classes and stations 
in life, then I feel that, I have not "strutted and fretted" 
my hour of life in vain. 

From this point of view, I have written the following 
story of my life, for two principal reasons'- First, be- 
cause I, alone, can certify to the truthfulness of all the 
statements — to the minutest details; and secondly, for 
the reason that, I have been well nigh importuned, by 
many of my personal acquaintances to write it; and be- 
cause I am hoping and praying that, by the reading of it, 
a stimulus and inspiration may be imparted to ambitious 
— struggling youths of both races — especially the colored 
race, to put forth renewed efforts for success. 

I, myself, by the reading of the auto-biographies of 
such colored men as Frederick Douglass and Booker T. 
Washington, have derived great encouragement, which 
has, persistently, sustained me in my life efforts along 
that "road so narrow where one but goes abreast." 

I desire, herein, to place before the colored youth, of 
my class, another concrete proof of the fact that, even in 
the United States, where the handicap of color and for- 
mer restrictions are so much in evidence, ambition, united 
with initiative and reasonable endeavor, will surely win 
success, along some worthy, honorable line. 

In the preparation of the type-written copy of thin 
narrative, I have been placed under lasting obligations to 
Miss Harriet J. Willis — competent and popular court 
stenographer, and attorney and counsellor at law; who 
ha3, gratuitously and beautifully, prepared the same. 







Revolutionary Times — 1793 — John Wright Stanly — 
William Gaston — General Nathaniel Greene — 
Governor Richard Dobbs Speight — Sarah Rice — 
John Rice Green — John Patterson Green — Ed- 
ward Stanly, M. C. — Temperance Durden Green- 
Granny Bede and the steer — White-colored peo- 
ple — From ignorance to learning — From poverty 
to affluence — Misfortunes and fall — Death of 
John R. Green ------ 1-22 



The cottage behind the "grave-yard" — Sad social en- 
vironment — Hunger and cold — Superstitions 
"ghosts" defied — The red rooster — A big-hearted 
white woman — Little Auntie and Aunt Hannah — 
Sawing and splitting cords of wood to buy skates 
— Uncle Balaam Jones and the grind-stone — Tor- 
turing a slave man — The Bragg boys persecute 
the writer — Opening Court — Old common-law 
punishments — Branding-iron and gibbett — The 
scaffold-rope and stocks — Hounded by both white 
and black — At bay — What constitutes a bad boy ? 
— Celebrating the Fourth of July— Slave man's 
visit at night to his wife — John Stuart Stanley — 
Colored teacher — Signs of Civil War — Hegira of 
colored people to the North — The patrols — Pack- 
ing up ----___ 28-50 

"My native land — good night!" 


Crossing the Bar — Ossa and Pelion — The captain's 
stentorian voice — New York City — 1857 — The 
half-dollar — Fourth of July in New York — 63 
years ago — My first Sunday School — Colored 
tyler of a white Masonic Lodge — The Erie Rail- 
road — 1857 — Cleveland, Ohio — First Impressions 
— Oberlin, Ohio— 1857— "Treat 'em rough!"— 
Nostalgia and seeing mother — A second trip — 
Supping sorrow — Third attempt — The pursuit — 
Capture — Stripped and flogged in the woods — My 
vow to be free — Daring death twice in ten min- 
utes—Free ! - - - - - - - 52-78 


Severe discipline — Good order maintained — My 
Southern "patois" — Supt. Andrew Freeze — Old 
Central High — Playing truant — Newburgh chair 
factory — Eight miles from Cleveland — The stage 
coach — First sight of John D. Rockefeller, 1858 
—Other worthy Cleveland men — -Experience with 
the Shakers, on Shaker Heights — Their customs 
—Dances — Songs — A "tramp" in 1860 — Mr. 
James M. Hoyt and our home — Asking work at 
Post Office door — Rev. Mr. Bittinger — A steady 
job at $4.00 per month — Hardest work ever — 
Walking ten miles to witness minstrel show — 
First acquaintance with great Hanna family — 
Troy Hill — Pittsburgh — Kind friends give en- 
couragement and inspire in writer desire for 
learning _-_.__-. 74-92 


Currying street-car horses, 1862 — Apprenticed to a 
tailor — The Angier House — The Civil War — Re- 
turn of dead, wounded and sarved from Confed- 

erate prison pens — Wheeler and Russell's Dining 
Room — Studying "between meals" — Lincoln's re- 
mains, lying in state — Rev. John R. Warren — 
Joseph H. Ricks — Captain Joe Richards and the 
cocktail — J. H. DeWitt & Co. — His prophecy ful- 
filled — Back to Pittsburgh — Dr. John Wesley 
Sykes — Sleeping car porter and Big "4" store- 
keeper — Mr. Truman P. Handy — Mayflower Sun- 
day school — Rev. James Eells and Dan P. Eells — 
My volume of essays — Rev. B. T. Tanner — Phila- 
delphia — Rev. Dr. Hawes — Mr. Theodore Bliss 
—Entering the old Central High School, 1866— 
Dr. Theodore Sterling and others — Sleeping in 
attic — Studying Greek at 3 A. M. by tallow "dip" 
— W 7 aiting on table and parties - - - 93-115 



"After graduation what?" — Humorous incident in 
Akron, 1867 — Andrew J. Rickoff and Judge Jesse 
P. Bishop — The Union Law College — General 
John Crowell — W. G. McFarland — Getting mar- 
ried — Going to South Carolina — Enroute — Pro- 
fessors Robert and Cicero Harris — Fayetteville, 
N. C. — William R. Brewington — Bennettsville, S. 
C. — In dire straits — "Hitting the trail" — Do or 
lie — John G. Grant — A "politician" — Wilmington, 
N. C. — Adrian & Vollers — Ed. Roper — My groc- 
ery — The hanging — Admitted to the S. C. Bar, 
Sept. 20, 1870 — Remarkable cases — Political ex- 
periences — Addressed state convention, 1872, in 
Hall of Representatives, Columbia, S. C. — Elected 
alternate to Philadelphia National Convention, 
1872 — Jeopardie in Southern politics - 116-146 



Back to Cleveland — In the grip of winter — Bread 
without butter — Trying to borrow $5.00 — J. R. 
Hawkins — My first Cleveland client— Nominated 

and elected Justice of the Peace three times, 9 
years — Better times — Elected to the General As- 
sembly, 1877 — "Counted out" — Defending many 
alleged murderers — Governor "Bill" (Fog Horn) 
Allen — Frank G. Carpenter and other disting- 
uished editors — W. S. Kerruish and Frederick 
Douglass — Fighting color handicap — George P. 
Phibbs— De Scott Evans - - 147-170 



In the Ohio General Assembly — Langston's treatment 
prior thereto — In the chair — Selected by the 
speaker to explain causes of Cleveland's growth 
— Not invited to share in the "Giteau" junket — 
The Weitzel Bill and Tom L. Johnson — Also, 
Newton D. Baker — The "Black Laws" — Senator 
George H. Ely — The writer would not yield to 4 
street railway presidents — Defeated of re-elec- 
tion by them — Professional life for 7 more years 
— Resurrected by popular-vote plan — Crying and 
praying in arguments in court — Opinions — My 
seven years' case wone --.-.- 171-185 



Second term in General Assembly — Defeat of McDer- 
mot Bill to have separate schools — Fight for Wil- 
berforce University — Sixteen thousand dollars 
won for her — Degree of LL.D. conferred on me 
for successful fight — Wrote and fathered Ohio 
Labor Day law — Feted three times by Amalga- 
mated organizations of Labor in Cincinnati, and 
proclaimed "Daddy of the Day" — The day after- 
wards made national holiday, by Congress — Re- 
fused the dining-room at Gibson house — Enter- 
tained at the Burnett House — Called on by both 
McKinley and Foraker — Addresses great meeting 

of railway trainmen at Goodale Park, Columbus, 
with Governor Campbell of Ohio — Turns a "joke" 
by the Governor on himself — Secures passage of 
law protecting poor widows - 186-192 



Sworn in as a Senator of the '25th District of Ohio — 
Colored vote at that time, in Cleveland small — 
Presided over the Senate, once — Def acto Lieuten- 
ant Governor of Ohio — Resurrected and secured 
passage of street-car vestibule law — Fought for 
Anti-Screen Law — "Thereby hangs a tale" — 
"Dug up" and secured passage of bill to enable 
financing of our parks and boulevards — Cham- 
pioned House Bill to allow firemen, in Cleveland, 
some time for recreation — Prevented change of 
the Smith Civil Rights law — Aided in passage of 
Senate Bill No. 50 — Mr. Spencer — Confronted 
meetin gof angry citizens, and gained applause 
from them — Guest at banquet of Protective Tariff 
League of Canton, Ohio — Responded to toast — 
Visited Col. Elliott F. Shepherd of New York, at 
his home — Wrote letters for the Mail and Ex- 
press — His treatment of me — His death - 193-209 


Observations on the personal grandeur of Mr. Rocke- 
feller — From every point of view — He promoted 
those whom he conquered in the business 
arena — First meeting — Miss Laura C. Spellman 
in our schools — Mr. Rockefeller a Sunday School 
teacher — Wordy arraignment of his business 
methods, by a legislator — Reply by this writer — 
Invited to his home, three times — Extraordinary 
courtesies extended to me and family — His gen- 
osity to me — He pilots the carriage containing 
Mrs. Rockefeller and guests — Gives this writer 
carte blanche to drive in his grand and beautiful 

grounds — His father — At 9 loss to account for 
his remarkable social condescension and kind- 
nesses — How he signed my petition for a federal 
office, under McKinley — Mrs. Rockefeller's sym- 
pathy for and kindnesses to the poor — Always 
the friend of the "under dog" — Letters to this 
writer — A benediction on Mr. and Mrs. Rocke- 
feller ----- - 210-222 



Some data — On the ocean wave — In Liverpool — In 
London — Some men of renown — Objects of inter- 
est — Two letters — Rt. Honorable A. F. Winning- 
ton — Ingram — Lord Bishoo of London — Freder- 
ick William Farrar — Canon of Westminster Ab- 
bey — Ex-Pre§ident Fair child of Oberlin College 
— Rev. John Clifford, D. D., LLD. — Rev. Joseph 
Parker, D. D. — Werner of St. Martin's Tower- — 
In the Tower of London — S. Coleridge Taylor— 
S. J, Celestin Edwards — Scotland — Switzerland — 
Senator Roscoe Conkling — The native African — 
Some great Scotsmen — Mrs. F. M. Saleeby and 
her sons — Carrubber's Close— "Drawing Rooms" 
Mrs. Elizabeth Pease Nicholl — Miss Eliza Wig- 
ham — John Box Brown — Sir William Simpson — 
Old St. Giles Church — Edinburgh Castle and the 
Grass market — Holyrood Palace — Calton Hill — 
Arthur's Seat— The fish-wife — The Forth bridge 
—Kirkliston — John Knox Bokwe - - 222-247 



James Thompson, Esq., LL. B., solicitor— Mrs. 
Thompson— The Firth of Tay— The City of Dun- 
dee — James Thompson, Jr. — Patriot — "Oh dark- 
dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon !" — The whole 
Thomson family — Aberdeen — Oats vs. Macaroni 
— Mrs. Isabella Fyvie Mayo (Edward Garrett) 
— Dr. George Ferdinands—John Leith — Scottish 


stories — The P. S. A. — "Twilight and evening 
star" — Mr. Leith's legend — Huntley — Gordon 
Castle — Bag pipes — Miss Annie Bennett — Mr. 
William Simpson — Rev. Mr. Templeton — Old 
"storm king," Benachie — In Glasgow — Mr. Wil- 
liam G. Smeal— "The deaf hear"— The famous 
Cathedral, where Rob Roy concealed himself 248-259 



McKinley Governor — Some of his generous charac- 
teristics — Politeness, like George Washington — 
At the Tod House — In the rink — At the Congre- 
gational Church, in Washington — Dr. J. E. 
Rakin — Compels Speaker's Committee to put me 
on the "stump" — Wires Chairman William Hahn 
— I discuss and defend his protective tariff pol- 
icy with M. Testolin, in the Piazza St. Marco, 
Venice, also with the London Daily News, which 
is cabled to the U. S. — He orders the P. M. Gen- 
eral to place me at head of a bureau — Gives Sen- 
ator Pritchard of N. C. place promised to me, to 
save G. 0. P. in N. C. — Was assailed in convention 
of colored men — Supportel by me — Conference 
with him in White House, before it was opened 
to the public — Was true friend of the colored 
people — Interview with him, as to lynching in 
Lake City, S. C. — Remarkable illustration of his 
policy as to lynching — "You shant be shocked!" 
Roosevelt — Geo. B. Cortelyou — "Bully for you!" 
Bully for you!" — Arch Bishop Ireland — Booker 
T. Washington — Hon. M. A. Hanna — Samuel 
Coleridge Taylor — Dr. George H. Richardson — 
Some prominent colored citizens of Washington, 
D. C. — Confirmed with wife anl daughter in St. 
Luke's P. E. Church— On the Vestry - 260-27& 

OW friends at home — At my law practice — The Wade 
Leigh case — Horace Neff , Esq. — Case of Dr. John 


L. Hoyer A mooted legal question — Dr. Har- 
ris R. Cooley — Honorable Newton D. Baker — 
Opinion of the Law Department of Cleveland — 
My dissatisfaction — My Writ of Mandamus gains 
my point, before Judge Charles J. Estep — Elected 
by colored people of Cleveland, in mass meeting 
assembled, to go to Congress — My service .suc- 
cessful — Congressman (Judge) Burnett of Ala- 
bama — Isaac Watt — Off again, for Europe — The 
Azores— The Madeiras — The Rock of Gibraltar — 
The Gulf of Lyons— Genoa— The U. S. Men of 
War — The Campo Santo — Naples and "Nick"— 
Vesuvius and Pompeii — "Mounting" Vesuvius — 
"Nica Italian lady" — "In the jaws of death — Into 
the mouth of hell!" — Down again — The lovely 
Bay of Naples — The remains of Pompeii — En- 
. route for Rome _-■-'.-.- 279-295 



The Campagna di Roma — Romulus and Remus — The 
Corso — The Coliseum — Madam de Stael — The Ap- 
pian ¥/ay — The Via Sacra — The Roman Forum — 
The Catacombs — The Pantheon — Trajan's Col- 
umn — St. Peter's Church — Church of Saint John 
Lateran — Mount Pincio — Meeting the Pope — 
Bishop John P. Farrelly — Rev. Fr. William Mc- 
Mahon — Monseignor Bisletti — Scala Pia and 
Cortile S. Damasco — The Swiss guards — Gorge- 
ous tapestries— The reception — Pope Pius X — 
Mother Bolden — Rev. Fr. Ma^loy — In beautiful 
Florence — A narrow escape — The river Arno — 
Picture (art) galleries — Bennett, Jr., of the 
New York Herald — In Venice — The gondoliers — 
The Grand Canal— Palaces bordering on the same 
— Piazza Saint Marco — Doges Palace — Wonder- 
ful paintings — Bridge of Sighs — The Rialto — St. 
Marcs Cathedral — Campanile tower — Vienna "the 
beautiful"— Recognized, in a crowd — Chas. F. 
Brush's opinion of her beauty — Gothic architec- 
ture and wonderful art galleries — The beautiful 


blue Danube — Grand Duke Maximilian and oor 
Monroe Doctrine — A few of numerous canvases, 
and groups of stauary - 296-314 



The Alps and Appenines — Long tunnels — Removing 
Mountains — About "cow-catchers" — Beautiful 
Switzerland — The writer grows poetic (?) — Zu- 
rich and her lake — Paris — The Latin Quarter — 
Trilbyland — Dance hall and brasseries — Grisettes 
et al — Notre Dame and the Hotel Dieu — The 
Morgue — No "trickle, trickle, trickle," now — 
Bells and gargoyles of Notre Dame — Notab'e ob- 
jects of interest— Ireland — The "Emerald Isle" — 
Some of her great men — Blarney and her Castle 
— The Lakes of Killarney — Tipperary — Leaving 
for the U. S. — Dublin — Some innocent Irish 
varus _____ _ 315-332 


confession — Politics on the ocean — Kier Hardie, 
M. P.. and the writer — What Judge Burke said- 
Mr. Theodore Bliss— The Rt. Reverend W. A. 
Leonard, Bishop of Ohio — Rev. Fr. Southern- 
Poetry — "An Evening Prayer" — Letters to me, 
from distinguished men — J. A. Garfield — Hon, 
John Sherman — Hon. Myron T. Herrick — Booker 
T. Washington. LL. D. — Daniel Murray, Esq. — 
Congressional Library — Chas. F. Thwing, LL. D. 
— Mayor Robert Blee, of Cleveland. Ohio — 
Judge Thomas M. Kennedy — Frederick Douglass, 
John Clifford, D. D. LL. D., of London, England 
and Senator Warren G. Harding— In "Tom" 
Johnson's tent — The patriotic Perkins family — 
Edwin R., Joseph, Henry B., Jacob B., Captain 
Ralph and Old Simon Perkins — Some family 
reminiscences of a domestic nature - - 333-8.58 



John P. Green, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in the old town of Newberne, North Carolina, on the sec- 
ond day of April, 1845. His parents were John R. Green 
and Temperance Green, both of whom were free colored 
people of mixed blood, and highly respected by the people 
of both races in that community. 

John R. Green, the father, was the reputed son of 
John Stanley (spelled by him, Stanly) of North Carolina. 
who was the son of John Wright Stanley, of the same 
place, and who, during our Revolutionary War, for a long 
period of time, maintained a fleet of fourteen privateers, 
in the vicinity of the West India Islands, which preyed 
upon British Commerce, quite successfully, until, being 
attacked in its West Indian harbor of refuge, by a portion 
of the British Navy, it was thoroughly destroyed, and 
Stanley betook himself to commerce and merchandise, in 
the old North Carolina town, at that time, the capital of 
the state. 

This is the same John Wright Stanley upon whose 
head, with that of William Gaston, — a great Revolution- 
ary patriot of the same state and community, — was 
placed a premium, by the British military authorities, 

during that war, and who, in the darkest days of the 
War of Independence, loaned General Nathaniel Greene 
the sum of forty thousand pounds, which* I may say, 
was never repaid to him, and when we consider the 
scarcity of money at that time, and that forty thousand 
pounds was as valuable then, as two hundred thousand 
pounds is now, we can form a correct estimate of the pa- 
triotism of that "Son of the Revolution." 

It may interest the reader, in passing, to know that, 
Gaston was murdered, by British spies, for the bounty 
which was offered for his head; but Stanley lived to see 
the end of the war and enjoy the blessings of Liberty, for 
many years, under our glorious Stars and Stripes. 

John Stanley, my reputed grand-father, was widely 
noted for his legal lore and successful practice at the Bar 
of North Carolina. It was said of him that, he "never lost 
a case," but, as to the truthfulness of this statement, I 
am somewhat incredulous; unless it be a fact that, he 
had very few cases, or that, he was so uniformly success- 
ful in practice that, it became a proverb, that, he lost no 

That he was a great orator, politician and states- 
man, was well known, — he was, for seven consecutive 
sessions of the North Carolina House of Representatives, 
Speaker of the House, was in Congress once, and fol- 
lowed and sustained that great party of which Henry 
Clay was the famous leader, known as the Whig party, 
and stood for "America for Americans," and the protec- 
tion of American industries. 

This John Stanley, in the early part of the last cen- 
tury became involved in a quarrel with Governor Richard 
Dobbs Speight, of North Carolina, one of the original 
signers of our National Constitution, and, accepting a 
challenge sent to him by Governor Speight, they fought 
a duel, in which the Governor was killed. This was a so- 
cial and political calamity in the "Old North State," for a 

long time deplored, and did much to bring into hatred, 
scorn and contempt, a system of so-called "honor," which 
was finally outlawed, under a heavy penalty. 

Herein, peculiarly enough, lies the explanation of this 
writer's name being John Green, rather than John 

My father's mother, Sarah Rice, a woman of African 
descent, had, for years, been a "good and faithful maid 
servant" in the home of the unfortunate Governor 
Speight, and had exercised over the little girls and maid- 
ens of that august southern family almost maternal care. 
A condition of affairs which, I suspect, few persons, in 
the North, East and West, can adequately conceive of, 
unless they lived in the South, during the slavery era, 
and became familiar with it, so close was the association 
between the Negro and mulatto nurses and their little 
wards, that, even down to the present day, we often hear 
the scions of old southern families and some of the elderly 
ladies, from the same section, refer to their "Old Black 
Mammies," with accents of love and affection. Such was 
the love and affection for Sarah Rice, on the part of the 
Speight family, that, they "set her free," manumitted — 
emancipated her, — giving her, at the same time, the sum 
of two hundred dollars, as required by the law of the 
State, at that time. 

Previous to this important event in the life of this 
favored nurse, she had been delivered of a wee boy baby, 
whom she had named for herself only, — Johnnie Rice, 
not daring to disclose his true paternity ; but, subsequent- 
ly, having attained her freedom, she called him Johnnie 
Green, for a little boy whom she had nursed ; for, Johnnie, 
having been born when his mother was still in the bonds 
of slavery, followed his mother's slave condition ; and, not 
having been manumitted with her, he was still the slave 
of the Speight estate ; and to let it be known that he was 
the "natural" son of John Stanley, the fatal ball from 


whose pistol had killed the Governor, would, in all proba- 
bility, have sealed his fate, adversely. 

So, Johnnie Green became, in later days, John R. 
(Rice) Green; and this writer, his son, has flaunted the 
green flag, as John P. (Patterson) Green, ever since. 
Sometimes, really, "fact is stranger than fiction." 

' Having stated it as matter of fact that, my father, 
John R. Green, was the reputed son of John Stanley, a 
"son of the Revolution," the skeptical may demand the 
proof of this fact ; if so, I submit the following data : 

a — Sarah Rice, John R. Green's mother, declared 
that Stanley was his father; 

b — John Stanley, on his "dying" bed, sent for my 
father and to him in person, acknowledged his 
paternity, giving him at the same time, a steel 
engraved likeness of himself, — which we still 
have, in our family ; 

c — My father, it was generally conceded, bore a 
more striking resemblance to Stanley, than 
any other of his sons, — except that, he was a 
shade darker. 

d — It was common rumor, in that community, 
that, Stanley was his father. 

To the best of my knowledge, the most illustrious son 
of my grandfather John Stanley, was the Honorable Ed- 
ward Stanley, M. C., who was leader of the Whig party, 
in Congress, in the "Forties." 

This gentleman and scholar was, later on, the first 
nominee of the Republican party for governor of Califor- 
nia; and afterwards, during the reconstruction period, 
subsequent to our Civil War, was appointed by President 
Andrew Johnson "provisional governor" of North 

I have gone into this matter somewhat minutely, be- 
cause I am proud of the fact that I can trace my descent 
from a family so distinguished, in both "camp and state ;" 
and, also, because it furnishes to the student of society 
and social standards, in these United States, a concrete 

example of how "fearfully and wonderfully" a large per- 
centage of the colored people here are made. 

I shall end any further consideration of the Stanley 
family, by submitting the following epitaph, from the pen 
of the late William Gaston, of North Carolina, who was 
the son of that William Gaston, the friend and associate 
of John Wright Stanley, who died a martyr in the cause 
of American liberty. This William Gaston, who wrote 
the epitaph, was noted in his day, — and down to the pres- 
ent, as having been one of nature's noblemen and the 
greatset Chief Justice and jurist his state ever produced. 
He was, from the first, John Stanley's close personal 
friend (both at the Bar and in the political arena), and 
well knew whereof he spoke. 

The following is the epitaph: "John Stanley, eldest 
son of John Wright-Stanley and Ann, his wife, born 
1774, died August 2d, 1833. Few persons in any com- 
munity have occupied a more prominent station; few 
have exercised a more powerful influence than this dis- 
tinguished individual for many years held and exercised 
in our town and throughout our state. Long in the af- 
fectionate and grateful remembrance, of all, will live his 
genius, his learning, his courtesy, his eloquence, his vir- 
tues, his personal characteristics and his public serv- 
ices." GASTON. 

My mother, Mrs. Temperance Durden Green, was a 
quadroon, by blood, and was a direct descendent, on 
both her father's and her mother's side, from those 
Scottish and Yorkshire Englishmen who followed the 
flag and fortunes of the last "Pretender," — descendant of 
the unfortunate James II, of England, in 1745 ; and after 
having met disastrous defeat, at Derby, almost at the 
gates of London, were expatriated and in large numbers, 
found asylum in North Carolina, — notably, in the coun- 
ties of Cumberland and Sampson, where, by thrift and 

economy, they left a numerous and wealthy progeny, as 
may be seen by tourists and others today. 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century, 1792, 
to be specific, there resided near the town of Clinton, in 
Sampson county, North Carolina, — about thirty miles 
from the city (then town) of Fayettsville, in the same 
state, a family, containing two beautiful daughters, of 
which a man, Chesnut (or Chestnutt) by name, was 
the head. This pater familias was a well-to-do farmer; 
and, with his wife and daughters, was known and re- 
spected, far and wide, by persons of his class; moreover, 
since his daughters were young and comely, they were, 
frequently favored by the calls of young gentlemen, in the 
vicinage, who, socially and financially, deemed themselves 
their superiors. 

In the course of time, the young ladies became great- 
ly enamored of two of these young men; but, since they 
did not hasten to make to them proposals of marriage, 
they had recourse to the advice and services of a 
"likely" young colored man (the slave of their father), 
who advised them, in the premises, with the result 
that, ere long, each became the mother of a little 
colored girl; one of these baby girls was named Obedi- 
ence, which was transformed to "Bede;" this one was 
my grand-mother, born in the same year as my father, 
1793 ; the child of the other girl, sister of this first moth- 
er, was name Alice, but, invariably, as long as she lived, 
called "A-lice." 

A glance will suggest that these two babies, being 
the offspring of one father by two sisters, were, at once, 
sisters and cousins!! This condition during the woman- 
hood of these two colored girls was doubly complicated, 
when each girl presented to two white brothers, severally, 
a child, one of whom was my mother. 

If the foregoing is proof of a low moral status 
amongst both white and colored persons in that portion 


of these United States, at that time, place the odium 
where it belongs, not at door of the poor slaves; nor 
should we forget that, as far back as the time of Homer, 
when bondsmen were of every nationality and race, it 
became a maxim that, 

"Jove made it certain that, whatever day 

Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away." 

Moreover, it seems to be a natural inclination governing 
dominant and oppressing men, to take unjust advantages 
of unprotected females and others; as, — witness the Ro- 
mans, under Romulus, taking, by force, the Sabine vir- 
gins and carrying them into captivity ; and a more recent 
proof of my contention may be found in the conduct of 
the German warriors and the "Reds" of Russia, who have 
disregarded every sacred right of conjugal, maternal and 
virginal purity; under such conditions those damnable 
doctrines, — "Might makes right," and, "To the victor 
belong^ the spoils," are an unspeakable curse. 

It may interest the reader to know that, both those 
colored girls lived to a "ripe old age." Bede, my grand- 
mother, lived to be nearly ninety-seven years of age, 
and, had she not yielded to dread pneumonia, she would, 
probably, have rounded out a century ; Alice was almost 
ninety years of age, when she died. Both left behind 
them a numerous proteny, thus proving the fallacy of 
that "scientific" dogma — that Mulattoes cannot reproduce 
their species; for both were mulattoes, — having white 
mothers and a Negro father. 

"Granny Bede," was, in her youth and young woman- 
hood, a very strong and active woman, as the two anec- 
dotes which follow, concerning her, will abundantly 

When she was between eighteen and twenty years of 
age, she had, to some extent, the care of the cows and 
other cattle belonging to the farm on which she was 
reared. On one occasion, it became necessary to put a 


rope around the horns of a powerful steer, which was 
confined in the pen; but, this being at a time remotely 
anterior to the herding of cattle on our western prairies, 
and skillful lassoing of the same by our doughty "cow- 
boys," the men failed of success, and, after repeated ef- 
forts and failures, appealed to "Bede," their keeper. 
'Here's Bede," they said; "they know her; let her try." 

No sooner said than done; for, in a "jiffy," she 
vaulted over the fence of the pen, and, noose in hand, 
dauntlessly, approached — confronted, the steer. Lower- 
ing- his head, the beast rushed at her! In this supreme 
moment, "Granny" did not scream and faint, but, grasp- 
ing his horns, she held his nose to the ground until re- 
lieved; when, she triumphantly climbed back over the 
fence, the cynosure of all eyes, the heroine of the mo- 
ment, and even down to the present day, in the estima- 
tion of this writer, and others. 

The other incident follows: In 1872, when she was in 
■the seventy-ninth year of her age, I visited her on a 
farm in the suburbs of Bennettsville, Marlborough 
County, South Carolina. The little cabin in which she 
then resided, was on the roadside, at the edge of a fifty- 
acre cottonfield, and, it becoming necessary to call one 
of the "hands" to his dinner, she did not ring a bell or 
sound a horn, but with a stentorian voice, called "Lewis! 
0, Lewis!!" I can hear her to this day. "Come to din- 
ner!" Needless to say, Lewis heard the gladsome sum- 
mons, and, dropping his hoe in his tracks, ran, as the 
J crow flies" to that refreshment which his manly labor 
entitled him to, and which made a mere dish of "corned 
heef-and," more palatable to him, than any nectar brewed 
by a fabled god. 

My dear mother was a born Spartan, with not the 
slightest suspicion of African blood traceable in features 
or complexion, with brown eyes, auburn hair, high cheek 
bones, high forehead, straight nose and thin-compressed 


lips, she was a study for everyone who was introduced to 
her, as a colored woman; and yet, she married a colored 
man, not disowning her descent, and, to her death, in 
her eighty-first year of age, she commingled with her 
colored friends. 

Some conception of my mother's energy and deter- 
mined spirit may be gained from the fact that, when she 
was about twenty years of age, she walked from Clinton, 
Sampson County, N. C, to Fayettsville, N. C, in less 
than one day, arriving in Fayettsville in a foundered con- 
dition, carrying her shoes in her hand. 

When she arrived in Cleveland, she had occasion to 
transact some business with Mr. Blair, who owned the 
extensive real estate on the south side of Prospect street, 
just east of Thirtieth street. Mr. Blair said to her: "Of 
what nationality are you?" Mother answered, "I am a 
colored woman." "Well," replied Mr. Blair, "I wouldn't 
tell it!" 

Mother could wash and iron, cook, make any article 
of wearing apparel, for either man or woman, — from a 
shirt to a "Prince Albert" coat; in addition to all this, she 
had been taught and thoroughly understood how to 
"card" wool or cotton, spin with the wheel and weave 
at the loom. She could gather the cotton from the stalk 
in the field, and with her own hands, without assistance, 
card, spin, weave and manufacture it into a suit of 
clothes. She could even knit the stockings of the family. 
The first kite ever flown by me was attached to a ball of 
twine which my mother had manufactured for me out 
of the "raw" cotton. 

When, she, a comely lass of twenty-four summers, 
married my father in 1837, he took her to a beautiful 
home, which was still standing in 1897, when I last visited 
"Old Newbern Town," and was in use as a parsonage for 
the Presbyterian pastor and his family. 
The interior decorations of this house, by the carpen- 

ter, in the "thirties" cost in cash eighteen hundred dol- 
lars, an amount which would purchase then what five 
thousand dollars would to-day. 

Having given a survey of the Stanley family and 
others of his ancestors, I will now proceed to give an 
outline of my father's brief but useful and remarkable 
life; and here and now, I dare assert, that, taking into 
consideration the time and place of his birth, his en- 
slaved condition, his absolute handicap in the way of ob- 
taining even the rudiments of an education, his was one 
of the most remarkable careers that stand attested, by 
any other colored man, of his age and generation. 

It is a peculiar and interesting fact, which I may 
mention, in passing, that my father and I, together, 
have lived in portions of three centuries — the eighteenth, 
the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries : Father was 
born, as I have said, in the year 1793 ; he lived until No- 
vember, 1850 ; while this writer having been born in 1845, 
in the 19th century, is still living, in the 20th century. 
In addition to the foregoing, it may be noted, that, we 
each, have lived in two centuries; my father in the 18th 
and 19th century, and this writer in the 19th and 20th 

My father, having been born of a slave mother — be- 
fore she was maumitted, his estate followed that of his 
unfortunate mother, — he was a slave! Ye gods! fancy 
the son of a Stanley in slavery! yet, stranger conditions 
than this have existed in the southern states of this 
country — the "natural" colored sons and daughters of 
many slave masters have been openly sold, on the auc- 
tion block, and the proceeds of those sales have gone to 
line the pockets of their un-natural parents ! ! ! 

Little "Johnnie Green" was of such small and deli- 
cate frame, even up to the time when he entered his 
"teens," that, it was somewhat of a problem, what dispo- 
sition should be made of him, — a laborious occupation for 


him was "out of the question ;" and as for a professional 
career, that was not to be thought of. 

Finally, it was determined to apprentice him to a 
tailor; and the resolution was no sooner adopted than 
executed. At the age of thirteen, in 1806, when, by rea- 
son of diminutive size, he was dubbed "Jack, the weazel," 
he first crossed his legs, on the "board" and commenced 
a career, which continued for forty-three years, when 
death ended it. 

Father related many instances of shameful treatment 
of him by some of the apprentice boys during his appren- 
ticeship, who frequently "picked" on him; but to his last 
day he spoke in terms of superlative gratitude of the 
protection often extended to him by a Frenchman, Du- 
rand by name, whose memory I laud and magnify, to this 
day — who can tell the limitation of 

"Little deeds of kindness, little words of love?" 

He also, often spoke of his meager supply of food, when 
old Aunt Hannah, his care-taker, would, at times, pre- 
pare and serve him "Cush," a dish which I suspect few 
of the present generation know anything about. Having 
been served with the same dish in my childhood, I hereby 
submit the recipe for making that inexpensive and pal- 
atable dish: Take crusts and crumbs of cold cornbread; 
moisten them moderately, put them into a "spider," (fry- 
ing-pan) containing a modicum of hot grease. — and let 
them fry, until all are nicely browned; then, Voila! a 
dish for a hungry boy. We think we are experiencing 
"hard times" in our day ; and we are, in many instances ; 
but, what will you say when I avow to you that, the mis- 
tress of his salve cousin, Maria, often, before sending her 
out into the street to perform an errand, would grease her 
lips in token of the fact (?) that, she had been eating 


Father, considering his direct lineal descent, was in 
reason, — necessarily, an apt pupil; and, in the course of 
a year or two, he began to earn money, by doing extra 
work, during his spare hours, and by occupying some of 
the hours allotted to him for sleep, in this way. 

At the age of twenty-one, when his apprenticeship 
was ended, he was the proud possessor of one thousand 
dollars, which he ultimately used in buying his freedom; 
for, he related that, after he had married a free wife, he 
could no longer endure the yoke of slavery. 

When he attained his liberty, he had already 
learned to read and write. In fact, he had, to some ex- 
tent, mastered the three R's. 

No school door swung open, or even ajar for him; he 
learned the alphabet in some mysterious way, for it was 
a crime to teach a slave to read and write; in this re- 
spect, he was in a sadder plight than the great Frederick 
Douglass, for he, before he escaped from slavery, had 
some "side" instruction; but father, had no instructor, 
save a copy of the then, Webster's Elementary Spelling 
Book, which was his inseparable companion, by night and 
by day; and, with the assistance of a blind man, whom, 
at times, he led through the street, he was gradually in- 
ducted into the mystery of reading. 

The method in practice between my "Daddy" and 
the blind man, was as follows : Dad would call the letters 
of a word, and the blind man would tell him how to pro- 
nounce it; and "Jack-the-weazel," like his forebears, being 
naturally clever, ere long was reading, in the same little 
book, the monosyllabic sentences, beginning, — "No man 
may put off the law of God." 

It may surprise the reader to learn, that, in after 
years, without any additional schooling, my father kept 
the "single and double entry" books of accounts, used in 
his business; that, at the time of his death, he owned a 
large collection of books, amongst which I can, at this 


late day, recall, The Life and Speeches of Henry Clay, 
The Church Register, which contained thorough accounts 
of nation-wide transactions in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States ; A History of the World, by 
Sir Walter Raleigh; Rollin's Ancient History, and many 
others; in fact, so choice, and, in some instances, rare, 
was his collection of books, that, when, by order of my 
mother, they were sold at public auction, the bidding was 
spirited and the competition noteworthy, to obtain pos- 
session of some of them, even amongst the wealthy slave- 
holders who were in attendance. 

Unquestionably, my father possessed a great desire 
for literary attainments, and did his utmost to reach to 
some excellence, along that line. This talent on his part 
was recognized during all his life. Men of learning and 
discrimination sought him in his store and engaged him in 
conversation, to such an extent, that much of his valuable 
time was lost, in this way, and even the Bishops of the 
Episcopal Church (of which he was a member) — Bishops 
Ives and Atkinson, respectively, always visited and con- 
versed with him, when they made their episcopal visits to 
old Christ Church, in that town. In this connection, it may 
not be amiss to state that, although born and reared a 
slave, and residing in a slave-holding community, my 
daddy, so deported himself as to merit and receive kind 
and courteous treatment, from all. He owned and occupied 
with his family, a pew in Christ Episcopal Church, which 
was the most wealthy and aristocratic congregation in 
that part of the state ; while the other members, with two 
exceptions, sat in the galleries ; and as proving how tena- 
cious he was of what he conceived to be his rights, it may 
be stated, that, when the Reverend Doctor Buxton, 
(white) a clergyman of the Episcopal Church, married 
him and my mother in Fayetteville, North Carolina, in 
1837, and did not wear his clerical robe, he would not give 
him a bill which he carried in his vest pocket for him. 


I may add, in passing, that, my father who never as- 
pired to be called a poet, in any sense, yet,, undoubtedly, 
was possessed of the afflatus, to some extent, for, he read 
the higher poets with avidity and had committed many 
excerpts to memory, which, in animated conversation, 
he often repeated. As an illustration, I will here record 
one, which I have carried in my memory for sixty-five 
years, and during that time, I have never seen it in print : 

"Where are those names which set the world on fire? 
Where does the pride of Rome and Greece retire? 
Caesar's dread name now marks the butcher's dog; 
While Cato saws wood and Scipio drives the hog. 
Seek ye for Pompey? — Search the tanner's yard, 
While Nero, youll find your kitchen's faithful guard." 

As tending to show that father was possessed of a 
keen sense of humor, and could on occasion extemporize 
a little rhyme, I will give the following illustration: 

One Sunday afternoon, when he and some of his 
boon companions were promenading, one of the principal 
streets of the town he noticed that one of them, "Bos- 
ton" by name, was wearing a coat which had been made 
in his tailor shop, and that it had been dyed black. 
Like a flash he slapped "Boston" on his shoulder, and 

"This coat I know, it once was brown, 
And shone all o'er this Newbern town; 
But now, alas, this coat is black, 
And shines upon poor Boston's back!" 

It is needless to remark that, this thrust drew forth 
much merriment, at the expense of "poor Boston;" but, 
since it was confined to the friendly group, it was taken 
for a joke, as was intended. 

The following epitaph written (composed) by my 
father, was engraved on the marble headstone placed by 


him at the head of his first wife's grave, in grateful and 
loving remembrance of her. She died beloved and even 
revered by the whole community, in which she was born 
and passed her useful and devout life. 
"Sacred to the memory of Sally Green, who departed this 
life March 29th, 1837, aged 45 years, 6 months. 

A constant friend, a tender, loving wife; 
Prudent in all the needful cares of life; 
And when arrested by the hand of Death, 
In faith and hope resigned her mortal breath. 
Her soul, we trust, doth dwell with God, above, 
And there drinks in the copious streams of love." 

In the course of father's long experience as a tailor 
and merchant tailor, he had many apprentices, some of 
whom became quite noteworthy, by reason of their at- 
tainments and mercantile successes. 

The most conspicuous of these was, the late Rever- 
end William J. Alston, a native of Raleigh, N. C. ; who, 
for eight years, was under my father's eye, and finished 
his apprenticeship — "cum magna laude". 

"William", as he was called, was, for years, bubbling 
over with animal spirits ; he was rude, boisterous and un- 
tidy; and, more than once, had to be disciplined. It was 
the general opinion of William that, he was a "ne'er do 
well," and, that, he would come to no good end. 

On one occasion, he tied up his small wardrobe in a 
bandana handkerchief and shipped to "sail before the 
mast;" however, he was intercepted, by my father, be- 
fore the departure of the schooner, taken, with his lug- 
gage, back to his home, soundly "flogged", and given 
some wholesome advice, for his government, in the fu- 

Shortly thereafter, he was invited to participate in 
the exercises of a singing society, which held Sunday 
afternoon sessions. He accepted the invitation, became 



a regular and most interested member, and, ultimately, 
announced his intention to study theology, for the Epis- 
copal ministry. This resolution having been received 
with marked favor, by his father, the late Oscar Alston, 
of Raleigh, N. C, he was, in a way, matriculated in an 
institution at Chapel Hill, N. C, where he was prepared 
for college. After that, he was graduated fiom Oberlin 
College in the later fifties ; and, finally, at Gambier, Ohio, 
became a full fledged priest in the Episcopal Church. 

In many years, this true and tried servant of God, as 
Rector of both Saint Phillip's Church, New York City, 
and Saint Thomas' Church, Philadelphia, preached 
"Jesus Christ and him crucified;" and his sweet exem- 
plary life was as a beacon light, to many who, perhaps, 
otherwise, would have been stranded and lost. 

The following anecdote, related by Rev. Alston, to my 
dear mother, in my presence, goes far to prove the al- 
most intolerable conditions which prevailed, even in re- 
ligious educational institutions, in the United States, 
prior to the Civil War. 

Being the only colored student in Kenyon College, 
prior to the abolition of slavery, Alston was the cynosure 
of all eyes; and, at times, not a little at a loss for com- 
panionship, and even association. To such an extent was 
this true, that, on one occasion, while taking a stroll, in 
the suburbs of the old college town, he was confronted 
by a cow, who honoring him with a friendly stare, turned 
out of his way, — gave him "gangway" (as the vulgar 
expression of our day would have it) ; delighted at the 
unusual recognition and courtesy shown him, by the 
humble brute, Alston saluted her and exclaimed, — "Good 
morning, Mrs. Cow!" 

It goes without saying, that, we had a hearty laugh 
over the incident. 

Another story, related by him, at the same time, is 
recalled by the former. During a summer vacation, while 


exerting himself to add to the contents of his meager 
purse, he shipped as a waiter on a steamer plying be- 
tween Cleveland and Lake Superior ports. On arriving 
at Duluth, Escanaba or some one of the other "sea- 
port towns," he left the steamer and went in search of 
some other remunerative employment. The older readers 
of this narrative will recall, that, during the later part 
of the "fifties," the whole country was in the grip of a 
most trying panic, which made it almost impossible to 
procure remunerative labor, at any price. "William/ 5 in 
that remote section, soon made this discovery ; and, since 
the boat had gone, and funds were extremely low, he was 
"open" to any job that presented itself. He soon found 
it, in the shape of a small mountain of earth which had 
been formed by the excavation of a large hole, to be used 
as a cellar. 

The owner of this mountain offered to pay him the 
sum of thirty-five dollars, and furnish him with a shovel 
and wheel-barrow, if he would remove it. In a jiffy, he 
accepted the proposition, and without delay, having 
"peeled" of his coat, disregarding his flaccid muscles and 
tender hands, he bent to his task. At the end of two 
weeks, he had finished the undertaking and received his 
compensation, which he had in his pocket, when the boat 
returned to convey him back to Cleveland. 

Another of father's apprentices, who was graduated 
with honor, from his workshop, was the late Jerry Har- 
vey, of Boston, Mass. Mr. Harvey, near the close of his 
apprenticeship, had the sad misfortune, while playfully, 
pointing a gun at a comrade, on Christmas day, to kill 
him, by its accidental discharge. 

In North Carolina, in the "thirties," such an occur- 
rence was an exceedingly grave affair; for the old crim- 
inal "Comon Law" of England, with only slight modifica- 
tions, was still in vogue, which made the condition of the 


offender vastly different than now, under our enlight- 
ened and merciful regime. 

However, my father went to the front for him; and, 
as usual, he received a respectful hearing, in behalf of 
the unfortunate young man; and the matter was com- 
promised, by allowing the defendant to leave the state, 
not to return again. Without any delay, Mr. Harvey be- 
took himself to Boston, where he followed the trade 
which had been taught him; and, being very successful, 
along this line, his name became well known, especially 
amongst colored people, in all sections of New England. 
At that period in the history of the South, Mr. Harvey 
might with propriety have paraphrased our well known 
school declamation, beginning, 

"Banished from Rome (Newbem)! What's banished — (but set free, 
From daily contact with the things I loathe!" 

My father was a man of generous, impulses; he 
really, at times, when pressed to bestow a favor, could 
not say "No," and since the homestead exemptions to 
heads of families, in that state, at that time, were ex- 
tremely scant, the usual result followed — he was com- 
pelled to meet the defaults of others by exhausting his 
earnings and sacrificing his properties. Added to this was 
the fact that, on two several occasions his establishments 
were destroyed by fire. On both occasions, he was the 
victim of neighboring conflagrations. It is, scarcely nec- 
essary to say, that, the amount of insurance recovered 
by him at that time, was of slight value ; hence, his was 
an almost total loss. 

Twice, he bought some of his relatives, when being 
sold at public auction, being entreated by them to save 
them from the speculator. 

NOTE — The "speculator was a person who traveled from one loca- 
tion to another, buying slaves for resale and speculation, in the 
cotton, cane and rice producing sections of the Gulf States. 


The amounts thus advanced by him, it is needless to say, 
were never returned to him. 

Being importuned by two frail mulatto youths, ap- 
prentices of his, for whom he entertained regard and 
sympathy, be bought them, on their promise to repay 
him the money advanced, in installments: Sad to relate, 
both these young men died, of tuberculosis, before they 
had paid to him a tenth of the money advanced — one 
thousand dollars, for each of them; here, again, was an 
additional loss of two thousand dollars, which, we must 
not forget, was, then, worth at least, three times as much 
as at the present time. 

Ultimately, of course, he was stripped of all his 
earthly possessions, save his honor; and, broken in body, 
bereft of his redundant humor, good cheer and genial, 
whole-souled, winsome conversation, he betook himself 
to his bed, from which he was never to rise again. 

The sheriff came, levied on everything, save the sad 
and downcast widow and three forlorn children, ranging 
in age from eleven years to nine months. This writer 
being second in order, was five years of age, small and 
weak for the age. 

"Lift me up and let me die!" he said to our dear 
mother, after a lingering illness; and so died John R. 
Green of Newbern, North Carolina, of whom it may be 
said, "He loved not wisely, but too well." 

The more I reflect on the current of my father's 
eventful life, — of his early struggles for existence, — his 
social limitations — his vaulting ambitions, his consuming 
zeal, and his unspeakable disappointments, the more I 
wonder at the phenominal successes which attended his 

He was broad and cosmopolitan in his views and 
altho he was a colored American, in a slave state, carry- 
ing on his shoulders all that incubus of caste proscription 
which characterized the time and place in which he lived 


yet, he counted amongst his friends and quasi-associates, 
many of the wealthy as well as the poor whites, in the 
place of his residence. 

It was no uncommon occurence to meet in his place 
of business illiterate persons of the white race, who took 
advantage of his literary attainments, to procure "beg- 
ging-petitions" and other documents, for public use ; and, 
after his death, I was accosted frequently, by persons of 
both races, who would ask me, — "Whose boy are you?" I 
would answer, "I am the son of John R. Green." Then, 
invariably, the reply would be, "Well, son, you must be 
a good boy, for your father was a good man!" 

Father was very fond of aquatic sports. If a "vessel" 
was to be launched or any race rowed on the river, he 
was sure to be one of the spectators, and as for swim- 
ming, boating and fishing, they were the acme of his 
out-of-door pleasures. 

The town of Newbern, North Carolina, is located in 
the triangle formed by the juncture of the Neuse and 
Trent rivers, where they unite to form Pamlico Sound. 
These rivers, as well as the Sound, are well stocked with 
many species of most delicious seafood, not omitting 
oysters, clams and hard and soft-shell crabs. So fond was 
he of sea-food, that, when the hegira of colored people 
from the South to the North was at flood-tide, during the 
decade prior to the Civil war, and especially during the 
debates in Congress, about the year 1850, and he was 
asked, whether or not he intended to join in the proces- 
sion, he answered, that he would never leave North Car- 
olina, until he could carry the Neuse and Trent rivers 
with him. And, it is a notable fact, that, as long as we re- 
mained in that state, he was the only person who, know- 
ingly, had ever walked over the frozen surface of the 
Trent river, at Newbern, where it is from a half to a 
mile wide. This feat he daringly accomplished during the 
winter of 1833-4, as my mother informed me. 


As a workman, my father, was without a superior, 
in that section of the state. He designed and executed all 
styles of clothing- and uniforms which the trade de- 
manded, even going back to old continental styles and 
theatrical costumes. 

In closing this brief sketch of the life of, my dear 
father, I shall, use the lines of Lord Byron, as dedicated 
to a poetic enthusiast of his time, White, by name, only 
paraphrasing a word or two to make them applicable. 

"Unhappy soul, when life was in its spring, 

And thy young muse just waved her joyous wing, 

The spoiler swept thy soaring lyre away, 

Which else, had sounded an immortal lay. 

0, what a noble life was there undone, 

When science's self destroyed her favorite son! 

Yes, she too much indulged thy fond pursuit, 

She sowed the seed, but Death has reaped the fruit. 

'Twas thine own genius struck the fatal blow, 

And helped to plant the wound that laid thee low. 

Like the struck Eagle, stretched upon the plain, 

No more through rolling clouds to soar again, 

Viewed his own feather on the fatal dart, 

And winged the shaft that quivered in his heart. 

Keen were his pangs, yet keener far to feel 

He nursed the pinion which impelled the steel, 

While the same plumage which had warmed his nest 

Drank the last life-drop of his bleeding breast!" 

Here begins, in an humble way, an epic, to end when 
and how God, in his great wisdom, power and mercy, wills 
it to end. We follow the little sombre hearse by twos, in 
the direction of Christ-Church Cemetery (now popularly 
known, there, as Rock Cemetery). Mother, supported on 
the arm of a true and tried old friend, leading the cortege, 
this writer clinging to the arm of his elder sister, next; 
a few friends following. 

The beautiful burial service of the Episcopal Church 
having been read, and the final, "earth to earth, — dust 


to dust," having been pronounced, forlorn and needy, we 
turn away, to confront and fight, — to "strut and fret," 
our more or less gloomy way, — widowed, and fatherless, 
for many years to come. 

Mother, glum, demure and determined as ever Spar- 
tan mother showed herself, turns from her palatial resi- 
dence of yore, mahogany furniture, cut-glass, silver serv- 
ice, the ministration of maid servants and hosts of friends, 
and repairs, with her little biood, to a rude cottage, in 
an obscure section of the old town; confronted, on the 
opposite side of the narrow street, by the ancient "grave 
yard," gloomy with its "weeping" willows, funereal cy- 
presses and moss-covered cedars; and flanked, on either 
side, by dwellings, tenanted by persons, the like of whom 
she had never known as associates; and who, on occa- 
sions, would publicly proclaim, in clarion tones, "It makes 
no difference how high the Eagle flies in the air, he's got 
ter come down ter git 'is support!!" 
As the Immortal Bard puts it: 

0, what a falling off, my countrymen, was there!" 




"Is the road dreary? — Patience yet; 

Rest will be sweeter if thou are aweary; 
Then bide a wee and dinna fret." 

In commencing the first chapter, I stated, humorous- 
ly, that I was "born with a silver spoon in my mouth," 
and rocked in the cradle of luxury (a mahogany cradle, 
to be explicit) . But now, all is changed, save that mother 
still retains a few pieces of the furniture, and broken 
sets of silver-ware, rescued from the flames, — grim re- 
minders of the fact that, the besom of destruction had 
passed by, and the merciless hand of fate was weighing 
heavily upon us. 

In that sad predicament, some of her friends won- 
dered that she, being still in comparative youth, and 
pleasing to look upon did not accept several offers of 
marriage made to her, especially, since her only means 
of existence, for herself and three fatherless children, 
was the use of the needle, which, at that time and place, 
was a source of very small remuneration. Her curt an- 
swer was that, she would not place her children under any 
step-father, to be treated in accordance with his whim 
or mood. 


My domestic environment was, apparently, all that 
could have been wished, for a poor boy. Far better than 
that of Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass or Booker 
T. Washington, at five years of age, for, my food, tho 
scant at times, was sufficient to sustain life, at least. I 
had a feather bed, still, to sleep upon, in cold weather, 
and mother, by extraordinary efforts, managed to pre- 
serve for me a "Sunday suit of clothes." 

In addition to the support which we derived from 
the industrious use of the needle by our mother, we had, 
in our garden, which was intelligently cultivated, a source 
of much assistance. In addition to a few plum trees and a 
large fig tree, all of which yielded abundantly, in season, 
we raised fair crops of sweet corn, collards, and the 
medical roots and herbs which, a century ago, could be 
found in every well regulated truck garden. 

Southern people and those native to the soil, will 
.recognize in the term "collard," a plant greatly resem- 
bling the cabbage, down to the time when the cabbage 
"heads", The collard is of a greener tint than the cab- 
bage, and never heads, save to the size of a small 
Orange, in the center. When the frosts come, the leaves 
of the collards are streaked white and, when boiled, in 
a big iron "pot", hung on trammels, placed in the big 
fire-place, with a piece of bacon, pork or corned-beef, to- 
gether with the well known "corn-dodgers," they fur- 
nished the dish de resistance, placed before a half-fam- 
ished boy. 

I can't see, at this writing, what on earth would 
have become of us, had we not been in possession of 
that little garden, and a few chickens, which furnished 
us with an occasional egg to vary the monotony of our 

In order to procure a piece of "fresh beef," or a 
pound of liver, it was necessary to arise with the lark 
sM.d hie us to the market house, which, with the Court 


House, stood at the junction of the two principal streets, 
and formed an imposing group. 

Let it not be imagined, however, that our dear 
mother was, in any sense, remiss or lax in providing for 
the future, for denying herself fine clothing and all the 
adornments of the body, so much coveted by many women, 
she dedicated her whole life to the support and partial 
education of her children. During the summer season, 
she would save, as best she could, a dollar now and then, 
for the purpose of buying a pig, for the remainder of the 
year, and then, when the weather was sufficiently cold, 
she would purchase, on the market, one of the weight of 
a hundred or a hundred and fifty pounds, and impose on 
this writer the task of wheeling it home. 

I have a very pleasant remembrance, in this connec- 
tion of a friendly-generous act, performed, in my behalf, 
by a noble white lady, during the winter of 1855-6, which 
goes far to prove that, neither true gentlehood nor true 
womanhood is always to be found in the palace ; nor must 
we search for them beneath "robes and furred gowns." 
Now listen! Miss Arete Ellis, a maiden lady of culture 
and refinement, was the matron of the Griffin Academy, 
an institution founded for the nurture and education of 
poor white girls, in that section of North Carolina. She 
was an Episcopalian by religious faith, and attended 
Christ Episcopal Church, at the head of her group, every 
Sunday morning. 

She had known my father all her life, and she had 
seen me and my elder sister, in our pew, invariably, every 
Sunday morning. 

On the occasion I am now referring to, I was wheel- 
ing, in a wheelbarrow, a dressed pig, weighing about a 
hundred and fifty pounds. I was ten years of age, and 
weighed exactly fifty pounds. Placing a fifty pound 
weight on one side of the old market scales, I would 
then stand upon the other side, and they would equally 


balance — as the slang phrase of the present day would 
have it — it was "fifty-fifty." 

The day to which I have referred, was one of the 
coldest I had ever seen or felt, and I was minus an over- 
coat. I had stopped at about half the distance to my 
destination, to rest my muscles (?) and recover my 
breath, when along came Miss Arete Ellis, nicely and 
warmly clad, carrying- in her hands a few parcels which 
she had just purchased from one of the dry goods stores 
where she had been shopping. 

Slackening her gait, she beamed upon me a counte- 
nance full of sympathy and compassion. "Poor little fel- 
low!" she exclaimed, "Are'nt you very cold?" "Yes 
ma'am !" I answered. "Well, take my parcels, and let me 
help you," was her rejoinder. Suiting the action to the 
word, she handed me the things, seized the handles of 
the wheelbarrow, and trundled it along the public street, 
almost to my mother's door! 

Here was, in very fact, an angel in disguise. Her 
name was Arete, a Greek word, which, in the original 
Greek signifies talent, skill, fitness, courage, etc., 
and surely, on this occasion, she proved that she was 
worthy of the name. Miss Ellis has, long since, been 
gathered into the bosom of her Lord and Master whom 
she loved and served. It has been sixty-five years since 
this unselfish deed was done, "Unto one of the least of 
these." But, her face and form and kindly act, lives and 
blooms perennially, in my mind and heart, never to be 
forgotten; and, whether there be erected monument or 
tablet in commemoration of her useful, virtuous and 
noble life, I know not; but, here and now, I pour out to 
her all the gratitude and esteem of an appreciative heart 
hoping that a knowledge of her goodness may stimulate 
others to "go and do likewise." 

Returning to mother and her struggles: Sometimes 
the "bacon" would be exhausted before the next pig 


would be purchased ; at other times, work would be scarce 
and the purse would be almost depleted. On such occa- 
sions, the strictest economy would be required. Once in 
a while we would put some cornmeal into a bowl, sprinkle 
some salt in and upon it, pour in some hot water and 
stir it thoroughly. After that, we would place it on 
a "griddle," with live coals under it. When it browned 
on one side, we would turn it over and brown it on the 
other side. Then we would divide it into four equal parts, 
of which each one was given a portion, to eat or let 
alone, as the humor moved us. 

Judge John R. Donald, the widower of the late 
daughter of the former Governor Richard Dobbs Speight, 
of whom I have spoken, had a mansion about half a mile 
distant from the humble abode of my mother. Here were 
servants galore, and food in abundance. Several of the 
servants were related, by blood, to my deceased Father, 
and they sympathized with us, in our forlorn condition. 
One of the poor slave women, for whom father had done 
a kindness, could not endure the thought of my elder 
sister doing the family washing, and be it said to her 
everlasting honor, that she came to mother by night, 
and begged permission to do the washing, rather than 
that my sister should do it. 

Mother, in her stern, positive way, said, "No, Sarah 
has got to work for her living, and she may as well be 
learning now as later on." That ended the matter, and 
for years after that, while mother sewed, sister in her 
teens, assisted and did the washing. 

Amongst Judge Donald's maid servants, were two, 
one whom we denominated, "Little Auntie," and another 
known as Aunt Hannah. Each was domiciled on the 
premises, in adjoining rooms of an out-house. "Little 
Auntie" was a cousin of my father, and, quite reasonably, 
regretted the great misfortune which had befallen us, 
and in her poor way she told mother to send me around 


there in the night time, and she would give me some milk 
to carry home, and such othjr, little articles of food as 
remained over from the table of the great-house. Of 
course, we eagerly grasped at this opportunity of satis- 
fying the cravings of hunger, and it became my duty to 
go to Judge Donald's, every night and fetch home, the 
bounty dispensed to us. 

This was, at times, a source of much assistance to 
us and we made the most of it. Indeed, so jubilant was I 
over the trend of affairs, that, I was wont to exclaim, in 
superlative glee, — "That woman that you call Little 
A-u-n-t-i-e, has a p-1-e-n-t-i-e!" "That woman you call 
Aunt Hannah has a p-1-e-n-t-i-e!" And so, these poor 
slave women, grateful for kindnesses which our big- 
hearted daddy had bestowed on them, in the day of his 
abundance, found now their opportunity of re-paying, 
almost in kind, what their true hearts had always been 
grateful for. 

In those days, I was little more than seven years of 
age, and, frequently, the streets through which I wended 
my way to Judge Donald's were as dark as Egypt. How- 
ever, I quailed not, and when I could not see the route, I 
tried to feel it, as best I could. 

Sometimes, Aunt Hannah would sigh, and say, "Ah 
(air) Johnnie, I haven't got nothin' fer yer ter night!" 
On such occasions, returning home empty-handed, 
mother would say: "Well, go to bed and go to sleep, and 
you will forget your hunger!" This I did, on more than 
one occasion. We had our bright days though, for on 
Christmas, mother always secured a little turkey, and 
during the summer season, we more than once enjoyed a 
luscious water-melon. 

As soon as I was strong enough to use a wood-saw, 
I was given charge of sawing and splitting the firewood. 
A cord of hickory, oak or ash wood would be thrown 
over our fence. After that, the trouble began. However, 


as I look back to those days, and the benefit which I de- 
rived from my contact with those wood piles, in the way 
of developing muscles and general physique, I am per- 
suaded that, the criminal branches of our courts would 
have less to do, had every boy a wood pile and "buck- 
saw" in his back yard, over which he could preside with 
honor and profit. 

This recalls the fact (which I am very proud of), 
that, in the winter of 1858, when I was thirteen years 
of age and weighed just sixty pounds, I raised the money 
to buy me a pair of skates, by sawing and splitting and 
piling up three cords of wood. Two cords I sawed into 
three pieces, and one cord, I sawed into two pieces. It 
required much walking around the streets of Cleveland, 
in order to find the wood, and I regret to relate it, after 
buying the skates, I used them only a few times, before 
I was seized with pneumonia, and sold them for about 
one-half their purchase price. What limited skating I 
tried to do was without pleasure, for, I wore shoes, while 
the other boys wore boots. My shoes were too low for the 
proper strapping of the skates on, and my ankles would 
ever and anon turn over, and cause me to fall. 

Another task which I had imposed upon me, while I 
was yet a little boy, in Newbern, was that of turning the 
grind-stone, for Uncle Balaam Jones, a cooper, who 
would recompense me by supplying some portion of our 

Every Saturday afternoon, I would go to Flanner's 
cooper sho£ about half a mile distant from our home, to 
perform this function. I was too light and weak for the 
work, but mother permitted us to eat no "idle bread." 

At times, when Uncle Balaam would bear down with 
considerable weight, the grindstone would cease revolv- 
ing. Then he would "let up" for a few moments and al- 
low me to rest a little, before proceeding again, and, 
when, finally, the adz, the broad-axe, the drawing 


knives, the chisels, etc., etc., were properly sharpened, I 
was well nigh exhausted, for, be it remembered, that I 
was conditioned like "hungry Jake," in the Minstrel 
show. The interlocutor said to him, "Brace up!" Jake 
answered: "How kin I brace up, when I aint got nuthin 
to brace up on !" Many times I went to perform the task 
before I had dined, (?) for mother was loth to lay her 
work down before she had accomplished a given task. 

The grinding being completed, then came my recom- 
pense. Uncle Balaam would select some defective ash 
"heading," split them to convenient sizes and fill my deep 
tray which I had carried there for the purpose. After 
this, he would assist me in placing the burden on my 
head. I had no little four-wheeled wagon to draw it home 
in. Then I would start for home, half a mile distant. 

In the course of four or five minutes, the pressure 
upon the top of my ten-eleven year old cranium, would 
cause my eyes to feel that they were beginning to bulge 
out; and my neck would pain me severely. In such an 
emergency, I would "sidle" up to the nearest fence and 
ease one end of my tray onto the top of it ; having rested 
a while, I would proceed on my course, repeating the act 
from time to time, until I reached my home. 

On the route leading from the cooper shop to my home, 
resided a family by the name of Bragg, — father, mother 
and some seven sons and daughters. The father was a 
tailor by trade — carrying work to his home and perform- 
ing it there, with the assistance of his good wife and 
other members of his family. 

Two of the boys, Cicero and Edwin, both of whom re- 
sembled white boys, seemed to "have it in" for me; and 
since there was no other route I could take, in returning 
to my home, from the cooper-shop, I was compelled to 
pass the residence of the Braggs where these two boys, 
switches in hand, invariably A waited me. Both were my 
superiors in age and size; and there was no alternative 


for me, but to "grin" and bear the whipping, which they 
administered to me, as I quickened my pace, with bulging 
eyes and aching neck ! The complaints of my mother had 
little effect in stopping their brutal sport, for it would 
ever and anon recur. 

The irony and cruelty of this torture which they im- 
posed on me was all the more conspicuous from the fact 
that, my dear deceased father had, to a greater degree 
than anyone else in the world, been instrumental in se- 
curing Mrs. Bragg's freedom from slavery; — even ad- 
vancing some portion of the purchase price, which had 
not been returned to him, at the time of his death. 

Here is one sequel to what I have just recited. About 
twenty years after the occurrences between the two 
Bragg boys and me, Edwin and I were both residing in 
the City of Cleveland, Ohio, my present home. I was a 
lawyer and Justice of the Peace of the Township of 
Cleveland, while Edwin was a barber. Edwn committed 
a larceny, and was indicted for a felony. He was without 
means, and I defended him, gratis. I put forth every ef- 
fort at my command, to save him from the penitentiary, 
but all to no purpose. 

He was convicted of grand larceny and sentenced to 
serve a term in the State Prison. In sentencing him to 
the penitentiary the aged and learned Judge Foote com- 
plimented me on the energy and interest which I had 
evinced in defending the young man. I told the judge 
that, he was the son of one of my deceased father's 
friends, and the playmate of my childhood. Whereupon, 
the judge expressed great surprise; and animadverted on 
the fact that, he had fallen so low, while I had followed 
another course. Later on in life, his form crossed my 
vision; after that he was swallowed up in the human 
whirl, and was lost to me, entirely. 

On one occasion, while I was turning the grind-stone, 


for Uncle Balaam, an incident occurred which, to my 
"dying day," will haunt my memory. 

Mr. Hancock, the "town sergeant," came into the 
cooper-shop and exclaimed, "I want one of your men to 
make me a paddle!" The men, one and all, knowing the 
purpose of torture that the paddle would be put to, stout- 
ly refused to make it. This they could do with safety, at 
that time, for they were slaves, and knew that their 
masters would uphold and protect them in the refusal. 
It is not so in the south now. 

"Well," said the official, "give me a drawing knife and 
a brace and bit, and I will make it myself." 

He was "as good as his word" ; for in a jiffy, he had 
the instrument made and bored full of holes. He then 
took his departure, carrying the paddle with him. I fol- 
lowed him, — at a distance ; for I was curious to learn the 

From my coign of vantage, I saw him go to a remote 
spot, up the shore of the Neuse river, which coursed near 
the location of the cooper sho# and stop under a cypress 
tree which reared its head in the midst of the pure white 

There, stood a group of white men, with a young negro, 
in their midst, awaiting him. As the sergeant busied 
himself in removing a portion of the unfortunate Negro's 
clothing, tying his hands behind him and partially swing- 
ing him to one of the lower limbs of the tree, by a rope 
attached to his wrists, behind, I improved the opportu- 
nity in securing a position from which I could see every 
movement of the posse and hear the exclamations and 
groans of the tortured victim. "Tortured?" yes, tortured, 
for, if it be not obvious to the most casual observer, that, 
a human being, suspended by a rope attached to his 
wrists bound behind him, must suffer excruciating pain, 
then let him try it for one minute, as an experiment. 
By reason of the peculiar posture of the victim's body, 


the Wows, with the perforated paddle, were administered 
with the utmost facility, — and with much force; which 
first blistered and then wounded the body, as I after- 
wards ascertained, by going to the spot and viewing the 
sand, which, at first, white, was now crimson with the 
blood of the poor slave, — helpless, in the hands of his 

0, how earnestly I did plead with my dear mother, on 
my return home, to follow in the tracks of the Martins, 
the Hancocks and the Stanleys, all of whom had, re- 
cently left their native "heath?" and gone in quest of a 
modicum of liberty, into the great, free North, East and 
West! However, the time was not yet ripe for this im- 
portant undertaking, and we must needs bide our time. 

The reason assigned for torturing this slave man was, 
that, he and another had conspired to "blow up" the 
dwelling house of a prominent citizen of the town. The 
victim of the torture had "confessed" to placing (like 
another Guy Fawkes), a keg of gunpowder under the res- 
idence and laying a train for its explosion, to it; but no 
threats or tortures could force him to incriminate any- 
one else. When the resounding blows of the instrument 
would cause more blood to flow from the wound, he would 
exclaim, "0, Lord ! !" Nobody but me an' Jeff ! !" ; but who 
"Jeff" was, if, in very truth, "Jeff" existed, no one could 
find out. 

Here, perhaps, is the place to give some account of the 
administration of justice (?) in "The Old North State," 
at, that time, in the history of our country. 

In the old Court House, which was located in the 
heart of the business section of the town, was construed 
and, to some extent, applied, a modified form of the Eng- 
lish Common Law, as it existed before the days of Peel 
and his co-adjutors, who pulled many of the fangs out of 

The Court House had been there "from that time 


whereof the memory of man ran not to the contrary;" 
and (with all modesty) , it resembled quite closely the old 
Court House which we found standing in the southwest 
section of our Public Square, on our arrival, in 1857. 

Within this North Carolina court house, all the busi- 
ness of Craven county was transacted, even to the cast- 
ing of ballots for all officials, from president, down to the 
least elective office. To this temple of justice (?) trudged 
(or stalked) the "grave and potent" member of the bar 
and the honorable Judges, — sometimes, carrying a green 
bag containing a volume of "legal lore," — at other times, 
followed by a dark-hued slave, carrying the same. 

The court being duly opened, in a formal way, by the 
sheriff of the county, who, generally bearing (not the 
fasces, but) a rod or pole of authority, would proceed to 
execute the preliminary orders of the court. Sometimes, 
the Court would say, "Sheriff, call Milly White!" Then 
that august official would raise a window, (or if in the 
summer time, stick his head out of a window) and, in 
stentorian tones, call, — Milly White! Milly White! Milly 
White!" "0, yes! O, Yes! 0, Yes! Come into Court! Come 
into Court! " etc. Another name which comes down to 
me, through the seventy years, since I heard it, is that of 
"Irish Jimmy! Irish Jimmy! Irish Jimmy! 0, Yes! O, 
Yes! 0, Yes! Come into Court! etc." The 0, Yes, 0, yes," 
is a corruption of the old Norman French, "Oyez, Oyez — 
hear ye, hear ye, which, for centuries, prevailed in Eng- 
lish courts of Common Law, after the Conquest. 

It was my fortune or misfortune, to be in the Court 
room, one morning, when condign punishment was meted 
out to a person (white) who had been convicted of man- 
slaughter. The sentence was, that, the prisoner should 
be branded in his right hand with a hot iron, bearing the 
letters, M. S. (signifying manslaughter) ; the iron not 
to be removed until the prisoner should exclaim, three 
times, "God save the State! God Save the State! God Save 


the State!" I watched, almost breathlessly, the Sheriff 
bind the right hand of the convict, securely to a small 
column which was one of the supports of the ceiling of the 
court room; then he drew from the stove which fur- 
nished warmth to the room, a "branding iron," which was 
quite hot. Without delay or more ado, the official pressed 
the hot iron against the thick portion of the prisoner's 
hand; — there was a sizzling sound, — smoke curled up 
into the air, and there was a smell of burning flesh, while 
the convict exclaimed in rapid succession, three times, — 
"God save the State! God save the State! God Save the 
State!" Immediately the iron was withdrawn; and I de- 
parted, in haste, to disclose to my mother and sisters the 
scene which I had witnessed. 

It was not an uncommon sight to witness, in passing 
the jail yard, a man standing in the stocks, with his 
wrists and head fastened in the holes of the same. It was 
fortunate for the men who were punished in the stocks, 
that, they were within the jail yard, which had a fence 
around it; for, the historians of England tell us, that, in 
times not so very remote, convicts, in the stocks, in the 
City of London, were entirely at the mercy of heartless 
mobs, who would often stone them, and sometimes pelt 
them with rotten vegetables, "over-ripe" eggs and decay- 
ing cats : to such an extent was this persecution carried, 
that, frequently, the victim lost his life. 

All persons convicted of capital offenses were exe* 
cuted upon gallows, which was erected, when needed, in 
an old neglected field, not so very remote from our resi- 
dence. I saw a white man, John Tillman, by name, haled 
through the street in which our residence was located, in 
a tumbril or cart, which was preceded and followed by an 
armed guard and hosts of curious people. 

Afterwards, standing at a respectful distance from the 
gallows, I witnessed the "black cap" drawn down over 
his face, and his body "swung into eternity." The reader 


will readily infer, from what I have already written, 
that, there was not much "going on," in that old town, on 
land or on water, in those days, which I did not see. If 
there was to be a sale or hiring of slaves on the auction 
block, I was near at hand, to note every word, cry or 
movement ; if any one was to be lashed, at the whipping- 
post, there was this writer, to behold it. At home, fre- 
quently, I would meet a warm reception on my return, 
after having neglected some domestic duty, in order to 
keep tab on the varied county and municipal affairs. 

Mother was, at times, quite severe in her treatment of 
me, and I have always entertained the opinion, that, 
from her lack of proper educational facilities, she was 
not keen to discover temperamental differences, and to 
differentiate in the treatment of persons. Now, mother 
was as cold and sangfroid of temperament as any Scotch- 
man of the Highlands ; and, as a matter of fact, she could 
not or did not discover that, I was a mere little bony 
bundle of nerves — that like my dear deceased father, 
I had to "do or die." To have kept either of us still, would 
have entailed upon us, saint-vitus dance or epileptic fits. 
All the boys of the town knew me — white and black. 
The white boys scorned me, because I was not white ; and 
the black boys despised me, because I was not entirely 
black. They would "pick" quarrels with me, and I would, 
with either my fists or weapons, defend myself. I had 
no "big brother" or other person to "take my part," and 
it devolved upon me to "hoe my own roe," which I may 
add, in all truth, I proceeded to do, — to the best of my 
ability. On one occasion, a crowd of white boys chased 
me, like a pack of hounds, baying a stag ( ?) ; they did not 
give up until they had seen me enter my mother's door, 
in safety. On another occasioin, that same "Milly White," 
a colored woman of the town, (whose name was called by 
the Court crier), assaulted me, in the Academy Green, 
on my way homeward, carrying a tray of sweet potatoes 


on my head ; it was not the first time ; and happening to 
have a small knife open in one of my hands, I defended 
myself, by letting' her "have it," in one of her hips. It 
was her last assault on me. That was the nearest I ever 
came to being arrested; for, she made complaint against 
me to the authorities, who sent the same Town Sergeant 
(he was our police force) to investigate; he, on hearing 
the statements of my mother and myself, said, the wom- 
an had received no more than she deserved, and dropped 
the matter. The colored women, of the lower class, 
seemed to be piqued at my mother, because she had 
never associated with them; and, even in her changed 
and humble condition she carried her head high, and, 
scorned the association of all white or black, who were 
not congenial or fit. 

One of these Colored Amazons, who wished to make 
me the "scapegoat," once upon a time, When I was about 
nine years of age, got me cornered in such a way that, no 
choice was left to me except to fight or be soundly beaten. 
In that emergency, I picked up a stone, closed my eyes, 
and, like another Macduff, "laid on." When my antagonist 
called a halt and ceased her struggle, I opened my eyes, 
to find her pretty thoroughly covered with blood. 

This struggle against great odds, on my part, was 
viewed by an old friend of my deceased father, who de- 
clared that, I was the "worst boy in town!" a declaration 
which made a lasting impression on my mind ; and is still 
ringing in my ears. I have often debated the question, — 
"Did Mr. Green state a fact, or was he ignorant of condi- 
tions and biased, for some unknown reason, against me." 

What are the characteristics of a bad boy? I assert 
after an experience of fifty years, as an attorney-at-law, 
much of the time spent in defending persons indicted for, 
and charged with felonies and misdemeanors, — persons 
ranging in age from ten years of age to old age, that, to 


be a bad boy or a bad man, o„ne must have an evil-mali- 
cious heart ; and his deeds must be the offsprings of such 
a heart; but if, on the contrary, a person's heart is free 
from "envy, hatred, malice and all uncharitableness," he 
is not, in any sense, "bad." 

I have known boys to lie, cheat and steal ; to delight 
in causing pain and suffering to both man and beast. I 
knew a boy, once, who derived pleasure from seeing a 
chicken suffer, after he had cut off its feet. I saw a young 
southern "blood," on one occasion raise his gun and shoot 
to death a beautiful spaniel dog, his good friend, because 
he failed to obey his command, and come to him directly ; 
and I personally knew a young fellow, who dared his 
companion to place his wrist on a block, in a meat market, 
and when the youth placed it there, with one forceful 
stroke of the cleaver, he severed his hand from it. 

The foregoing acts, I regard as being malicious, — 
bad; but, what must be said of a boy who could not look 
at a wound without shuddering; — and whose every fibre 
was shocked at the recital of acts of cruelty and tales of 
woe. True, this writer was a "live wire," in the slang of 
the day, and gloried in being conspicuous, — in leading a 
boisterous play, and in performing deeds which called for 
more or less courage; but, it is not on record, nor does 
the man live who can cite one instance of barbarity or 
destructiveness on his part: he confesses to the indict- 
ment of visiting, with another boy, his senior in age, Mr. 
Small wood's vineyard, one one occasion, and then and 
there, without permission, indulging, quite generously, in 
the luscious scuppernong grapes which cumbered the 
vines ; but, this was an extraordinary proceeding, on his 
part ; it was an act which was not repeated ; for, while the 
writer made a safe and speedy exit, his companion, who 
was less fleet of foot and expert in vaulting fences paid 
the penalty of being detained by a viscious dog, until a 
goodly portion of his trousers had been sacrificed. Hence, 


I deny the arraignment of my father's old friend, — long- 
since gone to join him, in the great beyond. 

Of one fact, every one will bear witness, — I was pa- 
triotic to a fault, as the following anecdote will prove: 
On a certain Fourth of July, I arose betimes and hurried 
down to the "New County Wharf," to participate, by 
sight and by hearing, in the firing of the Day-break Na- 
tional Salute, only to learn that, there would be none 
fired ; and that, the celebration of the Glorious Fourth of 
July would be duly consummated at Trenton, in an ad- 
joining County, — twenty miles distant. 

Later on in the day, the monotony becoming unbear- 
able, and having no horse and saddle-bags, like another 
"John Gilpin," with which to ride to Trenton, I concluded 
that I would walk there. Now, here is an exemplification 
of one of the reasons which actuated the old gentleman to 
dub me "the worst boy in town;" for, truly, I was the 
only boy, of all that town, who dared to walk to Trenton, 
after eight o'clock in the morning, to assist in celebra- 
ting our Nation's natal day. 

At about three o'clock in the afternoon of that day, 
I made my obeisance to sundry musicians, cooks and wait- 
ers, who were functioning a great, patriotic ball, being 
given in honor of "the day."' I was tired, dusty and both 
hungry and thirsty. Of course, every one heard with as- 
tonishment of my adventure and the successful termina- 
tion of it ; but, as the procession had, long since "broken 
ranks" and the participants had betaken themselves to 
the banqueting hall and ball-room floor, my efforts to 
view the parade were in vain, — abortive ; and I found my- 
self in a condition closely allied to that of the King of the 
French, who, with "thirty thousand men, marched up the 
hill and then marched down again." However, the kind 
and sympathetic colored waiters would not allow the pa- 
triotic "hero" of the hour, to languish and to starve-; 
for, they plied him with bits of roast-pig and other delica- 

eies, not to mention a dish of ice cream, which was, at 
that time, somewhat of a luxury, and seldom in evidence. 
To express my unbounded happiness, would require a pen 
more facile than mine, after I had thoroughly gorged my- 
self, and lent my ear to the dulcet strains of the orches- 
tra, proceeding from the ball-room. Ere long, however, 
the "shades of night" began to fall, the merry-makers, 
"by twos, by fours and by sixes," began to depart for 
their homes; then the little speck of a cloud in the dis- 
tance, which at an early hour had slightly dimmed my 
vision, began to draw near and hang over me in threat- 
ening form; and ever and anon, in my mind, I could see 
the forked flash and hear the reverberations of thunder, 
betokening a coming storm, on my arrival home; more- 
over, how was I to get home ; for, the road was long, dark 
and dreary. 

Just here, the kindly fates came to my rescue; the 
orchestra, which hailed from Newbern, knew me, — knew 
=my mother, and had known my father; and, again, with 
thai generous, kindheartedness for which all colored peo- 
ple are noted, they came to my assistance, and invited me 
•to return to my home with them, — in the "band wagon." 

"Praise God, from whom all blessings flow!" I was 
saved! Through the sands and the intervening forests, 
the languid horses progressed, until far after the break 
of day; but, finally, they drew up in front of my mother's 
home; — she, standing in the door, anxious and doubtful, 
poor soul! not knowing whether the coming of that 
wagon was, for her, an omen of good or evil tidings ; for, 
more than twenty-four hours had elapsed since she had 
seen or heard from me; and who could say that, I was 
not drowned in the Neuse or Trent river, or even had 
been kidnapped by vultures, for the slave market? 

"We have brought your boy home!" exclaimed the 
leader;" and we charge you a dollar!" "A dollar!!!" 
Ye gods ! a dollar from my poor needy mother, in 1855 ! 


How could she spare a dollar, as one of the results of a 
silly escapade on the part of a wayward boy! "I have 
no dollar for you!" Mother exclaimed, in her positive 
way, that carried conviction to their minds and hearts. 
Nothing more was said. I dismounted, and the team, 
with a steady trot departed; but, with me, as I entered 
the gloomy portal of that home, the thought uppermost 
in my mind, was that one which has vexed the ages, — 
"To be or not to be!" Am I to be threshed, within an inch 
of my life," or am I to be the subject of maternal love, af- 
fection and f orgivenness ? 

The latter prevailed — the weight of fear, doubt, per- 
plexity and grief having been removed from mother's 
shoulders and heart, she welcomed her erring boy, return- 
ing like another prodigal, with outstretched arms, and, 
gave him no blows. There was no fatted calf killed or 
suckling pig put upon the spit. The remains of all these 
were left behind at Trenton. 

It may be of interest to my readers, to know, that, in 
returning from Trenton, after midnight, for ten miles, 
we had the association of a stalwart slave man, who 
walked by the side of our wagon and engaged in the con- 
versation; he had walked to Trenton, ten miles from the 
plantation where he was employed, to visit his slave wife ; 
now, he was returning, walking another ten miles, so as 
to be able to answer the morning bell, horn, reveille, or 
what not. Such is fate ! 

Educational opportunities for colored people, in any 
portion of the South were very poor, as may well be imag- 
ined, when we reflect on the fact that, it was made, by 
law, a felony to teach a slave how to read and write ; but, 
North Carolina was, perhaps, the least prescriptive of 
all the southern states, in that behalf; for, many free 
colored people, especially, in the eastern cities of the 
state, enjoyed fair educational advantages, under the cir- 
cumstances. There was a school at Newbern, of which, 


the late John Stuart Stanley was master ; it was famous, 
all over the state, for the reason that Mr. Stanley was 
thoroughly equipped for his office. 

He was a son of John C. Stanley, (a barber) , who, in 
turn, was the natural son of that John Wright Stanley, 
Son of the Revolution, mention of whom is made in the 
first chapter of this narrative, and half brother of that 
John Stanley from whom my father descended. 

John C. Stanley (colored) was "well to do/' and gave 
to all his sons and daughters all the education that could 
be obtained for them, at that place, — "for love or money" ; 
and John Stuart, his son, was, in all English studies, the 
peer and, the superior of a majority of the white men of 
that section. Whether or not he had any acquaintance 
with the "dead" languages or modern tongues, besides 
his vernacular, I cannot say, as I have never heard that 
phase of his education discussed. 

As a reader, speller and penman, he was not sur- 
passed; and in all the studies, pertaining to a thorough 
English education, he was the. equal of the best. 

I recall that, in 1856, when I was eleven years of age, 
the books of Mr. Alexander Mitchell, the leading whole- 
sale grocer of the town got out of balance, Mr. Stanley 
was employed to audit them; a task which, in a reason- 
able time, he consummated, to the entire satisfaction of 
his employer; after which, he took charge of the ac- 
counts, until he left the state to take up his residence in 
the City of Cleveland, where he died, many years ago, 
leaving behind him here, a large, intelligent and pros- 
perous family. Mr. Stanley was a grand-good man. 

Colored students came to Mr. Stanley's school from 
all parts of the state ; and were well instructed for a very 
reasonable compensation. 

This writer, in his sixth and seventh years, was grad- 
ually inducted into the mysteries of Webster's Elemen- 


tary Spelling Book, which was, at that time, in use all 
over the eastern part of this country, and elsewhere. 

To the best of my memory, Mr. Stanley carried me 
through my A, B, C's, and my ab's, even to the lesson be- 
ginning with B-a- (ba) k-e-r (ker) Baker; after that, his 
good wife, Mrs. Fanny Stanley, one of the most faithful 
and industrious of wives, and loving and affectionate of 
mothers that ever lived, took me in hand. She had vis- 
ited Ohio, with one of her daughter (Mrs. Sarah Stanley 
Woodward), to place her in Oberlin Preparatory School, 
and on returning to her home, brought with her a set of 
the McGuffey school books, than which, it is difficult to 
imagine better; notwithstanding the numerous changes 
which have taken place, since their publication. 

Seated on a stool at her knees, by the side of her 
beautiful little daughter (Fannie), she laid the founda- 
tion of such education as I now possess, and for which, 
in deep gratitude, I shall always revere her name and 

This branch of John C. Stanley's descendants was 
always conspicuous, — noteworthy; their reasoning and 
education, even in that old slave state, in the midst of 
a slave holding community, was on a par with that of 
the "best families" of the state; and, in many respects, 
the treatment accorded to them did not differentiate 
from that accorded to the'elite of white people; saving, 
only, that, they were not accorded domestic, social con- 
tact ; which, I may say, the Stanleys never sought after ; 
since our colored social circle m Newberne was satisfying 
and uplifting. 

There was not amongst us any of that, squeamish- 
ness with respect to the varying shades of color; all that 
was required of a person knocking at the door of our 
social circle for admittance, was — fitness ; my dear father 
who was one of the leaders of the colored society, in the 
old town, always stoutly maintained that, persons seek- 


ing association with others should be congenial and mer- 
itorious; and this theory was acted on, until the emigra- 
tion of the families composing the circle annihilated it. 

One of the well to do and most highly respected of 
the families which affiliated with that social circle was, 
Mr. Richard G. Hazle, a man of pure Negro blood, and his 
family. Mr. Hazle was a blacksmith by trade, and also 
owned a small bakery, which was managed by his worthy 
wife and daughters. One of his daughters was a student, 
and graduated from Oberlin College, during the latter 
years of the "fifties." Color did not make the status of 
that social group; — fitness, — merit, only; this, it would 
seem, should be the criterion, the world over. 

During the Buchanan-Fremont campaign for the 
presidency, in 1856, the slaveholders became greatly ex- 
cited and quite fearful that, if the Republican party 
elected its first presidential nominee, their favorite, de- 
grading, institution of slavery would be jeopardized; and 
properly so; for, despite the fact that their smart men 
in Congress, had wrung from the great North, East and 
West many concessions, — such as the Missouri Compro- 
mise, — The Fugitive Slave Law and the "Dred-Scott De- 
cision," it was easily apparent that, the "Twin relic of 
barbarism" was doomed; and that with the enlisting of 
men, drilling of soldiers, searching of colored residencces 
for firearms, and cruelly whipping the owner, when an old 
fowling-piece" was found, a reign of terror seemed im- 

Thereupon, a majority of self-respecting colored 
families, in all parts of the South began to "sell out, pack 
up and get out," while, as one expressed it, "the getting 
was good." This was especially true as regarded the col- 
ored families, long resident in old Newbern ; they "stayed 
not on their going," but, sold their possessions and went 
— some to New York, some to Philadelphia, a few to Bos- 
ton and New Haven; but the majority to Cleveland and 


Oberlin, Ohio; whence, they began, without delay, to 
write persuasive letters, to the dear ones left behind, ex- 
horting them to follow their example. 

My dear mother was persuaded, by the late John 
Patterson of Oberlin, Ohio, to sell her little home and 
come, with her children, to a "land of freedom." 

The fact that mother feared that I would, later on, 
in life, leave her there, as her elder brother, William 
Chestnut, had left his mother and settled in Terre Haute, 
Indiana, in 1835, whither he had ridden "on a little clay 
colored mare," had much to do with influencing her to 
follow Mr. Patterson's advice; but, especially, the petty 
persecutions and insults she was constantly subjected to 
by her crude neighbors, fully determined her to take the 

As an indication of the extent to which she was sub- 
jected to these petty annoyances, I will here record the 
true story of the treatment of our game old rooster, — 
"Old Dick," which I have often related in my talks to 
children, as an example of "nil desperandum." — never 
give up — never despair. 

My mother, in addition to her helpful garden, had a 
few chickens, amongst them was a game rooster of the 
genus now denominated Rhode Island Red. We called 
him, "Old Dick," for, we found him on the premises when 
we moved in, five years prior to the incident I am about 
to relate. Others of our neighbors also, owned roosters, 
of which they were proud, and in behalf of which they 
were ready to contend. 

Aunt Betsy York was one of these; and, since her 
"bird," as ours, each, metaphorically, carried a "chip on 
his shoulder," and frequently contended for the mastery, 
but with varying success, Aunt Betsy looked with much 
disfavor on Old Dick, and vowed vengeance on his head 
or body. 

One morning, mother, in the usual trend of her ma- 


tettial duties went to the door with some corn and other 
feed for the chickens, and began to call them up. 
"Chickee ! Chickee ! ! Chickee ! ! ! she called. All answered 
by putting in appearance, except Old Dick; again and 
again, she reiterated the call; but no Old Dick answered 
it, in any manner. 

"John," said mother, go look for our rooster; I am 
afraid something has happened to him!" "As swift as 
the wing of the swallow," I was out, in quest of our treas- 
ured bird, scanning his usual haunts, peeping underneath 
the neighboring cottages (all of which were supported by 
blocks — (underpinning), and making frequent inquiries 
of persons in the vicinity, gave no clue as to his where- 
abouts ; finally, I looked into a tar-barrel, on the premises 
of Aunt Betsy, which was partially filled with pine tar, 
and there, to my amazement and sorrow, I found the 
game and courageous old rooster, — submerged as to his 
whole body, excepting his head and neck, and gasping for 

In less time than it takes me to write this, I had ex- 
tricated him and was speeding to my mother's home, a 
few doors distant. There, we laid him on the ground, 
and carefully examined him, — diagnosed his case, — which 
disclosed the fact that, his bill was cut off, to the quick, 
likewise his wing feathers and his spurs. His feathers, 
of course, were thoroughly saturated with the sticky tar, 
all of which left him in such a deplorable condition that, 
we despaired of his life. 

However, that Scotch, English, African blood which 
animated my undaunted mother's being, was equal to the 
emergency, "nil desperandum, never give up, — despair 
as to nothing — was her motto, and she immediately set 
to work to save the life of her truly game bird. 

His bill being severed, almost to his head, it was im- 
possible for him to pick up corn or any other kind of 
chicken food; so, she made a ball of dough out of corn- 


meal, and placed it before him; he ate of it (bit it up) 
voraciously, until he was satiated; then, he helped him- 
self to water, as best he could, from a pan, set before him ; 
thus, day by day, his needs were met and supplied. 

The next question was, how to divest him of his thick 
coat of tar ; this was done by giving him daily baths in 
warm "pot-liquor" — the liquor left in the pot, after boil- 
ing fat pork and collards in it — it was covered with 
grease, and was warm. 

"Dick" enjoyed these baths, very much; and, ere 
long, the bill grew out again (just as a finger nail will 
grow out, again), the spurs were as long, sharp and 
menacing as of yore, and instead of close cropped wings, 
old chanticleer disported himself in a new suit of feath- 
ers, all over his body, and crowed as lustily as ever. He 
was "on the job" for all comers, and when, a year later 
on, we sold him to another, he was treasured as a "fight- 
ing bird$," ready to meet all. 

Another source of great annoyance to my mother, at 
this time, were the raids of the patrols, who were con- 
stantly visiting residence sections of the colored people, 
in quest of fire-arms, and "war munitions," mentioned by 
me in the first chapter; they were respecters of no per- 
sons of color; and had no regard for time or conditions. 

In the course of their rounds, they visited our home; 
late one night I answered the summons on our front 
door. They unceremoniously entered — 

"Not the least obeisance made they, 
Not a moment stopped or stayed they;" 

But, unceremoniously, they began to rummage the draw- 
ers of the side-board and bureau. Their first exclamation, 
in beholding this writer, who wore a suit of homemade 
pajamas, was: "Hello! what a pretty boy! Who lives 
here?" I told them it was the home of Mrs. Green — the 
widow of the late John R. Green! "Well, come on boys!" 


one of them exclaimed; "she's all right!" and they took 
their departure. 

Our rest was frequently broken by the bleating of 
goats which wandered into the old "grave-yard," on the 
opposite side of the street ; they would thrust their heads 
through the interstices of iron fences surrounding some 
of the burial lots, and nibble the grass which grew green 
on and between the graves enclosed. 

Both before and after midnight, they would make the 
welkin resound with their pitiful b-a-a-a! — b-a-a-a! as 
their "fluked" horns would prevent them from withdraw- 
ing their heads ; they were thus caught and held as firm- 
ly as if they had been behind prison bars. "John!" 
Mother would exclaim; "I can't sleep, for that noise; get 
up and go into the grave-yard, and release that goat!" 

Without any hesitation, I would slip on my trousers, 
— run across the street, vault the board-fence and follow 
the sound, amongst the graves and tombs in the almost 
pitch darkness, until I found the animal; when, having 
extricated him, I would wend my way back again, safe 
and sound. There were slave men and women in that 
town, who declared, in my presence, that, not for their 
liberty would they perform that feat; so thoroughly, at 
that time and place, were they saturated with a super- 
stitious fear of "ghosts." We should rejoice to know 
that, the light of reason, and educational facilities, now 
within the grasp of many of the children of those poor 
deluded people, is rapidly banishing this and kindred su- 
perstitions from their life and mind. 

The foregoing and many other annoyances to which 
mother was constantly subjected, finally induced her to 
listen to the persuasive appeals of Mr. Patterson and 
others of her former friends who had gone from com- 
parative darkness into the light of liberty and justice. 

Some of her friends, of both races, endeavored to dis- 
suade her from the act; but, once having given her ear 


to the siren voice, she was determined to depart with her 
little ones, in search of a new home, — the land of oppor- 
tunity, — not only for herself, but for her whole family. 
In this frame of mind, she requested "Little Auntie" to 
ask Judge Donald, the son-in-law, of that deceased Gov- 
ernor Richard Dobbs Speight, to whom my deceased 
father had paid the one thousand dollars, mentioned in 
the first chapter, for the bare privilege of "calling his 
life his own," — if he w r ould contribute a small sum, 
towards the expenses of our journey; he promptly an- 
swered, "No," and sent this message to my mother: 
"you had better remain here, amongst your friends." 

Mr. "Jim" Green and "Ben" came around and crated 
the household effects, which had not been "auctioned" 
off; the premises were sold to the trustees of the ceme- 
tery, to be included, at a later day, in the "grave-yard" 
when the time was ripe for its extension; and then, we 
were ready, without carrying the Neuse and Trent rivers 
with us (as my father had suggested), to exclaim in 
poetic phrase, 

"My native land, good night!" 

In leaving this shelter which for seven long years had 
been a "snug harbor" from the sun's scorching rays and 
winter's stormy blasts, my dear mother was leaning on 
faith, and trusting in God. Her constant motto and solace 
was : 

"Trust in the Lord and do good ; so shalt thou dwell 
in the land, and verily be fed;" nor did she, during her 
long life, confide in it, in vain. 

The manner in which mother came into the posses- 
sion of this rude shelter is worthy of note, and goes far 
towards proving, that, there are still in our midst men 
and women who are true and worthy of all confidence 
and trust. 


When father saw the inevitable, — that the last ves- 
tige of his property would be taken from him, to satisfy 
the demands of his inexorable creditors, before it was too 
fate, he deeded this little cottage to a colored friend of 
his, Shade Green, by name. After the deluge, while he 
was reposing in his grave, Shade Green, this honest, gen- 
erous friend, deeded the property to my mother, and the 
facts in the transaction were never questioned, in court 
at least. Had the property been of more value an investi- 
gation, perhaps, would have taken place, and a court of 
equity might have annulled the two transactions (for the 
want of any consideration) for the benefit of creditors. 
However, as the sale of the premises only brought to her 
the sum of two hundred and twenty-five (225) dollars, in- 
cluding some substantial improvements which had been 
added to the house, it can be seen that, to the average 
business man, the place was well nigh negligible. 

This Shade Green was a man of means, arid well re- 
puted in the community where he lived ; he possessed on 
his premises a well of crystal water with a pump extend- 
ing into it. This water which was used, gratis, by every 
one, within half a mile, who thirsted for it, was, to make 
use of a homely expression, indulged in by one who knew, 
— "as cool as the polar bear." He left a numerous prog- 
eny, one of whom, Mrs. Hattie Price, has from child- 
hood, been a resident of this city (Cleveland, Ohio), and 
a most excellent teacher, in our mixed schools, for many 

The adieus and farewells were all said, the crates and 
personal luggage were all safely transferred to the hold 
and state-room of the good ship Laura Johnson, and now, 
nothing, remained for us to do, save to take ship our- 
selves ; this, in the afternoon of the twenty-fourth day of 
June, A. D. 1857, we did. 

The ship lay at anchor in the offing, partially loaded, 
for it was at "low tide;" her "yawl" boat came along-side 


of the dock and received us; and, in a few minutes* we 
were snugly ensconced on the single deck of the staunch 
schooner, casting long lingering glances back upon our 
former home, — by none except this writer ever perhaps, 
to be seen again. 




"Twilight and evening star, and after that, the dark, 

And let there be no sadness of farewell, when I embark; 

For tho from out our bourne of time and place, the tide may bear 

— me far, 
I hope to see my Pilot face to face, when I have crossed the bar." 

At the time referred to, in the last chapter^ 1857, no 
ships or other "vessels," as we called all sea-going craft, 
drawing more than about twelve feet, which visited New- 
bern, could enter our port; and, as there was a "bar" in 
the sound, which every ship was obliged to cross, either 
coming or going, it was necessary that our good schooner 
Laura Johnson, should be "lightered over the "bar;" 
that is to say, a small vessel, denominated a "lighter," 
carrying her deck load, should accompany her over the 
bar, and transfer the same (her load) to her deck. This 
occupied, at least, a day, at that time, and afforded such 
of the passengers as inclined, an opportunity of visiting 
some of the small rocky islands which line the coast, in 
that vicinity, on which very many aquatic fowls were ac- 
customed to lay their eggs and hatch out their young. 

On this occasion, two of the vessel's crew and several 
of the passengers, including my elder sister, took advan- 
tage of the invitation, and went "ashore," returning, aft- 
er an absence of several hours, with a goodly quantity of 
eggs, which the cook prepared and served for us. I am 


not certain that, at this writing, I should care to indulge 
in the eating of those eggs, for, I was in profound igno- 
rance as to the kind or species of birds that laid them, or 
the length of time they had lain amongst the rocks, be- 
fore they were gathered and served to us. Of one thing 
I am sure, the flavor which remained in my mouth after 
partaking of them, was not reassuring. 

Without wearying the reader with the details of this 
sea-voyage, which "skirted the coast of North Carolina 
and Maryland," until we sailed, serenely, up New York 
Bay and lay at anchor snugly in the Harbor, on the 
Brooklyn side, I will remark, that, at times, especially 
when, we were doubling Cape Hatteras, the so-called 
"dread of seamen," we had excitement enough for the 
most exacting. The monster waves (billows) piled up like 
Ossa on Pelion ; in poetic phrase : 

"Heav'd on Olympus tott'ring Ossa stood; 
On Ossa, Pelion nods with all his wood." 

Since then, I have crossed the Atlantic Ocean eight 
times ; but, nothing within my own personal experiences, 
has equaled what I then endured: — tumbled out of my 
berth, upon my head, with part of our luggage upon me ! 
"Cabin'd and cribb'd, for days, within our "state 
room," not very stately, at that; terrified, when the bil- 
lows, mountain high, threatened to engulf us; and when 
our little two-masted schooner, like a cockle-shell, hung 
trembling on the crest of a mighty wave, I, for one, im- 
agined that my end had come ; and could not, with the un- 
happy Moor, say: 

"If after every tempest come such calms, 
May the winds blow till they have waken 'd death! 
And let the labouring bajfrk climb hills of seas, 
Olympus high; and duck again as low 
As hell's from heaven!" 

One thing interested me very much even amid the 

thundering of the billows and the strident sounds of the 
winds, playing amongst the rigging; that, was the cap- 
tain, when, in stentorian tones, he gave his commands to 
the helmsman, at the wheel, which enabled our sturdy 
bark to dodge the dangers and weather the gale, none 
the worse, apparently, for her perilous voyage. 

When an extra heavy wave came thundering toward 
us, our captain would shout, "Right about!" and then, 
after the imminence of the danger had passed, his voice 
would ring out, — "A hard lay!" and so, time and again, 
he would exert his authority and skill, until, after hours, 
which seemed days, we were sailing, — gliding over com- 
paratively smooth seas, toward our sure haven of rest. 

Who, now living, can vividly recall before their minds 
the appearance of "Little Old New York," in 1857, — 
sixty-three years ago? when, by the latest census, she 
contained within her walls, about four hundred and fifty 
thousand souls! A few less than half the number now 
credited to the great City of Cleveland! Who can picture 
the appearance of her forest of masts, and complexity of 
the spars and riggings, like the "tangles of Neaera's 
hair," as one surveyed her spacious harbor, in those early 
days? Vastly changed. I think, from their appearance in 
1837, when my dear father visited that city, for the pur- 
pose of buying a stock of goods; yet, O, how different 
than she is today ! 

It was in the early morning of July third when our 
ship was moored to her Brooklyn dock, near Washington 
street, only a few rods distant from the Brooklyn end of 
the first great suspension bridge. Within the present 
decade, I have looked down from the great bridge and 
seen the identical little house in which we spent our first 
night in that great city. 

Nor can I ever forget the following day, the first 
Fourth of July I had ever spent in a northern city. What 
we saw and what we heard, both by day and by night, 


almost startles me, even now. Imagine then, if you can, 
what an impression was made on my mind, when I was 
only twelve years of age — the first Fourth of July cele- 
bration I had enjoyed outside of my little native town, ex- 
cepting only the time when I ran away from my home and 
walked twenty miles to the village of Trenton, to "hear 
the Eagle scream ;" and then, neither saw nor heard him ; 
saw and ate fat pig, instead, and heard the dulcet notes of 
the violin and the cornet. 

Before leaving my southern home, my dear mother 
gave me a half dollar!!! "John," she said, "you are a big 
eater; now, when we get to New York, if we are invited 
out to dinner, by any of our old friends, don't try to eat 
everything on the table ; eat a reasonable amount, and if 
you are not satisfied, go out and buy a little something, 
to piece it out ; but make this half dollar go as far as you 
can." i 

I fear my dear, good mother lost sight of the fact 
that, I was, after all, only a patriotic little boy, a3 the 
sequel proved: for, before the glare of the rockets and 
Roman candles became evident, at the setting of the sun, 
I had invested every cent of that half dollar in a little 
brass pistol and suitable ammunition for it ! Could I have 
made better use of it? Could I ever, have bought more 
happiness, in one day, with it ? I think not ; and although 
the error of my conduct was called, forcibly, to my atten- 
tion, at times, during many succeeding years, yet, I am 
free to say I have never regretted my conduct, in that 
behalf ; for, it stimulated my love for my country and her 
glorious flag, which is the only one which shelters and 
protects us, at home or abroad, by virtue of our consti- 
tution and laws. 

The next day was Sunday, if I mistake not ; and my 
baby sister seven years of age, and I attended a Sunday 
school, in the neighborhood. It was the first time in the 
life of either of us, that we had ever been seated with 

white children! O, how happy we were! and how lustily 
we did sing, for the first time, those dear little nursery 
hymns : 

"Little drops of water, .> 

Little grains of sand," etc. 

and that other one: 

"I want to be an angel and with the angels stand; 
A crown upon my forehead, a harp within my hand." 

This was the beginning, only, of what was to follow, 
in our little far away Ohio home. 

"Eye had not seen, ear had not heard," neither had 
it entered into our infantile hearts, the joys that were 
laid up for us, in the not distant future. 

The pleasure derived from our brief sojourn in New 
York, was greatly intensified by the association of some 
of our old Newbern friends, one of whom had been a 
fellow-member with my father, of Christ Episcopal 
Church, down there. He guided us through the labaryn- 
thine streets, pointed out to us objects of interest and 
explained them to us; and when our crated goods were 
released from the hold of the good ship Laura Johnson, 
he kindly saw that they were shipped on one of the canal 
boats of ti\e Erie Canal, en route to Cleveland. His name 
was Mr. Richard W. Hancock, a skilled carpenter and 
builder, who had planned and constructed some of the 
most ornate buildings in our home town, before he de- 
serted it. 

Mr. Hancock was the only tyler, of a white Masonic 
lodge, in a slave state, that I have ever heard of or seen, 
marching, with drawn sword, at the head of a white Ma- 
sonic procession. Where he was made or how he won rec- 
ognition in that town, twenty years before the Civil War, 
is more than I can explain ; and what makes his treatment 


the more remarkable, lies in the fact that, though not a 
pure blooded Negro, yet his color was pronounced — 

On the afternoon of the 6th of July, 1857, accompa- 
nied and assisted by our worthy friend, Mr. Hancock, we 
boarded a "day car," of the Erie Railway Company, and, 
our adieus having been said, we were on our way to Dun- 
kirk, the western terminus of that railroad, at that time. 
I say, we boarded a "day car:" yes; for, to the best of my 
memory and information, there were no sleeping cars in 
existence, at that time. That there were no Wagner, Pull- 
man or Doubleday cars on that or any other line, I am 
quite certain ; and persons wishing to dine accommodated 
themselves from the hampers which they carried with 
them ; and as for sleeping, they were restricted to "doub- 
ling up" on a seat, or disposing their bodies in the next 
most convenient manner. 

We must not lose sight of the fact that, not only the 
Erie, but most of the other railroads in this country were, 
at that time, of recent or comparatively recent construc- 
tion; and as a direct result of that fact, the roadbeds 
were very poorly ballasted, or not at all. 

On the Erie road, the riding was rough. There were 
sections of that thoroughfare, so rough that, one would, 
almost imagine himself riding in a stage coach ; the rails 
were light, the springs were poor, and the couplings be- 
tween the cars were so very loose and insecure, that, 
smooth, easy riding was out of the question. 

Estimated the distance between New York and Cleve- 
land, by that route, to have been six hundred miles, we 
maintained an average speed of about twenty-five miles 
an hour; for, we were just twenty-four hours in reaching 
our destination- 

However, the whole trip was crammed full of pleas- 
ure, for this writer, whatever may be said as to the other 
members of our party : and when, at about five o'clock p. 


m. on the 7th day of July, 1857, our train drew into the 
first "Union depot," years before our present "Old Union 
Depot," was considered or planned, our joy exceeded ex- 
pression. At last, thank God, we were on Ohio soil! Fi- 
nally, we were in the beautiful "Forest City" of Cleveland, 
with its population of 36,000 souls, — its grand Public 
Square and its long, broad ornate streets, cool and re- 
freshing to look upon. 

The "bluff" was high and steep, at the northern ex- 
tremity of what is now West Ninth Street (then called 
Water Street) ; and, years afterwards, it took a deal of 
grading to reduce it to its present form. As we reached 
the summit of the "bluff," there were two objects quite 
conspicuous, which are no longer in existence. On the 
right, a few rods distant, stood the Government Light 
House, commanding a view of Lake Erie, for many miles 
out, while on the left hand side Bethel Church raised its 
spire gloriously, in the air. 

It was warm and very dusty. The lake breeze, then, 
as now, to some extent, was, continually in motion, and 
raised the dust from the unpaved streets, to the great 
discomfort of all pedestrians; but, even then, the young 
people were in numerous instances, out on the curbs 
sprinkling the streets, since the water works had, for a 
year or more been established, and was coming, gradual- 
ly, into use. 

Superior Street, from the Public Square to West 
Ninth Street was covered with boards and on the South 
side of that chief business thoroughfare, from the 
"square" to Bank Street (W. 6th St.), the buildings were, 
principally, of wood. The Public Square was enclosed 
with a sort of fence, on all four sides, while the interior 
was carpeted with green lawns, and shaded by beautiful 
elm and maple trees. 

The south-western section of the Public Square, con- 
tained a little antiquated Court House, which reminded 


me, strongly, of the old Court House which we had left 
behind, in Newberne. I could go on and mention many 
of the structures existing in Cleveland at that time, but 
a mere enumeration of them would tire the reader, I fear. 

Mr. Freeman H. Morris, one of the most intelligent, 
conservative and genteel colored men then residing in 
Cleveland or elsewhere, in the United States, was the pro- 
prietor of a tailoring establishment, under the Bennet 
House, a hotel, subsequently enlarged and christened, the 
Forest City House. On the opposite corner, where now is 
located Marshall's Drug Store, was located Rouse Block, 
built and owned by "Deacon" Rouse, one of the most 
prominent of the pioneers of this city. Rouse Block was, 
for its day, large and ornamental, and was greatly ad- 
mired by its owner and community, in general. 

There was one theatre in the city, — The Academy of 
Music, of which the late John A. Ellsler was the pro- 
prietor. He maintained a "Stock Company," of which he 
was the leading "star." Mrs. Effie Ellsler, his wife, and 
mother of the younger Effie Ellsler (who was then a 
baby), was the leading lady; there was a "Tragedian," of 
much merit, by the name of McCullough; James Lewis, 
inimitable comedian, and Miss Anna Dickinson (?) 
soubrette. It was, with other characters, a good com- 
pany; and played, regularly, for the entertainment and 
* instruction of this community. 

Occasionally, during the "season," great "stars," 
would visit the city and entertain the habitues and others 
of that theatre. I remember well, The Marble Heart, in 
the production of which the late J. Wilkes Booth (assassin 
of President Lincoln) was the star attraction ; also Edwin 
Booth, Couldock, Sothern (father of E. H. Sothern) , now 
prominent as our interpreter of some of Shakespeare's 
plays, — and many others. 

The old building, transposed, still occupies its orig- 
inal site, in W. 6th street, contiguous, to the old Kennard 


House — then called the Angier House. The auditor- 
ium of the theatre, was on momentous occasions, boarded 
over and used for balls, given in honor of distinguished 
personages ; it was the largest public auditorium then at 
the command of the citizens of Cleveland. 

Melodeon Hall, was another hall, provided with a 
stage and scenery; it was located on the present site of 
Mr. Jacob B. Perkins' big building, the Wiltshire, on the 
north side of Superior Street, near West Third Street. It 
is the building, used for a post-office while the present 
post-office was in course of construction. There was also 
another hall, — a small one, in a building located on the 
present site of the Williamson Building, called, at one 
time, Garret's Hall, and another, on the top floor of a 
building which stood where the American Trust Building 
is now located, Chase Hall. 

There were no places of business on either Superior 
Street or Euclid Avenue, east of the Public Square; and 
on the north side of the Public Square, the entire space 
was filled with ornate residences. Prospect Street, 
ranked second in importance, as a residence street, and 
Woodland Avenue, third. There were also beautiful 
residences on Lake and St. Clair Avenue, up to Erie St. 
(now E. 9th and also on Ontario St., from the Public 
Square to the lake.) 

There was a pontoon-bridge spanning the river at the 
foot of W. 3d Street (Seneca Street), and a ferry estab- 
lished, to transport persons across the river, at the foot 
of Superior Street hill. 

The Old Stone Church stood, like a grim sentinel, 
where it stands today; the tall spire had, recently, been 
destroyed by fire; it has never been replaced. On the cor- 
ner of East Fourth (Sheriff) Street and Euclid Avenue, 
stood Saint Paul's Episcopal Church, and in Superior 
Street, between the Public Square and East 6th Street 
(Bond Street) were located both Trinity Cathedral and 


the Second Presbyterian Church. The Second Baptist 
Church, now denominated, "Rockefeller's Church," was 
then located on the northeast corner of East Ninth 
Street (Erie Street) and Central Avenue (Ohio Street). 
To the north of Ohio Street, and on the southside of the 
cemetery, was a broad space of land whereon the County 
Fair, was held, that year. Miss Lucy Wightman, the 
beautiful and accomplished daughter of the late David 
L. Wightman, one time Sheriff of Cuyahoga County, 
Ohio, carried away the prize as the most skilful eques- 
trienne of all those who contended for it. 

The Central High School building was located where 
the Citizen's Loan and Trust Company's building now 
stands, in Euclid Avenue, near E. 9th Street; while the 
First Baptist Church (which had formerly occupied a 
building at the corner of Champlain Avenue and W. 3rd 
Street) , was then located on the present site of the Hickox 
Building, N. W. corner of Euclid Avenue and E. 9th 

There was a pretty little park, located on the bluff 
overlooking the lake, at the foot of what is now E. 17th 
Street, called, "Clinton Park," there is now, little or no 
reminder of the fact that it ever existed. This was at a 
time, anterior to the establishment of Lake View Park, 
when the side of thehill between Lakeside Avenue and 
the railroad tracks, was covered with little "Irish shan- 
ties." It is a curious commentary on our ephemeral ex- 
istence, that, both the shanties and the park, have, al- 
ready yielded to the march of events. 

Much could be said of the fire department, of which 
we (I say we advisededly) drew to the occasional fires, 
with our hands, the engines and trucks, and pumped with 
the same power; it was a slow, laborious process, and, 
often, quite uncertain; but, it was better than none; as 
well as a source of much recreation. 

It was mid-summer, and time was winging his flight ; 


it is a true saying — eternally true, that, time and tide 
wait for no man," and this writer, was not using it wise- 
ly; on the contrary, he was "scouring" the city and its 
environs, with no useful employment (not even the 
wood-pile) to occupy his time, at the imminent risk of 
getting into trouble; and, it was easily evident that, my 
mother must place me under the guardian care and pro- 
tection of someone who would curb and restrain me, tem- 
porarily, at least. 

After mature reflection and much anxiety, she finally, 
determined to take me to Oberlon, Ohio, and give me to 
that Mr. John Patterson, for whom my father named 
me ; and, on the following day, we found a hearty welcome 
in the home of that man to whom, of all other persons, 
were indebted for our presence in Oberlin at that time. 

After refreshment, mother "opened up" the subject 
foremost in her mind, and disclosed to Mr. Patterson 
the object of her visit to Oberlin, — to place in his custody 
her only son, as an apprentice, to be taught his trade, 
— that of a brick-layer and plasterer. 

Now, Mr. Patterson already had, "on his hands," sev- 
eral husky boys, for whom he could hardly find employ- 
ment; and, he frankly stated his inability to employ 
another boy, for any purpose. Moreover, he said, his 
calling required a boy in his "teens," — strong and heavy ; 
while I was thin and weak, for a lad of twelve years of 
age ; for whom, he could find no employment. 

Under the circumstances, he advised my mother to 
go to the husband of one of her relatives, Mr. John H. 
Scott, — harnessmaker, saddler and trunkmaker, — 
who, he thought, could teach me one or more of his 
trades, which did not call for great size or robust strength. 

This proposition seemed quite promising to Mother, 
who, indeed, was grasping at any temporary straw, in 
that behalf ; and she "stayed not on her going," but went, 
without delay. 


"Cousin Celia Scott," the kindly, lovable spouse of 
John H. Scott, received me joyously; and, encouraged, 
promoted the plan of taking me into her household, en- 
thusiastically ; and, "to make a long story short," an oral 
agreement was made between Mr. Scott and my mother 
by the terms of which, I was to enter his employment, 
as an apprentice, and remain with him until I attained to 
my twenty-first year. Mr. Scott agreed to treat me as 
his own child, — to feed me at his own table, clothe me 
and give me a little education. I am not sure as to this 
last condition of the contract ; but, since both my mother 
and Mr. Scott had been denied an education, I infer the 
intention was that I should Lave some opportunities, at 
least, along that line. 

In pursuance of this very reasonable agreement, I 
entered Mr. Scott's employ, and became a part of his 
household, all of whom, excepting Mr. Scott, were related 
to me, by ties of blood; and, without delay, he set me to 
work, making straps with buckles sewed on one end of 
them, and other small, preliminary work, not forgetting 
to teach me how to milk a cow which gave several gal- 
lons of milk, and fetch water in a bucket from a neighbor- 
ing pump, for washing purposes, — and for cooling-off a 
great pojer, which weighed between four and five hun- 
dred pounds, and suffered much, by reason of July heat. 

Another duty, which was quite pleasing to me, was to 
carry a basket of fruit to the rail- way station (at least 
once each day), and offer it for sale to passengers, en 
route, on the train. 

I tried to milk that cow; but, "honor bright," it was, 
for me, the most onerous task I had ever undertaken, 
not excepting that done on the "wood pile." I did not have 
sufficient strength in my wrists! and, tiy as I would, I 
invariably "botched" the job, — as I can now see. 

On one occasion, after I had milked several quarts 
into the pail, "bossie" put one of her feet into it ; and on 


withdrawing it, she left in the pail a small lump of clay ; 
which had been sticking to it. I clutched the clay and 
threw it out of the pail ; but, not before it had been dis- 
solved, more or less, and left a thick sediment on the 

Reason and the dictates of honesty told me to empty 
out of the pail that polluted milk, and finish milking; 
but, I was too timid and fearful of Mr. Scott, whose com- 
manding figure and black, eagle-eyes, at that period of 
his life, almost made me tremble. I should have stated, 
at the outset, that, mother, in taking leave of me, after 
she had given me to Mr. Scott, said, "Mr. Scott, John is 
a bad boy; and, you must whip him!" A remark which to 
this day, sixty-three years since it was uttered, still rings 
in my ears! 

So, I carried the milk into the house — mud and all — . 
It was noticed that, I did not drink any of it; but, this 
did not call forth any special comment, until the bottom 
of the crock was reached; when, lo, and behold! a sedi- 
ment of clay, unmistakable. "Ah ha!" exclaimed Mr. 
Scott. "Now, I know why you have not drunk any milk, 
today. I thought it was funny you were not drinking 
any milk to-day! Now, I know the reason why! Here- 
after, Sir, you have got to drink some of every milking!" 
I may add, he was "as good as his word," and during the 
remainder of my sojourn with him, I was required to, 
at least, "sample" the result of my milkings. 

And so, the time wore on. My mother's cousin, Mrs. 
Scott, was kind and affectionate towards me; and, at 
times, when her husband seemed rather severe in his 
dealings with me, she expostulated with him. She also, 
had me scrub the kitchen floor for her, occasionally; for 
which she, invariably, gave me a dime or fifteen cents ; 
which, I religously saved, in order that I might accumu- 
late a fund sufficient to pay my fare to Cleveland and 
return, when I made a promised visit to my mother, on 


the 15th of September, my elder sister's 19th birthday. 

In the latter part of August, there came to Oberlin 
a train-load of boys and girls, on a picnic excision. They 
were Sunday-school pupils from that same Bethel church, 
of which I have spoken, heretofore. Mr. Scott permitted 
me to go into the grove and commingle with the children ; 
but, of course, he expected me to return home in time to 
milk the cow. However, my nostalgia — homesickness, 
was so great that, I could not withstand the temptation 
to visit my people; and when the train returned to 
Cleveland, I was one of the youthful excursionists. 

On reaching Cleveland, I went, as the "crow flies," 
to my mother's home, two miles distant, at the corner of 
Pine and Hudson (now E 30th streets. There were no 
street-cars in those days, or any other means of reaching 
there, save walking. 

Mother and sisters were surprised and overjoyed to 
see me, and covered me with caresses; but mother was, 
quite naturally, apprehensive, that I would have trouble 
with Mr. Scott, on my return. As to this, she was quite 
right," for tho I stowed away in an oil closet, on a 
freight-train, and returned to Oberlin by midnight of the 
same day, he declared, he would have "tanned my hide," 
if I had not carried a letter to him from my mother re- 
questing him to pardon this offense. At the same time, 
he warned me not to repeat the act; a warning which, 
had I been wise, I would have heeded. 

However, young lads, at the age of twelve years, are 
not, as a rule, "wise and prudent ;" especially if, as in my 
ease, they have spent their whole life roaming amidst 
the "pines and sands" of North Carolina, without the 
friendly advice and guidance of a loving father; and, 
with none, or very poor examples, sfet before^htm, in his 
daily walk of life. 

In the course of a week or two, Henry 0. Patterson, 
a foster son of that John Patterson for whom I was 


named, — a boy older and more experienced than I, per- 
suaded me to "jump" a freight car with him and make a 
"flying" trip, to Cleveland and return; and I, having been 
so successful in escaping punishment in the first instance, 
fell an easy victim to his wiles. 

The trip outward was easily and successfully nego- 
tiated, without mishap of any sort ; and we passed a very 
pleasant afternoon, in perambulating the marts of trade 
and the beautifully shaded boulevards of the Forest City. 
Also, we experienced no difficulty in snugly ensconcing 
ourselves in an oil closet of a freight car, en route to 
Oberlin, at midnight of the same day; but, alas! and 
alack! when we reached Elyria, some eight miles from 
our destination, — to our unspeakable surprise, we were 
discovered and rudely accosted, by a gruff and heartless 
brakeman, who flashed his light in our faces, and, in very 
plain English, told us to get off our perch, and leave the 

"What was done, what to do, a glance told us both," 
and we easily recognized that we were "up against a con- 
dition," — no theory; so, without parleying, we jumped 
off, — into the "outer darkness;" for, it seemed to be the 
darkest night we had ever seen. 

Henry 0., thoroughly frightened and less daring 
than this writer, stayed off, — walked the remainder of 
the distance, and put in his appearance, at home, early 
in the following morning: but the writer hereof, ven- 
turesome as ever, vaulted onto a platform car, piled high 
with lumber, reached home, and was sound asleep, in the 
arms of morpheus, at about one o'clock A. M. 

To my surprise and horror, at about five o'clock, in 
the same morning, Mr. Scott — master, entered my bed- 
room, carrying in his strong right hand a leather strap, 
resembling very closely those which I had been engaged 
in manufacturing; — threw back the bed-clothing, with 
which I was covered, and proceeded to give me one of 


those "tannings," with which he had threatened me be- 
fore ; for, in this instance, I did not return to him, armed 
with a supplicating letter, from my mother. 

Suffice it to state, that, upon the conclusion of his 
"tanning" process, and for several days thereafter, my 
tawny, hide presented an appearance more resembling 
that of a zebra than of a human being; and, smarting 
from the unmerciful cstigation I had resolved to quit Mr. 
Scott, forever; even tho, in attempting escape, I should 
imperil or even, lose my life. 

"Jacta est alia!" the die was cast; the handwriting 
was on the wall ; and from that moment, it was absolutely 
beyond the power of my cruel mster to retain me in his 
employ; unless, indeed, he schackled, hobbled or impris- 
oned me; which, of course, in Oberlin, at that time, was 
"out of the question." 

The reader must not lose sight of the fact that, at 
that time, I weighed exactly fifty pounds! I am, con- 
strained to confess, that, in my opinion, I deserved some 
punishment for my misconduct, in the premises; but, 
without brutality and heartlessness. 

During the ensuing week, never did the fates weave 
a web, with more precision and certainty than did I, in 
my determination to make my escape from Mr. Scott. 
The opportunity came, as I supposed, in the afternoon of 
the following Sunday; when, I erroniously, judged that 
he and his guest, (a "Mr. Smith" — fugitive slave), were 
conversing together in the parlor. Tying up in a hand- 
kerchief my little belongings, I made a rush, out of the 
back door for the garden. "John!" a voice rang in my 
ears, "where are you going to?" If a clap of thunder," 
out of a cloudless sky", had saluted me, I would not have 
been more surprised or shocked, than when I heard that 
voice. Turning and looking upwards, I beheld my bete 
noir, with his fugitive guest, sitting at the rear window, 
upstairs. Then, indeed, I "stayed not on the order of ray 


going," I flew; bundle discarded, I ran with might 
and main, in the direction of the little cemetery, then in 
the heart of the town, pursued by Mr. Scott and the 
other person. 

Backwards and forwards and crosswise, the chase 
held its course, with the quarry gradually widening the 
space between himself and his pursuers ; until, the writer, 
seeing the futility of running in a circle, at length, made 
for the track of the Lake Shore Railroad, and pitched his 
trend in the direction of Cleveland, — thirty-three miles 
away, with Elyria intervening, — eight miles distant. 

It was a hot September day, never to be forgotten, 
by me ; my thirst was great, but my fear and excitement 
was greater. Mile after mile we sped, my pursuers grad- 
ually narrowing the space between us ; my tongue almost, 
literally, hung out of my mouth, and my heart beat like 
that of a doe pursued and bayed by the hunter and his 

At a distance of about five miles from Oberlin, I 
suddenly, darted from the "direct forthright", and quick- 
ly concealed my poor dying form, amidst the underbrush. 
They searched for me, in vain. They could not find me. 
Reluctantly, they gave up the chase, — faced homeward, 
on the railroad track, and began their retreat. Unfortu- 
nately, inexperienced and excited as I was, I resumed my 
progress, on the track too, thinking that, he had aband- 
oned the pursuit; — the space between us, now, being so 
great. Not so: for, turning and getting a glimpse of my 
form, they renewed the pursuit ; and, gaining on me (for 
I was now afflicted with serious rectal trouble, so great 
had been the strain), I again concealed myself in the 
undergrowth of a neighboring wood. 

Again, they were thwarted in their efforts to find 
me; but, at the moment when they had decided to 
abandon the quest, the little dog which accompanied 
them, a pet of mine, scented me and began to bark and 


play with me. ''The jig was up!" I was seized, undressed 
tied, as to my hands, and cruelly whipped with switches, 
cut in the woods, until my little, thin body was well cov- 
ered with purple welts. My pockets were searched, and 
all the earnings which I had received from my dear 
cousin Celia, for scrubbing the kitchen, taken from me; 
so, that, as Mr. Scott declared, I could not pay my fare 
to my home and friends. 

Then, I was compelled to promise, that, never again 
would I attempt to leave his home and employ ; the white 
fugitive slave looking on the while, but uttering no word 
of protest. 

Slowly, — painfully, I wended my way back to Oberlin 
— a forlorn, — woe-begone little boy. I wondered, could 
my Father look down from heaven upon his poor child, 
whose birth was hailed with acclaims of joy and satis- 
faction, as being the only son! Was this then, all the re- 
sult of his strenuous life, in behalf of his family and 
humanity! Such is life!" 

The next day, I was lowered into a rain-water cistern, 
to assist in cleaning it out. The water was cold and I was 
sick, hardly able to stand without support; but, that 
same kind Providence which — 

"Tempers the wind to the shorn lamb," 

was by my side, supporting and encouraging me. Was 
my spirit broken? Had the Stanley-Chestnutt blood 
quailed before that of another? Never! Young as I was, 
it was another case of — 

"Lay on Macduff! 

And damned be he who first cries, 
Hold, enough!" 

NOTE — Such of my relations of African descent as I had met or 
heard of, were persons of mild, gentle dispositions, on the fe- 
male side; the men, I did not know. 


For a full week after this torture, I was not allowed 
to peddle fruit at the railway station. I was "cabin' d 
and cribbed," watched, — spied on, lest I should break my 
word and take "French leave," again. However, on one 
line September afternoon, Mr. Scott said, "John: if 1 
give you a basket of apples, do you think you can go to 
the station and sell 'em and come back all right?" I 
said, "Yes". "Well, go on," he replied, an' see to it that 
you behave yourself an' get back on time!" 

With the basket, filled with golden fruit, I sallied 
forth, to the station. Ere long, the fast express train 
flew in, "Thunder Bolt," they called it, and all was 
bustle and excitement; but, to the quiet observer there 
appeared the vision of a little clay-colored boy, quietly 
tucking himself away, beneath one of those passenger 
cars, — on the brake-beam, to be exact, hugging some por- 
tion of the truck, while he inclined his head forward, to 
escape the floor of the car, above him. 

The bell rang! the whistle gave a toot! and slowly, 
that great modern miracle — that ' locomotive puffed its 
way forward, drawing after it the serpentine train, 
filled with living, breathing human-beings, and, — a boy, 
— underneath! Remember, reader, this was in Sep- 
tember, 1857, sixty-three years ago, when that rail- 
road was -in swaddling clothes; when the track was 
new and well-nigh without ballast, and the springs were 
crudely made and insufficient for the strain placed upon 
them. Was I the first to make the venture? 

At first I was in glee, over the thought that, I had 
finally, eluded Mr. Scott ; that no speed on his part, could 
now overtake me; and that, in an hour, I would be, once 
more, under the same roof with my mother and sisters! 
However, a rapid change came over my mind, and terror 
seized upon me, as darkness almost Egyptian enveloped 

Dust! Dust! Dust! in my eyes, in my nostrils and 


even my mouth, when I opened it to prevent suffocation! 
Upon my head, I wore a soft green felt (?) hat, which, 
from long use, had become peaked. I snatched it off, and, 
while I clung to a rod with one hand, with the other, I 
fanned, for dear life in the vicinity of my nose. My first 
thought was to try to jump from under the car; but, 
my judgment told me that I would be cut in two, should 
I attempt to do so. 

In the course of ten or fifteen minutes, the speed of 
the "Cannon Ball' was so swift, that, the dust was drawn 
through by the current of air, and no longer menaced 
me; but, now, another danger, as serious, perhaps, as the 
first, succeeded to it; — the speed of the train was, such, 
that the car under which I was located began to bound 
and rebound, threatening every instant, to fracture my 
skull, or at least, to stun me, which would have meant 
speedy and certain death. In this emergency, I bent my- 
self almost double, in order to clear my head from the 
bottom of the car, in which I was successful, until the 
train reached Elyria; when, I crawled out and climbed 
into the car. The conductor who was on the platform, at 
the time, did not notice me until the train was in motion 
again ; but, meanwhile, I was the cynosure of all the eyes 
ki that car. I had the appearance of an animated statue 
carved out of clay. 

"Where did you come from!" exclaimed the conduc- 
tor." "From under the c-a-r!" I squeaked, in return. 

"From under the car!" he repeated. "Well, I am late, 
or I would stop and put you off!" This time, again, the 
fates were with me ; and I remained, huddled in a corner, 
until the joyful sound, "Cleveland!!" inspired me with 
new life and activity. 

"Send him back", Mr. Scott wrote to my mother, "and 
I will make a man of him !" — a feat of which he boasted 
in after years j but, after mature reflection, it was de-* 


cided that I should remain at home and go to school; a 
fact which filled me with joy, beyond description. 

I will say here and now, that, for many years, I 
have entertained no hatred or malice against Mr. Scott by 
reason of his treatment of me. His was a hard school, 
and he acted according to his best lights. During the six 
weeks I was in his care, custody and control, he fed me 
well, — gave me a pair of shoes, allowed me to attend the 
picnic, and seated me at the table to dine with himself 
and family; very considerate, indeed; but he was too 
harsh, severe and cruel, to manage a mere child. I will 
add, that, in after years, Mr. Scott, was frequently, my 
guest, and I his ; and, further, that, I wrote his obituary, 
after his death; which was in accordance with the Latin 
maxim — "De mortuo dice nil nisi bonum" — say nothing 
of the dead except good. 

If what I have written in the foregoing seems to im- 
ply bitterness and hatred, or a stern regret for having 
been apprenticed to Mr. Scott, at that time and place, 
let it be known that, I consider the experiences which, 
even at that tender age, I passed through in dear old 
Oberlin, out-weighjfc, in pleasure and profit, all the disap- 
pointments, and trial which fell to my lot, and which were 
due, in par,t, to my intractable disposition. 

Had I never spent those six weeks in Oberlin in 1857 
when the town was just twenty-four years of age, I 
would not be able to carry to my grave with me the re- 
membrance of the great Rev. Charles Finney, as he ap- 
peared in the pulpit of the "First Church." The music 
of his sweet sounding, earnest voice would not now be 
ringing in my ears as I heard it, when, in those days, he 
paced that pulpit and contended for, human liberty, — 
women's rights, temperate Christian lives, and all that 
make for civilization and ultimate salvation. I would 
never have seen, perchance Father Keep, Professors 
Monroe, Shurtliff, Fairchild, Peck, Morgan, and others, 


who did so much to place Oberlin on the proud pedestal, 
where she stands today . I would not have met the late 
John Patterson, for whom I was named, — who wrote to 
my dear mother those persuasive letters which eventua- 
ted in bringing her with her little brood to the city of 
Cleveland; nor could I now, at this late day, refer back 
to those early days, when old Tappan hall stood, still 
majestic, when old Chapel was still in its glory, and 
the music of the board-walks added zest to the move- 
ments of the early students. 

These and many other characteristics of Oberlin. 
sixty-three years ago pass in pamoramic review before 
my mind — a rich legacy of those early times, which I 
would not exchange for gold or silver or precious stones. 




"Well," said my mother, one morning, after I had 
been at home long enough to regain my composure, "if 
you will not work, you must go to school. I am not a 
going to allow you to run the streets!" She could not 
have pleased me more than she did, by that declaration; 
for, I had, already, become aware of the fact that, all 
the boys with whom I had made acquaintance, were 
school boys ; and I long'd to be one of their number. 

So, early on one "September Morn," with face 
wreathed in smiles, and hopes beating high, I sallied 
forth, with the "gang," and, in the course of fifteen 
minutes, I stood in the august presence of Miss Sarah 
A. Nelson, teacher in the "Intermediate Department, for 
boys, of the Mayflower School, situated in Orange Street, 
nearly opposite the south end of Hudson Street, now E. 
SOth street. 

The principal of Mayflower School, at that time, was 
Mr. Edwin R. Perkins, a young gentleman, recently grad- 
uated from Dartmouth College, — to the best of my 
memory, for whom the fates were, even then, spinning 
the thread of a long and useful life, which he so richly 
merited. As a teacher, he was learned, enthusiastic, 
and ambitious; he was one of those whose very presence 
inspired and energised for the accomplishment of worthy 


deeds, and his long and glorious achievements along fi- 
nancial, commercial and social lines, attest all that I have 
said, in the foregoing. 

A good spanking, which he administered to me, when 
I was in the second year of attendance, at that now fa- 
mous school, did somewhat, I believe, to open my eyes to 
the verities of this life, and to start me in the right way 
to meet them. 

Amongst the others of the teachers there, at that 
time, may be mentioned the widow of the late E. R. 
Perkins, who was his efficient assistant; also, Miss Laura 
C. Spellman, subsequently, Mrs. John D. Rockefeller; 
Miss Leonard, afterward, Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Eliza Brins- 
made, a sister of the late Colonel Allen T. Brinsmade; 
Miss White, Miss Johnson, and last, but not least, Miss 
Sarah A. Nelson, subsequently, Mrs. Rude, of Calispal 
(?) Minn. 

I had no books, for the intermediate grade, or any 
other grade, for that matter. Mother told me to tell Miss 
Nelson that, she had no money to buy me books with; 
which I did, and Miss Nelson, from some source unknown 
to me, procured a set of used books, and gave them to me. 

That grade was, then, the next grade below the 
"Grammar" grade, over which the principal presided; 
and I was ambitious, as ever, to get passed into the 
grammar grade. As a result, I was a hard student and 
an apt pupil. Miss Nelson said to mother, "John is one of 
my smartest pupils, and — the worst." 

In very truth, I was the incarnation of mischief ; but, 
as I view the condition, from this distance, it was my all 
consuming desire to be spectacular, which lay at the 
bottom of my misbehavior — for, in playing "twenty", 
which carried us over hill and dale and, frequently far 
away from the school building, — distributing bits of 
paper in our course, and in running, jumping and other 
athletic sports, it was ever my desire to be foremost; 


and, whether I accomplished it or not, I laid aside every 
weight, and strove, right manfully, for success. I was 
always anxious to perform some feat which no other boy 
would dare to do, so as to be talked about. In fact, it 
was true, as was said of me, by a distinguished gentleman 
later on in life, when he characterized me as, "a born 
actor," and I could only yield to the natural impulse to 
act, "show off", as my mother denominated it. 

Along this line, let this one incident be recorded: I 
had been misbehaving myself in some silly way, — making 
grimaces, passing notes, whispering, or doing some other 
act contrary to the rules of the school. And it was as the 
laws of the Medes and the Persians that, at the recess, 
I would come in contact with the black ebony or ligum 
vitae instrument of torture which our teacher was ac- 
customed to wield in the "torture chamber." So, I watched 
my chance to defer the punishment, as long as possible. 

The opportunity came when Miss Nelson stepped out 
of the room, for some purpose; then, regardless of life 
or limb, and in defiance of all rules and reason, I climbed 
out of a second-story window, grasped the convenient 
lightning-rod, and slid down to the ground! 

The sequel can be imagined, when next I made my 
appearance in that school ; for I received not only the de- 
ferred punishment; but, with compound interest: How- 
ever, in one respect, I was successful ; for a short period, 
I was the cynosure of all eyes, — the hero (?) of the hour. 

With all that the foregoing implies, it is a peculiar 
fact, that, when we were taking our leave for the long 
summer vacation, I was, apparently, the only one of all 
who regretted it. It was sad to take my leave from the 
first truly congenial company of boys that I had ever 
known ; and many times during the space before the Sep- 
tember term, I sighed and longed for the return of school 

My speech, at that time, was a sort of patoir, of the 


English language, — a southern dialect. For "carry," I 
said "tote;" nor could I pronounce our English (Ameri- 
can) R: I prouounced, pretty much after the manner of 
"Happy Hooligan." For dirt, I said, "doit," and for 
"Squirt," I said, "Squoit:" 

The boys laughed at me inordinately, and constantly, 
joked me. However, I proved to be an apt pupil; and, 
ere long, I could roll the R, almost equal to a Continental. 

Time flew ; and when the next vacation came around, 
I got my passport to the grammar grade; where, under 
the watchful eye of Mr. Perkins, the one spanking re- 
ferred to, above, was quite sufficient to "hold"me; until 
I was transferred to the Hudson street school, which was 
in our immediate neighborhood. 

During my tutelage at the Mayflower school, I was 
sent, on one occasion to report to Mr. Andrew Freeze, the 
grand and wonderfully efficient Superintendent of the 
Cleveland Schools, for the reason that I had "played 
truant," in order that I might attend the circus, which 
visited Cleveland: Mr. Freeze had his headquarters in 
the old Central High School building, — at that time lo- 
cated on the lot of land where now stands The Citizens 
Savings and Trust Company, — in Euclid Avenue, near 
East Ninth street (formerly Erie Street). 

Mr. Freeze was the incarnation of the educational 
idea. He loved his schools, was fond of the society of boys 
and running over with good nature. I approached this 
august functionary with fear and trembling: "Well, Sir!" 
he exclaimed, "what brings you here?" I answered, in 
a whining manner, that I had been sent to him to report 
an infraction of the rules of the Mayflower School, in 
absenting myself for a day, to attend the circus. 

"Well", he replied, in a spirited manner, "Did you 
go to the Circus?" I answered, in the affirmative. "All 
right, then!" he said. "If you went in and didn't hang 


around on the outside, I'll excuse you." "You may go 
back to school; but, don't do it again." 

Here was a man full of "the milk of human kind- 
ness." He had been a boy himself; and, although well 
advanced in years, he had not forgotten the thrill of feed- 
ing nic-nacs to the elephant, watching the antics of the 
monkeys, listening to the jokes of the clown, and wit- 
nessing madamoiselle gracefully jump through the 
"baloons," while riding the "fiery and untamed steed." 

Dear, good Mr. Freeze! was there ever another like 
him! long will he live in the memory and the hearts of 
the boys and girls of the schools of Cleveland, who were, 
by his learning, energy and wisdom encouraged and stim- 
ulated to soar to heights which might not have been 
attained by them, in his absence. 

During the first winter of my attendance at the May- 
flower school, the writer was perilously near the grave, 
for, having no overcoat, and insufficient warm under- 
wear to protect him from the cold of this northern climate 
pneumonia got him in its grasp; and he was saved by 
the skillful treatment of a homeopathic physician, and 
the good nursing of his dear mother, from a premature 

So the years glided by, until the spring of 1859 
was at hand; when, the times being "hard", and mother 
being now, greatly in need of my assistance, I left the 
Hudson Street Grammar School, and went in search of 
some "remunerative employment" and, as I was now in- 
creased in weight to about one hundred pounds, and 
evinced a redundancy of energy along other lines, it 
seemed but reasonable that I should, in the sweat of my 
face, earn my "daily bread." 

As an evidence of my masterful energy, at that time, 
the following true anecdote is related. 

A consuming desire to own a pair of skates seized up- 
on me. All the other boys were upon the ice, having the 


time of their life, while I would only stand and look on. 
Every evening witnessed a veritable carnival, and joy 
reigned supreme. Of course it was useless to ask mother 
for money to buy skates with ; for I had not even "boots" 
on my feet, which, in those days, nearly everyboy wore. I 
was glad to be possessed of warm shoes, under the cir- 

So, taking our "buck" or wood-saw, and a light 
"buck," I sallied forth, in quest of fire-wood, to saw and 
split ; and, after much walking, I finally found a cord of 
hickory wood, made a bargain with its owner, and 
sawed, split and piled it up, before I returned to my home 
— seventy-five cents "to the good," as the boys say. 

On the following days, I found and sawed, split and 
piled two additional piles, — one of hickory and the other 
of oak. One of these two cords, I sawed twice, into 
three pieces. For this work, I received the sum of one 
dollar and seventy-five cents, making, in all, a total of 
two dollars and fifty cents. With this money, I bought 
my skates, and mingled with the gay crowds on the pond. 
After a while, having neither time nor inclination to use 
them longer, I sold them for one dollar, which I was glad 
to receive for them. 

In the summer of 1859, I was taught the process or 
trade of caning chairs. I was fourteen years of age, and 
anxious to be earning, something. The labor, incidental to 
the repairing of the chairs, was a mere bagatelle, in com- 
parison with that of finding the chairs, returning them, 
and walking to the Chair Factory and return, then lo- 
cated in the town of Newburg, and said to be eight miles 
from Cleveland, where I purchased a bundle of cane, for 
the price of fifty cents. 

The only other means of reaching Newburg, was by 
the rail-road or by stage coach, the starting point of 
which was in the yard of the old wooden "Commercial 
Hotel," located on a lot on the South-west corner of Long 


Avenue and West Third Street, and the fare, one way, 
by this conveyance was twenty cents. 

About a hundred and fifty feet west of this old ho- 
tel, in the location of the present Central Police Station, 
was the dwelling and lot of a colored man named Davis ; 
he was of mixed blood, and so large that, he could neith- 
er mount or dismount from his "buggy," without assist- 
ance. Mr. Davis was, for years, the city sprinkler, and 
moistened our dusty streets, under contract with the 

About the year 1858, through the courtesy of the late 
Miss Mary Alston, (sister of the Reverend William Al- 
ston, of whom I gave an account, in the first chapter) 
and her married sister, Mrs. William Sampson, who were 
departing for Raleign, N. C, on an extended visit. We 
were invited to take charge of their comfortable resi- 
dence in Cedar Avenue, gratis, until their return. This 
residence was cozy and homelike, and we spent a year 
there very pleasantly. 

I am mentioning this Cedar Avenue home especially, 
because it first brought me in touch with one of the lead- 
ing families of the whole world; and because this family 
contained, as a member of it, the richest man in the world 
(not connected with royalty in any respect, and who, in 
his own life time and through the fertility of his own 
brain, has accumulated his fortune), now living, or who 
has ever lived, in so far as history, ancient or modern 
has disclosed to us; and I may add, that, in the size and 
number of his gifts, while living, he has no peer. Of 
course, reference is made to the great and good John D. 
Rockefeller, whom I rejoice tG call not only an acquaint- 
ance of mine, but, also a friend. 

Mr. Rockefeller was then a mere youth (in 1858) and 
I frequently saw him leave his home in Cedar Avenue, 
for his place of employment, in the morning, and also, 
return, in the evening. The residence of the Rockefeller 


family, at that time was on the north side of Cedar Ave- 
nue, and, the last of three similar brick houses, from 
Cleve (now E. 25th) Street, going west. The building is 
still standing, and maintains its appearance, very welL 

Mr. Frank Rockefeller, late deceased, was, at that 
time, a member of old Mayflower School, and generally* 
led the boys in their vigorous sports; but, I have no re- 
membrance of having ever seen his august brother other- 
wise engaged than in going to and returning from his 
daily duties. 

Amongst other boys who were of our party, in ath- 
letic sports, at that time, may be mentioned, the late W. 
H. King, who, at one time, served a term as commissioner 
of this county; also James and Andrew Dall, who subse- 
quently figured, conspicuously, as builders of large struc- 
tures in Cleveland, and Andrew Dall, with Colonel McAl- 
ister, built and owned the Mohawk Building, — now known 
as the American Trust Building, near the "Old Court 
House," and the Public Square. 

Mr. George B. Christian, for a long time secretary 
and treasurer of the Cleveland Provision Company, was 
also a modest, lovable member of our "gang," and the 
late Frank Chandler, for many years, a wholesale dealer 
in provisions in the "down town" section; William Whit- 
worth and Hugh and Henry Lowrie were also very much 
in evidence, as boys. 

About this time, this writer was seized with a desire 
to become a member of the "Shakers," so called, who were 
followers of "Mother Ann Lee," whose headquarters were 
in the state of New York. These religiously, believed in 
celibacy, — they were neither married nor given in mar- 
riage; and, in their communal settlements, occupied sep- 
arate apartments, in the same buildings, and sat, at their 
meals, at separate tables. 

At the time referred to, they owned a large tract 
of land, in the eastern suburbs of Cleveland, and were di- 


vided into three, several communities — the East house 
was in that portion of the tract which contains the pres- 
ent "Shaker Lake," on Shaker Heights ; where their grist 
mill was located, which ground the grain produced by the 
Shakers, the "Center was presided over by Elder James, 
who was the "ranking" elder of the whole sect, in that 
vicinity, and the other group was still further removed, 

The religious exercises consisted in silent prayer and 
meditation, for the most part, and communal dancing. 
The tables and other furniture iDeing drawn back, the 
dance would begin, — the men on one side of the hall and 
the women on the other side, facing each other; and, at 
times, it was quite animated and exhiliarating. There 
was no violin or other musical instrument to furnish mu- 
sic for the participants; singing alone, giving zest to 
their movements, which, at times, rivaled anything in 
that line, that I had ever seen. 

So interested and enthused was the writer that he, 
during his brief sojourn there, became quite expert in 
their terpsichorean movements ; and, to this day, remem- 
bers, two of their refrains, which he will here record, for 
the benefit of such as may be interested. The first was, 
as follows: 

"Dancing is a sweet employ; 
Fills the soul with heavenly joy; 
Makes the love of union flow, 
Round and round and round we go, 
Lolalo! lola, lola, lola lo! 
Lola lo! lola, lola, lola, lola lo." 

The second, as far as I can remember it, after the 
lapse of sixty-two years, was as follows: 

"We have love, we have love, we hav love to give you; 
Heavenly love, heavenly love, 'tis from your blessed Mother, 
And now we wave it unto you, as free as we received it; 
And we are not going to stop, until we make you feel it!" 


At the end of the last line, the words, "feel it," were 
pronounced with much zest, and with an accompanying 
clap of the hands, as if suiting the action to the word. 

While the dancers were whirling and marching 
around, the palms of the hands, extended forward, were 
waved upwards, as if to send greeting — each side to the 
other. Finally, becoming wearied or satisfied, the danc- 
ing would cease, and the participants would retire, each 
sex to its respective quarters. 

Before being received into full fellowship, an oral ex- 
amination of the candidate was made by the presiding 
"elder" and such other of the committee as were ap- 
pointed for that function; during which, the applicant 
was required to make a "full and free" confession of his 
previous sins. This writer having complied with all the 
requirements, along this line, was received in full fellow- 
ship; and, thenceforward, was treated, in all respects, as 
an equal — not even the fact that he was a colored boy, 
causing any differentiation between him and the others. 

After worshiping with them, and working in the big 
garden, — weeding long rows of onions, and riding a plow- 
horse, the time came when his mother discovered his 
whereabouts, and her demand of his person was promptly 
acceded to. A fact which I deeply regretted; for, I was 
being furnished sumptuous repasts, — and I enjoyed the 
dancing very much. 

The Shakers found a ready sale for all the products 
of their farms, and the manufactures of their workshops, 
in our market, for they were strictly honest, in all their 

My next escapade was to start on a tour of the world, 
with only a few dimes in my purse. I had read of Captain 
John Smith, of Pocohontas fame, who, it was said, trav- 
eled afoot over Europe, when a boy of fifteen years of 
age, and I longed to rival his achievement; and, with a 


companion of my own age and size, we started on our 
serious undertaking. 

After walking to Berea, we boarded a freight car, 
crawled into a threshing machine, and went to sleep; 
when we awoke, next morning, we found ourselves in the 
outskirts of Toledo; but, on attempting to penetrate into 
the young city, we were turned back and told to "beat it," 
which, we did without protest or delay, working our 
way homeward, until we finally reached our destination. 

On another occasion, I walked, in ten hours, from 
Cleveland to Painesville; there boarded a freight train, 
and, ere long, found myself in Buffalo. Taking another 
car, I rode to Niagara Falls, and after walking across the 
great Suspension Bridge, I barely placed my feet on Ca- 
nadian soil, when I was turned back. 

Lockport, N. Y., was as far as I reached ; where, half 
famished and foot-sore, I, like another Prodigal (tramp), 
repented, rode on the "bumper" between two cars, back 
to Buffalo, — stowed away between some sacks of coffee, 
on the deck of the great steamer City of Buffalo, and 
next morning, found myself back again in Cleveland. 
This was the last attempt to rival Captain John Smith; 
and thenceforward, I settled down to honest labor. 

Knowing that the tenure of the Alston-Sampson resi- 
dence, by us was limited to the period of their absence, 
and that, it was necessary for her to provide a suitable 
home for herself and family, by the time of their return, 
our mother did not allow the opportunity to slip by unim- 
proved ; and, being a member of the First Baptist Church, 
which contained on the list of its membersship the names 
of persons who were, at once, both wealthy and generous, 
she made known to some of them her straitened condi- 

Amongst those approached, was the late James Madi- 
son Hoyt, Esquire, father of the late Rev. Wayland Hoyt, 
(for many years, pastor of one of the leading Baptist 


churches of the City of New York, whose learning and 
eloquence was noted throughout the United States), Col- 
gate Hoyt, Esquire, well known financier of the same 
place, and former president of the Ohio Society of New 
York; James H. Hoyt, late deceased, who was the head 
of one of the leading law firms of Cleveland, and, one 
time, prominent candidate for Governor of Ohio; Mr. 
Elton Hoyt, successful real estate dealer, and the late 
Mrs. Lydia Holt Farmer, popular and influential society 
leader, long since deceased. 

As to the ancestry of Mr. Ho^t, I have no knowledge ; 
but, judging him by his personal bearing, together with 
the high and gentle port of his family and his unselfish 
generous life, I can truthfully say/4, that, he was one of 
Nature's noblemen, — a typical Christian gentleman. 

Shortly prior to the time when mother interviewed 
him, Mr. Hoyt had opened the street, extending from 
Central Avenue to Woodland Avenue, and named it Laurel 
Street, and when she sought to contract for a lot on that 
street, (the present name of that street is East 29th 
street), he persuaded her to take one on Garden Street 
(now called Central Avenue) , alleging as a reason that, in 
the not distant future, it would be much more valuable 
than the one on Laurel Street. Garden Street, at that 
time was lined, on both sides, with neat, cozy homes, 
shaded by attractive trees. 

Yielding to Mr. Hoyt's good judgment and friendly 
consideration, the contract was signed; and, thereby, the 
outlook for our future home was brightened. The next 
problem, of most difficult solution, was, the placing of 
a residence on the lot; but, having bought an antiquated 
house in the neighborhood, mother had it moved thereon, 
— repaired so as to render it tenantabble, and immediate- 
ly moved into it. So, finally, she was, once more, at 
home, with her orphaned children. 

Two years flew by ; yet, not one cent had been paid on 


principal or interest, and when the agent demanded either 
or both, mother answered, "I can't pay you anything; 
where do you expect me to get money from ?" Thereupon, 
"one fine day," came the mild, genial James M. Hoyt, 
when the following colloquy ensued: Mr. Hoyt: Now, 
Mrs. Green, don't be discouraged; only have faith and in- 
dustriously work, and you can accomplish much!" Mother: 
"But, Mr. Hoyt, the interest accrues faster than I could 
pay it, even if I should try to buy the lot." Mr. Hoyt: 
"Never mind the interest, Mrs. Green; I will cancel all 
the interest due, down to date, if you will only try. Ycu 
have a son (?) who will be able, in a year or two, to earn 
something and assist you. Now do try and see what you 
can accomplish, Mrs. Green." 

Next morning, mother, addressing this writer, said, 
in her earnest tone of voice, substantially, as follows: 
"John, you seem to be tired of going to school; so, you 
must go to work. Now go out and see if you can't find 
something to do." Never did the mother or father eagle 
"stir up the nest," more effectually. The "fiat" had gone 
forth, and I well understood what that meant. 

Day after day, I trod the streets of this city in quest 
of employment; but, in vain. One would say, "I want a 
boy, but he must be a white boy." Another would say, 
"No; I haven't enough work for myself ;" (A far-reaching, 
most disastrous "panic" had seized the vitals of our in- 
dustries and finances, and even a first-class mechanic was 
"in luck" to have a job, at one dollar for a day of twelve 
hours) ; a third said, I need a boy, but you are too small ; 
you would not answer my purpose ; and so, we reached the 
middle of July, without accomplishing anything. 

Then Mother, again, Spartan like, as ever, said: 
"John, go to the postoffice door, every evening, when 
gentlemen call for their mail (we had no carriers in those 
days), and ask everyone when he goes in or comes out, 
for work." I obeyed her, implicitly, and on the second 


day, a gentleman of 'the cloth' looked down upon me be- 
nignantly ; heard my plea for employment, and set me to 
work hoeing rows of vegetables and weeding the grass 
from others. My employer was the Rev. Dr. Bittinger, 
pastor of the "Third Presbyterian Church"— the big 
church, which was located on the southeast corner of 
Euclid Avenue and Brownell Street (now East 14th 
Street) where the great Hanna Building now stands. 
His residence was hard by, east of the Church. 

Dr. Bittinger paid me well for my half day's work, 
and I carried the money to my mother rejoicing. I might 
add, in passing, that, during the previous winter, I had 
sold the Cleveland Leader on the streets, mornings, get- 
ting up before day and walking a mile to the office, to 
get them; also in the afternoons, I sold the Evening 
Herald, through all the lower part of the city, even down 
in Merwin Street, frequently going into the store where 
Mr. Rockefeller, in his youth, was employed. y T 

However, "All things come to him who only stands 
and waits," and, finally, a "job" came to me, or I went to 
it. My employer was Mr. William A. Neff, who resided 
in Doan Street (now East 105th Street), between Euclid 
and Cedar Avenues, on the east side of the street. For 
the consideration of four (4) dollars per month, I sawed 
and split all the firewood, drove the cow up on Cedar 
Heights to pasture and return, cared for one horse, per- 
formed all errands to and from a stone quarry upon the 
Heights, and to the City (Cleveland) and return, kept a 
very large garden free from weeds, hoed an acre of corn 
and potatoes, and gathered up in the streets all the "fei> 
tilizer" I could find to enrich the soil of the garden. Occa^ 
sionally, I stood on the Central Market offering some of 
the products of the garden for sale. Of the forty (40) 
dollars which I received for ten months' labor, here, we 
paid twenty-seven and 50-100th dollars of it to Mr. Hoyt, 
towards the purchase price of that little home, 

When mid-winter came, a brother of my employer 
was given the bed upon which I had been sleeping, and I 
was relegated to the floor of the same room, and given a 
bundle of straw upon which to sleep; the bag containing 
the straw being too short for me, my feet were partly ex- 
posed to the cold, with the result that I was seized with 
a recurrence of the pneumonia, which had afflicted me 
two years before ; and I came within sight of the "Valley 
of the Shadow," at my home. 

However, notwithstanding the foregoing hardships 
and discouragements, "Ike" (as the brother was named) 
and I, being temperamentally much alike, indulged in a 
{few pastimes, which were mutually congenial to us; one 
of which is, to this day, fresh in my memory, and tends 
to disclose the redundancy of spirits which animate the 
average youth, and flow on, with an abandon which not 
even Niagara Falls can surpass. 

It is, "as the crow r flies/' just five miles from Doan 
tE. 105th) Street, where we resided, to the Wilshire 
-Building, where the old Melodeon Hall used to stand. Ike 
and I, both were burning with a desire to attend a per- 
formance of one of the famous minstrel companies, which 
was advertised to appear in that hall, on a cold winter's 
•night. There were no street cars, in those days, nor any 
means of transportation for the average man or boy, ex- 
cept "shanks' mares," as was the slang for walking, then. 

So, having finished our evening meal, we sallied forth, 
and at the expiration of about one hour and a half, we 
' found ourselves eozily seated in the gallery of the hall. 

The programme was long and interesting, — the sing- 
ji fig, dancing and jokes richly repaid us for all our trouble 
and expense; and when, at midnight we reached our 
home, we were thoroughly satisfied. 

One of the jokes caused us to laugh, inordinately; 
■md, although it is, to my knowledge, fifty-nine years old, 
t will venture to record it: 


Mr. Johnson: "Bones, can you tell me what a focus 

Bones : "Ha ! Ha ! Ha ! Can I tell what a focus is ! ! ! 
Why, of course I kin; anybody knows dat!" 

Mr. Johnson : "Well, since you are so sure, what is a 

Bones: "A focus is a place where dey raises pigs!" 

The Whole Troupe: Shaking with laughter and 
scorn, "Where they raise pigs! Ha! Ha! Ha!" 

Bones : "Well den, sense you all know so much about 
it, what is a focus?" 

Mr. Johnson: "Well, sir, a focus is a place where 
the rays meet." 

Bones: "Well, aint pigs meat!!!", with startling ef- 
fect upon all present. 

When the spring flowers began to bloom, in 1861, 
and the call of the birds was enchanting, I sallied forth 
again ; and, in a few days, found myself in the employ of 
the late Robert Hanna, Esq., brother of the late Doctor 
Hanna, who was the father of that noble group of sons, 
of whom the late Marcus A. Hanna, great promoter, mer- 
chant, manufacturer, banker, senator and president- 
maker, and L. C. Hanna, Esq., late deceased, big-hearted 
munificent and successful captain of industry, were the 
most conspicuous. 

I must add here, that, it will, perhaps, never be 
known to what a great extent Senator M. A. Hanna, — and 
through him, our martyred President McKinley and the 
general public, were indebted to the business sagacity, 
energy and strenuous application of the late L. C. Hanna, 
in caring for the growth and success of the great M. A 
Hanna Co., during Senator Hanna' s political activities and 
protracted absence from Ohio; thereby contributing 
towards the grand success of the McKinley administra- 
tion, — which blessed us all. 

I remained with Mr. Robert Hanna until the summer 


of 1862; when, getting "above my business," I left his. 
employ and took service with Mr. A. H. Harvey, the step- 
father of the wife of the late Fayette Brown, Esq., and 
mother of Harvey Brown, Esq., who conducted a large 
saw-mill on a small island in the Allegheny river, between 
Pittsburgh and Allegheny City (now a part of the City of 

Mr. Harvey had a lovely home on the summit of Troy 
Hill, now denominated, Mount Troy, I think. Fruit trees, 
strawberries and beautiful flowers, in abundance, feat- 
ured the place. By working industriously through the 
day, I found some hours for recreation which were turned 
to good use. My pay was five dollars per month, de- 
ducting ten (10) dollars which I paid for a ticket to 
Pittsburgh and return, which left me an average of, 
about, four (4) dollars per month. 

My Christmas present from Mrs. Harvey was a red 
bandanna handkerchief, while Mr. Harvey gave me a 
quarter of a dollar. 

Contiguous to the lot of Mr. Harvey, was that occu- 
pied by the family of Mr. Dewhurst, consisting of several 
members, one of whom, a noble son, was at "the front," 
fighting for the life of this glorious Union and Liberty; 
he gave his life, which proved his love and patriotism, 
and, thereby, immortalized his name. A daughter, fair, 
refined and generous, Miss Anna by name, graced their 
household, and lent warmth and cheer to all the sur- 
roundings. She was ever on the alert to detect and re- 
lieve want and misery; and the sunshine of her smile 
and the music of her cheery voice, lifted up many a 
downcast, unhappy heart. 

Miss Anna's keen eye readily noticed that, this writer 
was (in his "cabin'd and cribbed" condition, in that re- 
mote Troy Hill home, with no companion save the big 
dog), lonely and, somewhat, forlorn. 

Without hesitating, she advised him to occupy his, 


spate moments in reading and studying-, for the improve- 
ment of his mind; and, in order to show her interest in 
that behalf, she furnished him with sundry school books, 
for the purpose. During the remainder of my sojourn 
on Troy Hill, and the ensuing four years, I did not fail 
to devote all my spare time, assiduously, to the study of 
such school books as came within my reach, without the 
assistance of a teacher; a fact which I have never found 
cause to regret. 

There was another source of inspiration which I have 
cause to be grateful for, and can never forget. I refer to 
the late Samuel H. Baird, — a young gentleman and schol- 
ar, whose home, at that time, was Dequesne Borough, 
at the foot of the hill on which we resided, along the shore 
of Allegheny River. Mr. Baird was the nephew of Rev- 
erend Walter Lowry, a faithful missionary to China, who, 
in the middle of the last century, was drowned in the 
Yellow Sea, by Chinese pirates, while, working in the 
course of his duties. He was tall and slender of form, 
with fair hair, blue eyes and finely chiseled features. It 
was easily seen that, he was not framed to combat the 
storms and buffets of this world ; and, even in my inexpe- 
rienced youth, I feared the worst for him. He was so 
gentle, sympathetic and kindly in his dealings with me, 
that, for once, and only once, I felt that, in him, I had a 
brother. It was he who first opened my eyes to the rich 
mine and beauties of the ancient classics ; and, in showing 
me a copy of Xenophons Anabasis, in the original Greek, 
he lighted a flame in my brain and heart never to be ex- 
tinguished. He and Miss Dewhurst (the latter now, and 
for many years, Mrs. Jehu Haworth, of Edgworth, Pa., a 
suburb of Pittsburgh) were both devoted teachers in the 
Mission Sunday-school, on The Hill, where they could be 
found engaged in their work of love, every Sunday. One 
of the most helpful little books which could be placed in 
the hands of an ambitious youth, was given me, as a 


Christmas present, on Christmas Day, 1862, by Miss 
Anna ; the book is entitled, The Improvement of the Mind, 
by Isaac Watts, D. D. I have it now, before me, Christ- 
mas, 1919, — fifty-seven years, subsequent to the day on 
which it was given to me, and still the truths and val- 
uable precepts contained in it are as fresh and vital as 
on the day when I received it. 

My friend, Mr. Baird, went to his reward a genera- 
tion ago; but, the good lady, a vigorous octogenarian, 
surrounded by her children and grandchildren, bides her 
time, in the full assurance of a rich reward when the 
Master gathers in his ripened sheaves. 

"He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious 
seed, shall doubtless come again, with rejoicing, bringing 
his sheaves with him."— PSALM CXXVI:6. 

Upon mature consideration, I have concluded, that 
my employment on Troy Hill was the most fortunate 
event for me, during my boyhood days; and coming, as" it 
did, when I was just in the dawn of youth, — a pernd 
when the mind and character are in the formative pro- 
cess, and when I needed the warm sympathy and cordial 
advice which was lavished upon me, by Miss Dewhurst 
and Mr. Baird, without any hope of reward, but solely, 
"In His Name," it was a veritable God-send to me; and, 
probabbly, "saved my soul alive." 




Returning to Cleveland, from Troy Hill, in the sum- 
mer of 1862, 1 found employment with the East Cleveland 
Street Railway Company, in its barn, located at Euclid 
and Wilson avenues, now East 55th street; my spe- 
cific duties were to wash, comb, rub-down and harness 
nine street-car horses; but, for the reason that, I feared 
the effect of the constant dust on my lungs, I did not re- 
main there longer than a week or two. 

To please my mother, who desired that I should fol- 
low in the footsteps of my father, and learn the tailor's 
trade, I went into the employ of Mr. Henry Cardozo, a 
merchant tailor, in Prospect Avenue, near its junction 
with Bolivar Road. Mr. Cardozo was affable and kind, 
and used his best endeavors to induct me into the mys- 
teries of his useful trade; but alas! I soon discovered 
that his efforts, in that behalf, were all to no purpose; 
for, although I proved an apt pupil, during the three 
months which I spent in his employ, — learned to make 
ordinary "pants and vests," yet, so stiffened had my 
joints become, by reason of the protracted labor which 
I had performed, that, I could not "bend the suple hinges 
of my knees," and squat on the work-board, when I was 
sewing ; and in my efforts to do so, the strain was so se- 
vere, on both knees and back, that, I sewed in continual 


The result is easily seen. I quit the services of Mr. 
Cardozo, and, quite easily, betook myself to the calling 
of a hotel waiter. My dear mother protested against this 
action on my part; but, as we both well knew that the 
payments must be kept up on the little home, it was no 
time for the drawing of nice distinctions; and so, I en- 
tered, the old "Angier House," now, the Kennard House, 
and donned my white jacket and apron, the pure symbols 
of my occupation. 

I was a novice at the work; and since, in those days, 
that hotel took first rank amongst the other hostelries of 
the growing city, the menus were in French, — a language 
with which I was not, in the least, familiar. The head- 
waiter, at that time, was, Mr. Enoch Gray, who resembled 
a white man; he understood all the duties pertaining to 
his responsible position, and was a veritable Martinet, in 
enforcing the execution of all his rules. 

I suspect, it was my scrutinizing of Mr. Gray which 
caused me to slip and spill the consomme, which I was 
serving guests, on the floor of the richly frescoed din- 
ing-room, to say nothing of my extreme chagrin at being 
sprawled on the same. 

It was frequently necessary for a waiter, during the 
rush hour, to memorize the French orders of six and sev- 
en guests, at one time. I did it; but, how in the world I 
ever accomplished it, is beyond my ken, at this late day. 
The other boys did it, and I had to follow their example 
or — quit; — which was not to be considered, for a mo- 

In due course of time, I found myself, performing the 
same functions, at the Weddell house; — but, for in- 
creased pay; and later on, during the troubulous days of 
the Civil War, I strove, right manfully, in the labors of 
feeding the "boys in blue", on the way to the front, 
at the call of "Father Abraham," (whom God had raised 
up for this work), in the dining room of the first Union 


Depot, which gave way to the remnant of the present 
"Union Depot," about the year 1865. 

There were stirring scenes witnessed in that old 
depot, in those trying times. During all hours of the 
day, and frequently at night, long serpentine trains would 
find their way into that shelter house, with their thou- 
sands of hungry and thirsty "boys in blue," who had left 
all that the word "home" means to us, in order to help to 
save our glorious Union. 

"Theirs not to reason why, 
Theirs but to do and die," 

and, like brave men, they did it. It was one of my duties 
to sound the big Chinese gong, upon the arrival of trains ; 
which I did with a will. Sometimes the "racket" was so 
great that a soldier would order me to cease it; some- 
times, I must say, while being held up, by the nape of my 
neck, by a stalwart soldier. 

At other times, there would be taken from an in- 
coming train over the "Cleveland, Columbus and Cincin- 
nati Railroad," boxes, containing the remains of brave 
boys who had given their all, for the dear old flag. 
Such was the case when the remains of Colonels Creigh- 
ton and Crane were brought back, to lie in state, in the 
council chamber of the old City Hall, when it was located 
in a building, still standing, in the southwestern corner 
of the Public Square. Afterwards, they were laid to rest, 
with full military honors. 

At other times, there would alight, from these trains 
the "halt, the lame and the blind," victims of what Gen- 
eral Sherman not improperly denominated "hell." Anoth- 
er class were the almost skeletons of Union prisoners, 
released from horrid prison pens of the "Southern Con- 
federacy." Some of these victims were so nearly starved 
to death and emaciated, that, they could not walk alone. 


In later years, while visiting North Baltimore, Ohio, for 
the purpose of making a "Decoration Day" speech, I 
conversed with one of these victims, who survived; and 
he told me, that, before being confined in the Ander- 
sonville Prison-pen, he weighed one hundred and eighty- 
five pounds; but, that, when he was released therefrom, 
a ladies bracelet could have been passed over his right 
arm, from his wrist to his shoulder, with the elbow joint 
left out. 

The dining-room was owned by Messrs. Wheeler and 
Russell. Mr. Wheeler was in immediate charge of it, 
while Mr. Russell presided over the one owned by them in 
Crestline, Ohio. There were, at that time, also, two 
"coffee houses," in one of which the late W. J. Akers, 
then a boy, was employed. 

Among the colored men, generally known in Cleve- 
land, for many years, and employed in and about the de- 
pot and dining room, may be mentioned the late George 
Vosburgh. Mr. Vosbburgh, tho, a colored man, was, for 
many years one of the most respected men in the city. 
He owned valuable property in Chestnut and Oregon 
Streets, and was a leading member of the Wesleyan Con- 
gregation, which, in those days, worshipped in a church 
located in Euclid Avenue, near Sheriff (E 4th) Street. 

The late Thorp Holmes, colored, was head waiter in 
the dining room. He had under him a force of about 
twenty men, all of whom admired and respected him. This 
writer will always honor and revere his memory, on ac- 
count of kindnesses extended to him, by Mr. Holmes, 
which enabled him to prosecute his studies, during the 
intervals between the trains, without interruption. On 
many occasions, he would call a man who was "killing 
time," by playing "seven up," picking on a banjo, or 
"cutting the pigeon wing," (as the dance was called), 
and send him on an errand, rather than interrupt the 
writer in the pursuit of his studies. 


In casting a retrospective glance over those by-gone 
days, it is a sad commentary on the course pursued by 
that large group of colored men, that, this writer was the 
only one of them who systematically studied text-books 
or even read history; and, sad to relate — the only one 
of them all who changed his career. 

Stimulated, as I have stated in the last chapter, by 
kind friends to study for the improvement of my mind, 
I constantly perused the "three R's," — studied English, 
Latin annd French grammars, as best I could, without a 
teacher, and, thereby rapidly gained the good will of all 
who knew me. My slight knowledge of the Latin language 
was, on a very important occasion, a source of much 
pleasure to me, and information to a numerous group of 
persons who surrounded me. 

It was in this way: The remains of the late Abraham 
Lincoln, were lying in state, upon a catafalque, near the 
center of our Public Square ; and over the top of the cata- 
falque was stretched a banner bearing the following in- 
scription, in Latin: "Extinctus amabitur idem." All 
were anxious to know the meaning of those words; and. 
ever and anon, they would stop some important appear* 
ing man, passing by, and exclaim: "Say, Mister! tell us 
what that means, will you!" Thereupon the gentleman 
would stop, read the words and acknowledge his inability 
to translate the sentence. This was repeated several 
times; until, finally, I looked up from the grass, upon 
which I was reclining, and said: "That's Latin, I can tell 
you what it means!" 

"Who, you?" some one sarcastically growled: "Yes:" 
I answered: 

"Well, what does it mean?" was the reply. 

"It means," I said, "Tho, dead, he will be loved the 
same!' " 

Then, for a moment, I was the object of all eyes, and 
I felt that, in the single act of translating that sentiment 


for the group, I had been richly repaid for all the study 
and self-denial I had endured in order to be able to do it. 

It was customary with me, during this period of my 
life, to write an occasional essay, on some subject, — ab- 
stract, concrete, moral, religious or what not; any 
subject that came within the scope of my young, un- 
tutored mind claimed my attention and occupied my 
time. One of the contributing reasons for this was the 
fact that, in those days, large and attentive audiences 
of my own people, were ready and willing to listen to the 
reading of them, and manifested an enthusiasm which 
both astonished and inspired me. 

My revered and kind friend the Reverend John R. 
Warren, stood "in loco parentis," to me; and his was the 
only fatherly voice that counseled me, and hand that led 
me through those days of mingled labors, conflicts, hopes 
deferred and, at times, well nigh despair. My tempera- 
ment was then, as now, too nervous. I was willing to 
work, incessantly, to "bum the midnight oil," aye, to 
burn the candle at both ends,'' if need be, in my feverish 
quest after knowledge. But, I can see plainly, now, that 
I lacked a preceptor, some one who would, like Philip 
of old, expound to me the meaning of many things which 
I blindly followed, but did not understand. 

I did not know, really, what books to select to read. 
And for the lack of a well-informed, educated mentor, 
I wasted much time in "poring over" "books and lan- 
guages" which I was not then qualified to properly read 
and mentally digest. However, my dear friend, Elder 
Warren, who was then, the elder in charge of this 
district and of Saint John's African Methodist Church, 
but, who, like me, had enjoyed only limited opportunities 
of gaining an education, by his high regard for me and 
admiration for my efforts along that line, greatly en- 
couraged and aided me. 

It was he, who advised me to read Rollins Ancient 


History, which I had not previously heard of, and which 
opened to my eyes so many of the mysteries of the past ; 
and the same fatherly regard for me, induced him to open 
wide for me the doors of his church, where I read my 
labored essays, on occasions when there were gatherings 
of the young therein. Had my father lived to rear me 
and advise me in respect of these matters, I would not, 
to-day be limping along the highway to knowledge, when 
I should be running and leaping. 

As an illustration of the interest taken in me by one 
of the boys who waited by my side in the old dining-room, 
I will here relate an incident which I shall ever hold in 
grateful remembrance; since it was the outflowing of a 
heart full of fraternal love and sympathy. 

Mr. Joseph H. Ricks, the youthful heir of a recently 
deceased father, had in possession the sum of one thou- 
sand dollars, which he had received as his portion of his 
father's estate; and, feeling that he had no present use 
for the money, he generously and unselfishly came to me, 
and tried to persuade me to accept the same, as a loan 
and without any security, or interest, whatever, to be 
used by me in forwarding my neglected education. To 
say that I was greatly surprised at this manifestation of 
unadulterated friendship, only partly expresses my feel- 
ing, at that time; and I have never ceased to wonder at 
the whole-souled magnamimity of this big-hearted coun- 
try boy. Would that there were more of his kind, to make 
the "whole world kin," and add to our mutual helpfulness 
and happiness! 

At length, after nearly seven years of yearning and 
toil, we saw the last payment made on our humble home, 
the deed executed and delivered, and the mortgage 
burned. Now, dear mother was assured of a comfortable 
home, during the remainder of her life; and I was left 
free to "shift for myself." 

During all the years, while I had been working for 


the purchase of this property, my energetic, honorable 
sisters, Miss Sarah Rice Green (now Skeene) and Miss 
Kittie Stanley Green, were industriously engaged in 
supporting my mother and keeping up the home ; the one 
working at her trade of a dress-maker, both at home and 
in the families of the "well to do," and the other diligent- 
ly occupying her time at home, in whatever her hands 
could find to do. 

Mother, too, "ate no idle bread;" for, what with the 
transacting of her domestic affairs and sewing on chil- 
dren's clothes, for some of her patrons, satan could find no 
mischief for her hands to do ; and so, she lived cozily and, 
for the most part, happily, in that unpretentious home, 
for twenty-seven more years, until she was in her eighty- 
first year of age, when she went to rest in the blessed 
hope of an immortal life. 

"Blessed are the dead, who die in the Lord!" 

It is but fair that I should record it here, that, my 
dear sister, Mrs. Sarah Rice Green (Skeene), after the 
home was fully paid for, added five or six hundred dollars 
of her individual earnings to a hundred and thirty-five 
dollars which I contributed, and enhanced the conve- 
nience, space and comfort of the old house, where they all 
Jived in love and harmony, for many years. 

One of my employers, while I was working for the 
house, was the late Captain J. M. Richards, who, with a 
gentleman, long since deceased, by the name of Coleman, 
owned and conducted a combined restaurant, saloon, bil- 
liiard-room and cigar and confectionery stand, located on 
the corner where now stands the American Trust Build- 

This place was a resort for the best class of men in 
the city, and did a flourishing business. During the year 
1864, I worked in the dining room and "stalls," for a 
while, quite to my advantage, and, on one occasion, a 


humorous incident occurred in which I figured, which was 
not entirely to my credit, — as I now view it. 

One of the guests of the restaurant section of the 
place, ordered a cocktail. I went into the bar-room (Cap- 
tain Richards presiding behind the bar) and ordered two 
cocktails. The captain made them (as only he could make 
them), and gave them to me, and, going into the restau- 
rant, I gave the guest one and I drank the other. When 
the captain scrutinized the checks, he noticed that I had 
turned in a check for one cocktail, only. Coming into the 
room, he said to me, "John! what did you do with that 
other cocktail?" I frankly, answered him, "I drank it!" 
Raising his hands in astonishment, he exclaimed, — "Well 
by G-d!! and walked away. 

From Captain Richards' place I took employment 
with J. H. DeWitt & Co., who carried a dual stock of dry 
goods and ready-made clothing, etc., etc. My business was 
that of janitor; and, in that capacity, it was not only my 
duty to look after the heating of the store. b" f also to 
keep it clean, including several hundred square feet of 
window glass. 

My desire, even here, to study was so great that I 
was accustomed to arise at three-thirty and four o'clock 
a. m. in order to "make time" for my books. I had added 
to my studies, now, osteology, hoping and expecting, 
some day, to be a physician. A friendly doctor had given 
me the skull of a little child, another had contributed the 
"transverse" section of an adult skull; and in addition to 
these trophies, I had obtained, by various means, almost 
an entire human skeleton. 

On one occasion, when I was deeply absorbed in my 
studies, during the hour which I had made, by sacrificing 
my sleep, a message was delivered to me to the effect 
that, I must deliver a bundle somewhere in Prospect 
street. I replied that it was not in the line of my employ- 
ment, and that I would not deliver it. Thereupon, I was 


summoned to the office of Mr. DeWitt, the senior member 
of the company. "John," he said, "you will deliver that 
bundle, or else, go to the cashier and get what is due 
you !" I said, "All right, Mr. DeWitt, I will take my money 
and quit, then!" 

As I left the store, Mr. DeWitt raised his voice and 
said to me, "Well ! I suppose, after a while, you will want 
to have an office, and sit in it and read!" This was a cor- 
rect prophecy ; for, it was uttered in the summer of 1865 
and in the fall of 1870 (September) I sat in my own office 
in Marlboro County, South Carolina, recognized as a 
member of the Bar of that State. 

Following my discharge from the employment of The 
J. H. DeWitt Co., I entered the office of Dr. J. W. Sykes, 
of Pittsburgh, Pa., as a compounder of his medicines, for 
chronic diseases, with the privilege of studying, between 
the period of my employment, with the occasional assist- 
ance of the good doctor, in my Latin studies. 

Dr. Sykes, too, was a "self-made" man, with a heart 
over-flowing with sympathy for every struggling Child 
of God. I say, "Child of God ;" yes, for Doctor Sykes was 
a member of the Presbyterian Church, in good standing; 
and judging him by what I saw of his daily conduct, dur- 
ing the six months I was in his employ, he was striving 
to "glorify God, and enjoy him forever," which is one of 
the teachings of the Westminister Catechism. 

Dr. Sykes, when a student at Hamilton College, 
Rochester, N. Y., "worked his way through; and, para- 
doxical as it may seem, the lower he stooped, in sawing 
wood, making fires, polishing shoes and performing any 
and all menial labor which his hands found to do, the more 
honored and admired he was; until, attaining his cher- 
ished goal, he was crowned "victor," by his fellow-stu- 
dents and all who had watched his efforts. 

I soon found, in the employ of Dr. Sykes, that, my edu- 
cation was not such as the studying of medicine required ; 


and this was especially true as regarded my knowledge 
of Latin; and the doctor, having been many years out of 
college, was not, then qualified to instruct me therein; 
so, we shook hands, expressed for each other gratitude 
and mutual respect, and separated. 

Returning to Cleveland, I entered, for a brief space, 
the employ of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati 
Railroad Company, as a keeper of the castings and other 
materials used in the manufacture and repair of its lo- 
comotives and cars. Taking occasion, once in a while, to 
make trips between Cleveland and Cincinnati, on a Doub- 
leday sleeping car (this was before the advent of the Pull- 
man car) in 1865. The distance from Cleveland and Cin- 
cinnati, in those days, was given as two hundred and 
fifty miles, and it required twelve hours to make the trip, 
one way. But, still, dissatisfied with my lot, I left this em- 
ployment, in search of a better one. I turned my job over 
to the late L. A. Wilson, Esq., afteryards a distinguished 
member of the Ohio Bar, in Cleveland. *\ 

I now began to cast about for the means of prosecu- 
ting a course of studies, under competent teachers ; fully 
determined to persevere, until I had secured a thorough 
education, for I had no trade or other definite means of 
living, although I had reached the twenty-second year of 
my age. 

I conceived the idea of having printed, in pamphlet 
form, some of the essays of which I have spoken; but, 
as I was entirely without financial means, it was neces- 
sary to find a "friend in need," or else spend more precious 
time in, laboriously, earning some. 

I was well acquainted with one man, who was both 
wealthy and benevolent, a true and tried friend of the 
youthful ; and I decided that to him I would go, and make 
known my dilemma, fully persuaded that, my appeal 
would not be in vain. 

To have lived in Cleveland, during the second half of 


the last century, and not to have been personally ac- 
quainted with the late Truman P. Handy, would have 
been a distinctive loss to anyone, especially to a youth in 
search of a stimulous along moral, esthetic or even finan- 
cial lines ; for, Mr. Handy was, above all things, the friend 
and promoter of "boys" and young men. 

I first met Mr. Handy in the Mayflower Sunday school 
located in Orange Street, in the City of Cleveland, al- 
most contiguous to the "day school" of the same name, 
in the fall of 1857, when he was in the fifty-first year of 
his age; and from that time until his death, in the win- 
ter of 1898, I knew him to love and respect him. I can 
see him, to this day, and hear his cheery voice when, as 
superintendent of that Sunday School, he would mount 
the platform and exclaim, "Boys! what is heaven's first 
law?" "Order!" was the unanimous response, from th« 
mouths of about two hundred and fifty boys, who were 
about as disorderly as they could be. The girls, of 
course, were always orderly. "Well then," retorted Mr. 
Handy, "let us have order," and, immediately thereafter, 
there was a delightful calm, — order, if you please. 

One glance at Mr. Handy gave assurance that he was 
a Christian gentleman, after the "old school." That is to 
say, his toilet left nothing to be added to it; his dress 
was made to fit, and of the most approved style; his de- 
meanor and general bearing was that of a man unsel- 
fish, altruistic. He was easily approachable by the hum- 
blest boy or girl; he wasted no words, but gave a full 
hearing and thorough consideration to the one addressing 
'trim ; and, in proper pases, afforded ready assistance. 

He was a deacon in the Second Presbyterian Church, 
of which the Rev. James Eells was the pastor ; loved God, 
and always walked uprightly. He was born in Paris, 
Oneida County, New York in March, 1807; and, during 
almost the whole of his life time, was a banker, acting in 
some important capacity; and he owned large interests 
in other enterprises. 


At the time of Mr. Handy' s death, in January, 1898, 
he was ninety-one years of age, and was a director of the 
Merchants' National Bank, which was located on the 
northeast corner of Superior and West 6th Streets, 
Cleveland, he having resigned the presidency of that 
bank, because of increasing age and failing health. He 
resided and transacted business in Cleveland from 1832 
until 1898 — sixty-six years. I may state, in passing, 
that, for ten years, Mr. Handy was a member of the 
Cleveland Board of Education and did much towards es- 
tablishing a High School for the city; and that, along 
all educational lines, from Western Reserve University 
down to the humblest common school he was a constant, 
earnest supporter, financially and otherwise. 

A few years before the death of Mr. Handy, Mr. 
John D. Rockefeller was visited at his home, Forest Hill, 
in East Cleveland, by a number of the foremost capital- 
ists and men of business of Cleveland, who sought that 
method of manifesting to him their unbounded admira- 
tion and respect for him, as a man and promoter of great 
financial affairs. Mr. Rockefeller, in replying to the ad- 
dress tendered to him, took occasion, in his reminis- 
cences, to mention the name and laudable-generous char- 
actersitics of Mr. Handy, saying, amongst other things, 
that, at a time, in his early career as an oil dealer, he 
found himself sorely in need of the sum of two thousand 
dollars; and, after seeking, in vain, to secure the loan of 
that amount, he finally, approached Mr. Handy, who 
loaned it to him. This action on the part of the aged 
banker was entirely characteristic of him, and was read- 
ily understood by all present 

Quite naturally, my mind turned to Mr. Handy, in my 
quest of a person at once willing and able to assist me in 
my attempt to have my essays published. 

Gaining access to him, in his private office, in the 
rear of the Bank, he recognized me at once, as "one of 


his boys;" although, he had not seen me for several 
years. I related to him briefly, what I had been doing 
during the seven years previous, and received his com- 
mendation; then, I unfolded to him my scheme for rais- 
ing money to "systematize," what education I had se- 
cured, — inasmuch as, I had no trade or other definite 
means of making a living. 

He gave my plan his hearty approval, provided, the 
essays were worthy of publication; and advised me to 
carry them to the late Professor J. H. Thome, at that 
time, acting in the dual capacity of Professor in Oberlin 
College, and pastor of Pilgrim Congregational Church, in 
this city. Paradoxical as it may seem, Professor Thome, 
while, in stature, he was a small man, was, yet, a very 
large man; it is difficult to express an opinion as to, 
whether his brain or his heart were the larger; of one 
fact I am certain, however — he was the friend of the 
poor and needy of every race, for, he was truly cosmopoli- 
tan in his thought and action. 

"Read one of your essays!" exclaimed the professor; 
then, bracing himself in his easy chair, he listened atten- 
tively, while I read, with all the elocutionary ability at 
my command, an essay entitled, "We Are Never Alone." 
"Bravo! Bravo!" he almost shouted, when I had con- 
cluded the reading. "That will do." Then he wrote and 
handed to me a note addressed to Mr. Handy, in which 
he said, amongst other things, "They are well worthy of 
publication." ( I immediately delivered the note to Mr. 
Handy, and he, in turn, wrote and handed me a statement, 
on a paper containing the letterhead of his bank, which 
ran, somewhat, as follows: 

"The bearer of this, is an ex-member of the Mayflow- 
er Sunday School ; I have known him from boyhood, and, 
have full confidence in him; he is trying to collect the 
means of publishing some essays which he has written, 


in order that, by the sale of them, he may secure money 
to assist him towards obtaining an education. 

T. P. Handv $10 

"Now," he said, "go to Mr. Dan P. Ells, and others of 
the Sunday School, and, perhaps, they will also sub- 
scribe;" and, turning to his desk, he gave his attention 
to his business ; while I, filled with delight, went out into 
the world to see how many others would do likewise. 

I would that I could recall the names of all the kind- 
hearted men who signed that paper and subscribed sums, 
varying from five to ten dollars. I can recall that, a very 
elderly banker, whose hand shook like "an aspen," and 
last name was Otis, (I think the full name was — W. A. 
Otis) subscribed ten dollars; A. S. Gardner, a crockery 
merchant, and E. I. Baldwin, large dry goods merchant, 
each subscribed ten dollars; the others, I cannot now re- 
call. A total of some sixty or seventy dollars was, in this 
way raised by me; then, I went to Nevin, a "job printer," 
of standing, at that time, and had the pamphlets printed. 
They were of thirty-eight pages, fine print, on cheap pa- 
per, with red, and yellow covers; and had the title of 
them printed on one side — "Essays on Miscellaneous 
Subjects," By a Self-Educated Colored Youth. These 
essays, I offered for sale in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, New York, New Jersey and the District of Co- 
lumbia, — with varysuccess; receiving for single copies 
of them, from five cents to five dollars. 

I had two experiences in the City of Philadelphia, 
during my tour, in selling my pamphlet, which were of 
more than ordinary interest and a lasting benefit to me. 

The first was that of meeting the Reverend Benja- 
min *F. Tanner, a minister of the A. M. E. Church, who, 
at that time, was editor of the Christian Recorder, and 
had his residence over the A. M. E. Book-store, at 631 


Pine Street. This was in the summer of 1866, when that 
reverend gentleman was in "the flower of his youth," 
and was winning golden laurels by his oratory, in the pul- 
pit, and his facile, trenchant pen, in his "sanctum." Since 
then, he has reared and educated his brood of children, 
and grown to a ripe age, as a bishop, in that church. 

Rev. Tanner was greatly interested in me and my 
mission; he spoke encouraging words to me, and treated 
me, in all respects, as a brother. One mutual bond which 
held us together was, that he was very much interested 
in the Vulgate edition of the Scriptures ; while I, too, was 
a student of Latin, in a humble way. Rev. Tanner opened 
the doors of Old Allen Temple, which stood on the site of 
the Blacksmith Shop, in which the revered Richard Al- 
len organized the first A. M. E. Church, and scheduled a 
lecture for me, on the subject, "There's Always Room 
Enough Upstairs." 

The lecture room, which was large, overflowed; and 
many could not gain entrance to hear my lecture; which 
enabled me, at its conclusion, to sell a large number of 

The reverend gentleman also, gave me a letter of in- 
troduction to whom it concerned, amongst the A. M. E. 
clergy, requesting them to aid and encourage me, in my 
efforts to sell my pamphlet, and to lecture; this was the 
"open sesame" to numerous churches, and aided me very 
much. Tanner, the great artist, whose canvases hang in 
art galleries in Europe and America, is a son of Bishop 
Tanner; and, I doubt not, he derived his afflatus, his 
genius, largely from his revered and honored father. 

The other incident was meeting, for the first time, 
Reverend Doctor Hawes, of the First Congregational 
Church of Philadelphia, and Mr. Theodore Bliss, brother 
of the late George Bliss of New York City, merchant, 
philanthropist and one time partner of the Governor Levi 
P. Morton, of New York. 


I called on the reverend gentleman at his home, and 
he granted me an interview, in which I disclosed to him 
my plans for the future, and the relation of my mission 
to them. He did what every true child of God does, — 
every "great big man," — he took my hand, — gave expres- 
sion to words of encouragement and bade me God speed; 
he did more ; he mentioned me and my mission, in his ser- 
mon, on the following day, and invited me to meet him in 
his Sunday School, in the afternoon. 

The boys and girls accepted the invitation, and near- 
ly filled the Sunday School room, listening to my plea for 
assistance, in my chosen way, for the future; and I had 
the pleasure of selling a large number of my little books, 
at the conclusion of the address, — some thirty-five dol- 
lars, if I mistake not, was the aggregate amount received. 
At the conclusion of my address, which ended with a 
thrilling pe^ration (at least, that was the effect in- 
tended), a large gentleman, of noble mein, arose and, in 
clear tones, said: 

"Mr. Superintendent, will you ask that young gentle- 
man to tell us, what he thinks of Jesus!" This came with 
great surprise; for I had not intended to "preach," but, 
simply to make an "unvarnished" statement of my plans 
and hope and — expectations ; nevertheless, I was equal to 
the emergency. I arose again, and answered, briefly but 
forcibly, that, neither education, money nor social place 
could avail a person, if he were not imbued with the spirit 
of Jesus Christ, as manifested in his daily life. This 
seemed to satisfy every one, and I left the Church highly 

The most important result, for me, growing out of 
this meeting, however, was my introduction to Mr. Theo- 
dore Bliss, as I have stated above. I was invited to meet 
him at his office, then in a building in Fourth Street, 
where he carried on the business of a publisher; indeed, 
I hold in my hand now a little Greek Testament from the 


press of Theodore Bliss & Co., which I have owned ever 
since 1865. 

Mr. Theodore Bliss was what we commonly call a 
self-made man. He was sent out into the world at an early 
age, to shift for himself, and that rich, puritan blood 
which coursed in his arteries carried him through, to the 
end. He was large of stature, with a high, broad forehead 
and firmly set jaws; which proved him to be a man of 
high purpose, fixed resolution and great good judgment 
and energy. His eyes looking out from under heavy 
brows, were clear and penetrating; marking him as a 
man, at once, judicious and practical. 

Mr. Bliss said to me, in substance: "Go home, settle 
down; find some useful, remunerative employment, to 
engage your intervals between the terms ; and, if, by fol- 
lowing my advice, you find yourself in need of the necessi- 
ties of life, write to me and I will help you." I thanked 
him and took my departure. 

Later on in life, while attending school, I once in a 
while, found my toes peeping out from my "boots," and 
Jack Frost, "Through each crack and crevice creeping;" 
upon two or three occasions like this, I notified my friend, 
and the returning mail invariably brought me a ten-dollar 
bill, the exact cost price of a pair of new boots. 

- There was another good friend in Philadelphia, whose 
acquaintance I made, through the courtesy and kindness 
of the Rev. William Alston, Episcopal priest, of whom I 
have spoken at length, in the first chapter. I refer to a 
large dealer in wooden and willow ware, whose warehouse 
was located down-town, in Market Street, by the name of 
Jacobus, if, I mistake not. This gentleman, who was 
largely interested in the Pennsylvania Railroad, at that 
time, extended to me an invitation to take a theological 
course, for the Episcopal ministry, but I declined, with 
thanks. I have suspected, since then, that I made a mis- 
take, for, I fear, I spoilt a good preacher (as well as a 


good doctor) in making a poor lawyer ; subsequently, this 
same gentleman procured for me a "clergyman's" rail- 
road ticket, from Philadelphia to my Cleveland home. 

Arriving home, I gave my dear mother one hundred 
and thirty-five ($135.00) dollars, of the money received 
in my wanderings; and then began to scan the field to 
discover a school into which I could matriculate, in order 
to do the "systematizing," of which I spoke to Mr. Handy. 
I had a consuming desire to enter a class in the Central 
High School ; but, how could a waiter-boy coming directly 
from the dining room, where he had been for six or seven 
years, expect to pass examination and enter that famous 
school? I say "famous," yes, and advisedly, for then, the 
chairs were occupied by such ripe scholars as the follow- 
ing: Dr. Theodore Sterling, principal; Professor Sidney 
A. Norton; Miss Maiy E. Ingersall; Miss Emma G. 
Barriss, subsequently, Mrs. Colonel McAlister, Miss 
White, Professor Carl Kruger, Professor Theodore Hop- 
kins, and others. And amongst the students were such as 
Chas. F. Brush, Horace Andrews, Samuel Mather, Dr. 
John Lowman, W. E. Cushing, Harvey D. Goulder, Joseph 
Outhwaite, Clarence Stilson, Solomon Schwab, the late 
Mr. C. 0. Bassett, afterwards, well known and appreciated 
by me, as the president of the great Forman Bassett Co. ; 
of Cleveland, Ohio, who by his great business ability, 
sterling integrity and great good humor, put his house at 
the head of all similar organizations in Ohio ; and a num- 
ber of ambitious, successful young ladies. In those days, 
Mr. Mather's sterling qualities as a student were already 
quite noticeable; and, even then, his generous impulses, 
as manifested during his intercourse amongst his fellow- 
students, forecasted his future life of usefulness and 
broad humanitarianism. 

I saw more of Mr. Mather in the Virgil Class than 
elsewhere; and it was then, easily evident to my mind, 
that, his superior quality of intellect and his deep touch 


of nature were destined to stamp him as one of our na- 
tion's greatest and most useful men. I never see Mr. 
Mather, even at this late day, without recalling the manly 
port and dignified bearing of his distinguished father. 

The late deceased William E. Cushing, was also, one 
of the Class of 1869, who, in after years, became con- 
spicuous, because of his sterling manhood and profession- 
al ability. "Will" Cushing, frequently invited me to visit 
him at the home of his late father, Dr. H. K. Cushing, 
in Euclid Avenue, near the Public Square, where we 
strove with varying success, to unravel the mysteries 
of Virgil, together. I mourn his loss. 

My old maxim was, "Naught venture, naught have." 
or, as we sometimes say, "Nothing venture, nothing win." 
So, straight to the school I went, and, at a convenient 
time, I stood in the august presence of Doctor Sterling, 
who questioned me, as to the nature and extent of the 
studies which I had prosecuted, and accepted one of my 
pamphlets, which I offered him; and closed the confer- 
ence between us, by inviting me to visit him at his home, 
the evening of that day, for a further interview. 

At his home, in the evening, Dr. Sterling said to me, 
in substance; "Green, you have done well in your studies 
without an instructor, as I have gleaned from a hurried 
perusal of your little book; but, your studies have not 
been systematically persued, and I am certain you could 
not pass an examination to enter the high-school ; but, I 
will give you a list of books which you will need, and you 
may obtain them and come to the school, tomorrow fore- 
noon and I will see where I can place you." 

I did a>s directed, and on the following day, in the 
month of October, I think, I found myself duly installed, 
in the sophomore class of the Cleveland Central High 
School, which was still located in Euclid Avenue, near 
East 9th Street, where the great Citizen's Savings and 
Trust Company is now located. 


In this class, which was composed of the sons and 
daughters of some of the foremost citizens of Cleveland, 
I was the only colored pupil ; but my color, evidently, was 
not considered, in any way. Dr. Sterling and every mem- 
ber of his learned corp3 of instructors, were "color blind" 
and the only watchword recognized by them was merit. 

The studies which the class was engaged in, as near- 
ly as I can recall, were Cornelius Nepos, in Latin, Algebra, 
Geometry, English History, English Composition, Physi- 
cal Geography, Calesthenics and Rhetoricals. Later on in 
the course we had (I had) Chemestry, Physics and Greek, 
— Xenophon's Anabysis, and one thousand line3 of Hom- 
er's Iliad. 

It took me from October 1866 to July 1869, to devour 
the four year's course; and, it was said, I stood at the 
"finish", well near the head of the class, which contained 
some names which have, since become famous, but, I have 
never felt that I was as thoroughly grounded in my 
studies as the other members of the class were; for, I 
entered the class late ; I was not properly prepared for the 
courses which I studied; I did not have adequate time in 
which to prepare my lessons; and above all, I felt then 
and still believe, that some of the students were my in- 
tellectual superiors. 

While I attended the High School, Dr. Sterling per- 
mitted me to leave the room ten minutes before the others 
were dismissed, at noon, in order that I m?>ht reach the 
hotel and earn my dinner, in the dining room, as a waiter : 
and during the time I was studying Greek, I slept in a 
garret, sharing the bed of a man who had a terribly dis- 
eased scalp, in order to obtain a free lodging, and hus- 
band my small means. I regularly arose at three (3) 
o'clock a. m. and by the uncertain light of a small pear- 
shaped oil lamp with one round wick, I studied my Greek 
lessons, in order that I might be ready to serv e in the 
dining room, for my breakfast, at the sound of the bell. 


During the first year of my attendance, in the High 
School, I worked a second time, in the old Union Depot 
dining room, for my board. I waited on sixteen (16) 
depot officials and clerks every morning, and when I sug- 
gested that, since I received my board only for all this 
work, I ought to be allowed to sweeten my cup of coffee 
with white, granulated sugar, the head waiter (not Thorp 
Holmes) forbade me to use it, restricting me to some 
very dark-brown sugar. I appealed to Mr. Wheeler. He 
sustained the decision of the head waiter, and I quit him 
and went to the old Birch House, then located on the east 
side of West 9th street, near the corner of Frankfort 
street and presided over by Mr. and Mrs. Giilett, kind and 
generous people, who, I fear, have long since gone to their 
rich reward. 

Mrs. Giilett' s father, "Father Birch" was very old 
and feeble. I had the honor and pleasure of watching over 
him the whole of one night and, hourly administering to 
him his prescribed medicine. In his youth, Father Birch 
had been personally acquainted with Chancellor Kent, 
whose voluminous and learned commentaries were famil- 
iar to ail students of law, a generation ago. 

Mr. Byron Hunt, a handsome, good natured speciman 
of manhood, later on, when I was a husband and father, 
loaned me five dollars, after all other "friends" had failed 
me. In gratitude, I shall carry the memory of his kind- 
ness to my grave with me. 

During all the time of my High School experiences, I 
devoted a number of my nights to waiting on parties and 
weddings. I shall never forget, that, when the late Sena- 
tor M. A. Hanna and his beautiful bride, the daughter of 
the late Dan P. Rhodes, were married, I was one of those 
who, in the dining room, ministered to their wants; the 
same is true as regards the wedding of Col. Harris of the 
United States Army and a lovely daughter of the late 
Stilman Witt, a sister, I think, of Mrs. Dan P. Eells, of 


this city. By the way, when I was graduated and had 
floral offerings literally rained down on me (37), I wore 
one of the late Dan P. Eells' discarded coats, given to me 
by Mrs. Eells. It was a dark brown broadcloth coat. 




On the day following my graduation, I found myself 
acclaimed in the daily newspapers and by my friends, 
generally, as being little less than a hero, for my address 
on the night previous, had been on the subject "The True 
Hero", and, by all classes of our citizens, without regard 
to race or color, I was congratulated and praised for such 
success as I had attained to. There had been a tendency 
on the part of persons who were friendly to the inter- 
ests of the Freedmen, to encourage my efforts during my 
course at the High School, and, if I had not succeeded, it 
would not have been for the lack of sympathy and good 

A rather humorous incident occurred on an occasion 
when I was the invited guest of some of the colored people 
of Akron, Ohio, as their speaker, in 1867 when the late 
General Bierce was mayor of that, now large, populous 
and wealthy city. « 

When the hall was well filled and the time was op- 
portune, Mr. Morgan, one of Akron's foremost colored 
citizens, arose and said, in substance, that he was happy 
to have present with them, a young man who was making 
a manful struggle to secure an education, after having, 
first bought a home for his widowed mother. "A true 
hero!" shouted Mr. Morgan; then, extending his right 


hand and waving it, in an inviting way, he exclaimed: 
"Hero, Come Forth!!" 

Since then, I have been introduced to many audiences 
but none that I can now recall, carried with it the fervor 
and admiration of Mr. Morgan's. 

In very truth, I did not feel, on the day "after grad- 
uation" that I had accomplished much ; and, for the first 
time, the true significance of the term, "commencement" 
as applied to the graduating exercises of High Schools, 
and Colleges, dawned on me, for, it is the commencement 
of a course in a college, or of the studying of a profession, 
for the future, and the individual who, graduating from an 
institution of learning, imagines that he has finished, is 
grievously mistaken, for he has only commenced. 

My old and esteemed friend, the late Andrew J. 
Rickoff, Esquire, for many years, superintendent of the 
schools of Cleveland, came to me and advised me to study 
law; "It will be just the thing for you," he said. Also, 
came the late Judge Jesse P. Bishop, successful and 
wealthy lawyer, and deacon in the First Baptist church, 
who extended to me an invitation to occupy a desk in his 
office, under the immediate supervision of the late Cap- 
tain Seymour F. Adams ; a gentleman and scolar, for the 
purpose of studying law. Had I known then what, I know 
now, that no man need expect to be a successful attorney 
at the bar, in the full significance of that term, who has no 
social intercourse with the business world, I would have 
declined the kind offer, with thanks, and betaken myself 
to the study of medicine or theology, but, being ignor- 
ant, in the premises, I "jumped at the offer," entered his 
office, and, thereby, I suspect, I "spoiled a good doctor or 
preacher, in making a poor lawyer." 

I literally, devoured Blaekstone, Kent, Bishop, Byles, 
Stephen, Parsons, and other great commentaries on the 
English and American law, during the ensuing four 
months, reading, as I truly believe, by day and by night, 


-well nigh as much as the average reader would cover in 
a year. 

One fine day, in stalked a man, who from his personal 
appearance, proved himself to be "facile princeps" — 
easily first, amongst civilized men. He was tall and of 
commanding stature, with a frontal and cranial develop- 
ment which might have turned even Webster green with 
envy. The remainder of the hair surrounding his bald 
dome, was thin and fair ; while above his classic features, 
peering forth from shaggy brows, were his deep set eyes,, 
penetrating and knowing. Meet the Honorable (General) 
John Crowell, lawyer, ex-congressman — then president 
and factotum of the Union Law College, located in 
Rouse's block, top story, northwest corner of Superior 
Avenue and the Public Square ! 

"Young man!" he said, "what are you doing?" I 
answered, "I am reading law." "Why don't you come up 
to the college?" he replied. "Because, I have no money;" 
I rejoined. Thereupon, he quite generously extended to me 
an invitation to become one of his class. "And," he added, 
"when you get into the practice, yoircan pay me." 

Needless to say, I took advantage of his kind offer, 
without delay. I joined his class, in which I found already 
entered a number of fine young men, amongst whom, I 
can now recall, Cullen Coats, late a justice of the peace 
and lawyer of Cleveland Township; Hon. J. T. Garver, 
now presiding judge of the Sandusky-Fremont district; 
Augustus Zehring, successful lawyer and the late R. L. 
Holden, who died in ministerial orders, in C. W. 

Fifty-one years have elapsed since those halcyon 
days glided by, but, I can never forget the great pleasure 
and profit which I derived from the fraternal intercourse 
which I found in the midst of those big-hearted, kindly 
disposed young men. They seemed anxious and willing to 
aid me in every way. I love the memory of them. 

I am reminded of a humorous anecdote which, in those 


days, was related, once in a while, with the approval of 
General Crowell, which I will, here, insert ; for great and 
learned as was "Prexy", he was not "thin skinned." It was 
in this wise: 

"Once upon a time," when the general was a candi- 
date for Cpngress, he was anxious to secure the friendly 
co-operation of an old acquaintance, who was not aiding 
him, in any respect ; so, he gave a dinner, to which was 
invited as many of the "independents" as he could per- 
suade to attend. 

The piece de resistance, on the well-filled table, was 
a "suckling pig," of which the luke-warm friend ate quite 
ravenously. At this point, the auditors were wont to ask ; 
"General, did he vote for you?" To which the General 
replied : "D — n him ! He voted against me with my pig in 
his belly!" 

Judge Garver, who was elected because of his merit, 
as displayed at the bar, and as prosecuting attorney of his 
county, has proven that the electors made no mistake in 
elevating him to that distinguished and useful position. 

When I visited Fremont, some years ago, he met me 
at the station, and, in his own private conveyance, 
"showed me the town," so to .-peak. A rare treat, indeed. 
Afterwards, he conducted me to his own home, assigned 
me to his guest chamber, seated me at his dining table 
with the other members of his family, and made me, in 
other respects, quite comfortable and happy. 

Just fifty years subsequent to our school days at the 
Union Law College, Judge Garver was assigned by a jus- 
tice of our State Supreme Court, to preside over one of 
the branches of our Common Pleas Court in Cleveland. 
to assist in "cleaning up" our over-crowded docket. When 
becoming aware of his presence, in my home town, I ex* 
tended to him, and our beloved Hon. Willis Vickery, one 
of the judges of our Court of Appeals, an invitation to 


visit U3 at our home and dine with us and several others 
of our intimate friends. 

To our very great gratification, both gentlemen ac- 
cepted the invitation, and we were all, honored by their 
presence and society during the greater portion of one 
pleasant summer afternoon. To say that we were all 
elated — highly pleased, only partially expresses our feel- 
ings on that occasion. 

Speaking for the colored members of the Cuyahoga 
County Bar, I think I make no mistake in saying that, 
at all times since Judge Vickery's promotion to a judicial 
position, he has manifested for us a friendliness which 
has won from us for him, not only profound respect, but 
feelings of gratitude bordering on love and affection; for 
he has generously thrown into our hands thousands of 
dollars, which were needed, and save for his action, would 
never have come within our grasp. 

In the course of a few fleeting months, our course 
completed, we received our diplomas, duly signed by all 
the members of the faculty, and carrying the seal of the 
college on it; and, almost like Milton's description of the 
eviction of Adam and Eve, from the Garden of Eden, we 
took our leave of the General and his College: 

"The world was all before us where to choose 
Our place of rest, and Providence our guide; 
We, hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow, 
Through Cleveland took our solitary way." 

During the time I attended the law college and 
read in Judge Bishop's office, I supported myself by work- 
nig in the restaurant and confectionery of N. Heisel & Son, 

underneath the judge's law offices; and also, by doing the 
janitor work, for the late W. C. McFarland, in his law 
office. A portion of the time I slept on a couch in the 
bank of the late George W. Wright, banker, broker, etc. ' 


Now, I had two diplomas; but, as yet, no "visible 
means" of support, other than that of waiting on table. 

I almost blush (?) to tell it; but truth is great, etc. 
I married when I was in my twenty-fif th year of age, and 
with only three (3) dollars at my command; and the 
happy bride was the fortunate possessor of the sum of 
three and 50-100 dollars; but, she, like me, had a place of 
useful employment ; and we were happy and hopeful, in the 
love and confidence of each other. 

Before long, a dear cousin of mine, residing in the 
"Palmetto State", South Carolina, having heard of my_ 
varied successes, but being ignorant of my marriage, 
wrote to me, extending an invitation to me, to come and 
be his guest, until I could select one of three places of 
employment, then vacant, and awaiting my arrival; and 
elated by the prospect of entering upon speedy and remu- 
nerative employment, my little wife and I began to pre- 
pare to exchange our residence, temporarily, for that of 
the mild and sunny south. 

Some of my old school-mates and well wishers, of 
both races, hearing of our proposed removal, tendered us 
a reception, in a hall, near the Public Square ; and, in re- 
turn for music and oratorical pyrotechnics, contributed 
a snug little sum, which we used for the purchase of 
tickets, as far on our route as Wilmington, N. C. 

I shall never forget the impression which the white 
sand made on my mind, when, in the gentle moon-light, 
our train stopped, in the suburbs of Wilmington, on one 
January eve, 1870. We both thought it was snow, al- 
though in the car, we were quite comfortable; but, im- 
agine our surprise, when on alighting, we discovered it 
was beautiful white sand, instead. As we were being 
driven to the residence of our hospitable friends, — the 
Sampsons, long time residents of Wilmington and intelli- 
gent and wealthy, withal, we preceived that, instead of 


being frigid, as we felt it, twenty-four hours before, in 
Cleveland, the atmosphere was delightfully balmy. 

These good people, former friends and associates of 
my deceased father and my mother, tendered us a royal 
reception; which put us perfectly at our ease, and per- 
suaded us to believe that the longer we remained their 
guests the better they would be pleased; thus manifest- 
Ing the proverbial hospitality of the southern people of 
both races. 

The late Mr. James Sampson, founder of the family, 
was a colored man who was held in high repute and re- 
spect, even by the slave-holders, before the emancipa- 
tion ; and they not only permitted him to walk the streets 
of the city after the "curfew bell," but, respected passes 
signed by him for other colored persons. He was a build- 
er, by trade and profession, and himself occupied with his 
family, one of the most comfortable residences there, 
which I am informed, is still standing. 

One of his sons, the late Professor Benjamin Kellog 
Sampson, who was graduated from Oberlin College, in the 
latter "fifties," was a scholar and an orator of note; for 
several years in the "sixties," he was principal of Aver} 
Institute, located in Pittsburgh, Pa. Subsequently, he 
took charge of the colored schools of Memphis, Tenn., 
where, after many years of faithful service, he died re- 
gretted and mourned by all. 

John P. Sampson, another son, was a minister of the 
Gospel, and served faithfully, many years, with honor and 
success, at Orange, N. J. Then, there were Joseph, who 
was recorder of deeds, of Wilmington, during the re- 
construction period; and James, George and Nathan, all. 
worthy men; also, Susie, Fannie, Mary and Minerva, all 
well and happily married. 

Upon the whole, the Sampsons were one of the most 
honorable, successful and conspicuous families that ex- 


isted in any of our "slave states" before, during and sub- 
sequent to the Civil War. 

Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Holmes, were very dear friends 
while we remained in Wilmington, and did all that big- 
hearted, generous people could do, to make our visit both 
comfortable and pleasant. There was a gentleman, long 
since deceased, William Kellogg, by name (the father of 
Mr. John Kellogg), for many years, trustee and chorister 
in Mount Zion Congregational church, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
who was elected one of the aldermen of the city of Wil- 
mington, which we all considered an honor : for to be one 
of the city "fathers," is an honor conferred on any man. 

Now, Mr. Kellog (a colored man) had, for years, been 
in the employ of 0. G. Parsley & Co., merchants, in some 
subordinate capacity; and when, after his election, Mr. 
Parsley addressed him as plain "William," he took excep- 
tion saying, "My name, now is Mr. Kellogg." "Well 
then," replied his employer, "if your name is 'Mr. Kellogg' 
you can get out of my place ; for I don't want any 'Mister' 
doing the work which you are employed to do!" and Mr. 
Kellogg, thereupon, left the store of his old employer. 

We colored friends, considered Mr. Parsley's treat- 
ment of Mr. Kellogg, unjust and uncalled for. But, I 
suppose, when one considers that, the knell of the "South- 
era Confederacy" had, so recently, been sounded, the 
slaves manumitted, and, in some instances, placed in 
official stations, the conduct of that gentleman was quite 

On invitation of two former associates, Messers Robert 
and Cicero Harris, who had gone from Cleveland to Fay- 
etteville, N. C, where they founded the State Normal 
School, I sailed up the Cape Fear River, to that old and 
noted city. Fayetteville was doubly endeared to me by the 
dual facts that, my dear parents, were married there in 


1837 and there were a host of good people, residing there, 
to whom I was related, by ties of blood. 

The reception tendered me, by everyone who knew 
me, was more cordial than I had anticipated; which is 
saying much, and the memory of it will always remain 

When I appeared on the platform, in the church 
where my lecture was delivered, at a signal from Mr. 
Robert Harris, the principal, the large audience, consist- 
ing, in great part, of the students of the school, began to 
sing, lustily: 

"Johnnie Green has come to town! 
"Johnnie Green has come to town! 
Ho! Ho! for Johnnie Green!" 

By this manifestation of regard and sympathy, I 
was greatly pleased; and considered myself highly hon- 
ored and the result of the collection which was "lifted," 
enabled me to pay our fare the remaining distance to our 
South Carolina destination. Mr. Robert Harris, the prin- 
cipal of that noted school married a beautiful little lady, 
an ex-member of the school, whose name was Mary Green. 
I regret to state that, he died in the flower of his man- 
hood, while he was engaged in the performance of his 
truly valuable educational duties, so essential, at that 
time, for the welfare of the colored people of that state; 
his brother and assistant, Mr. Cicero Harris, subsequent- 
ly, became a minister of the Gospel ; and, by reason of his 
extraordinary intelligence and conspicuous piety, was or- 
dained a bishop of the A. M. E. Zion church ; which posi- 
tion he held and actively served, until his recent death. 

Those who knew Bishop Harris best, who were most 
closely related to him in his life work, declared that, they 
had never heard escape from his lips a word which would 
have offended the ears of the most refined lady or gentle- 
man. This was the testimony of Mr. Charles W. Ches- 


nutt, the famous author, who, in his boyhood and youth 
was under the daily instruction of the two brothers ; and, 
who, ultimately, succeeded to the principalship of the 
school ; and, also, of this writer, who knew and associated 
with them both, when they resided in Ohio. 

Returning to Wilmington, after my delightful visit 
to Fayetteville, we speedily packed our trunk (it was not 
large) , and bade farewell to all our friends, who had cared 
for us, so unselfishly and, I might say, lovingly. We left 
thern with genuine regret; some of them never to behoia 
again. We were fortunate, while in Wilmington, in being 
of the invited guests, at the wedding of Mr. and Mrs. 
George W. Sampson. Mr. Sampson is now and for sixty- 
two years has been a useful and respected resident of the 
city of Cleveland, Ohio, where he and his wif e have reared 
and educated two sons and a daughter. The eldest is Pro- 
fessor George W. Sampson, Jr., an alumnus of the West- 
ern Reserve University, located in Cleveland; and, for 
many years, principal of important educational institu- 
tions in Ohio and Florida. Mr. Fred Sampson, engaged in 
useful employment on one of our great "trunk" railroads ; 
and Mrs. Hattie Sampson Dale, the beloved wife of Doc- 
tor Ellis A. Dale, one of the skilled and useful physicians 
of Cleveland. 

A slow, jolting ride of one hundred miles, carried us 
to the station of Laurinburg, N C, the only excuse for 
the existence of which, is, so far as I could see, at that 
time, was that, it afforded a watering place for locomo- 
tives and a shipping and receiving station for the farmers 
in the neighboring territory. 

Here we were met by two of our numerous cousins ; 
Mr. William R. Brewington, long since deceased, presided 
over a horse and buggy, while his brother, James Brew- 
ington, in his employ, "curbed and restrained" the mule 
team attached to a wagon. William R. Brewington was. 


in some respects, a uniqe personage ; for, since I was born, 
although I have come in touch with many quaint and 
curious people, yet, have I never seen his "double," 
either physically or temperamentally. 

William, when a mere child, had been "bound out," 
as the expression was, "down south," in those days, to a 
carpenter and builder, ostensibly, to be taught the trade 
of his master, but, practically to fill the position of a 
"factotum" — a do all. 

My dear mother, who knew of his hardships and ad- 
versities, through the eight trying years of his appren- 
ticeship, before he reached his "majority," used to tell us 
children of the lack of proper and sufficient clothing 
during the cold winter days; the cravings of hunger 
which every half -fed boy experiences; the undeserved 
floggings inflicted on him by his cruel task-master; and 
much else, until even before we ever saw him, we grieved 
for him, through sheer sympathy. And now here he stood 
in our very presence, the master of his trade, a resepect- 
ed contractor and builder, the owner of broad acres, as 
well as a residence, a little grocery store, a horse and a 
mule team; to say nothing of a pretty wife and several 
interesting children. 

Yes, here he stood; his "arms outstretched, as he 
would fly, to grasp in the comer," and his countenance 
beaming with smiles, welcoming us to Laurinburg, the 
gate-way from North Carolina to South Carolina, Ben- 
nettsville, Marlboro County, South Carolina, twenty miles 
distant, and reached from that place, by traversing a 
"blazed-way," through a dense forest and thick sands. 

Soon mounted, my little wife in the buggy by the side 
of our "dear" cousin, and I, on the crest of a pile of bags 
and boxes, in the wagon we rode into the town of Ben- 
nettsville, where, along the main (only) business street, 
the inhabitants, few in number, seemed to be on the qui 


Vive, to behold Mr. Brewing-ton's ''Cousin John," whose 
coming had been heralded, and his little wife, whose 
coming was a genuine surprise to all. 

Finally, we halted in front of a rudely constructed 
frame residence, which stood on a corner of the main 
street and another, which gradually merged into a coun- 
try road, leading to and passing by the "Village Black- 
smith shop and the "swimming hole." Beyond these, was 
the imposing residence of the late "J. W. Weatherley," 
a retired "speculator" (in slaves), built by my "Cousin 
William," under contract. Opposite the Brewington resi- 
dence, was a field, which ere long, was gorgeous in its 
garb of beautiful cotton blooms, and later on, glistened in 
its crop of snow-white cotton. On another corner, was the 
spacious field, in the center of which stood the cozy home 
of the late Charles McCali, who, in an emergency, would 
shoot and sell to us a nice chicken. And on a third side, 
was the humble residence of "old" Mr. Whaley, the watch 
and jewelry repairer, who, even then, tremulously, stood 
with one foot on the edge of the grave. 

On entering it, we discovered that our future, tem- 
porary home, was neither lathed nor plastered. The frame 
of the building was "weatherboarded" and this protected 
us from the wind and rain. Later on, during a light snow 
storm, remarkable for that locality, the snow filtered 
through the cracks and crevices of the shingled roof, 
and lay lightly on the spread which covered us. However, 
we were young, and a "little thing" like that, did not dis- 
courage us. On the contraiy, it was to us a source of mucli 

"Cousin Mollie," the wife and mother, greeted us in a 
kindly way, and made conditions as comfortable for us as 
she could; while little Nellie and Lula, were a never-fail- 
ing source of pleasure to us both. 

On the following day, I was informed by my dear 

"cousin," that two of the three remunerative positions 
which he had guaranteed me, upon my arrival in Ben- 
netsville, had already been filled; to wit. The school to 
teach and the post-mastership, in the little Post Office, 
the former by a competent young lady, a protege of Mr, 
Henry J. Maxwell, the state senator, representing that 
district, and the latter by a young freedman, at once 
ambitious and capable, Cato J. Stuart, by name. Under 
the circumstances, the only position left vacant for me, 
was that of clerk in "cousin's little 12x16, grocery store 
where he and "Mollie" had been accustomed to barter, 
sparingly, domestic provisions for "seed-cotton"; that is 
to say, cotton from which the seeds had not been removed 
some of which, I am bound to say, came "in de dark ob de 

Imagine this writer, then in those surroundings, in 
the center of a cotton producing district, removed from 
even a railroad station, the nearest one being at Society 
Hill, fourteen miles distant;" not a piccayune to spend," 
in his pocket ; fresh from the social and educational walks 
of the beautiful city of Cleveland, and the business and 
hustle of such cities as Pittsburgh, Washington, Balti- 
more, Washington, Philadelphia and New York!!! 

Was I discouraged ? No. I was not discouraged. I was 
surprised, more or less shocked! As for myself, I did 
not care "a fig," by the help of God and my determined 
efforts, I had won my .way from hunger and want down 
to that moment, and I was "armed," not to suffer, but to 
conquer. The little fair-haired wife, by my side, leaning 
upon me for support and encouragement; she it was, 
whose very patience and resignation to endure all things, 
to live or die, confiding in and cheering her husband, stim- 
ulated me and nerved me to toil on and hope on, until the 
"'silver lining" of the cloud whilch enveloped us became 


No pay was given to me for my services in the 
"grocery," save our keep, which consisted of a fireless 
attic to sleep in, and salt mackerel, salt pork, bacon, 
fried or boiled, once in a while, with "collards" and corn 
"dodgers," black coffee, sweetened, generally, with dark 
brown sugar or molasses. 

There was, at that time no market in the town, and 
cotton being the principal product of the farms in that 
locality, it was extremely difficult to procure vegetables, 
poultry or eggs, even had I possessed the financial means 
of buying the same. Later on, in that year, 1870, a little 
baby boy came to our home, and when the mother plead 
for some chicken broth, I could not, in any way procure 
the coveted luxury for her. Finally, I walked down the 
road, past the swimming hole, a mile from the village, to 
the home of that same ex-slave "speculator," of whom I 
have spoken, Mr. Weatherley, and, being received court- 
eously by him, I pleaded with him to sell me one small 
chicken for my sick wife. Without hesitation, he ordered 
one of his servants to catch a chicken for me. He present- 
ed the bird to me, and scorned payment for it. Whatever 
else he may have been, his conduct on this occasion, the 
only time he and I ever met, "face to face," was that o: 
a kindly disposed gentleman, and I shall ever remember 
him, in gratitude. 

We could not buy a morsel of "fresh beef" in that 
little town, save and except on rare occasions, when some 
country-man would drive in with the carcas of a little 
butchered bullock covered with green branches, to pro-? 
tect it from the sun's rays and the flies. 

On one occasion, beef in this manner was brought into 
the village; but before we became aware of its presence 
it was all sold ! ! ! The little baby boy had not yet arrived 
and my loved one craved a piece of that beef. "Cousin" 
William was the proud (happy) possessor of a good-sized 
"chunk" of it but neither he nor "Cousin" Mollie would 


give or sell me a piece. (We were not their guests, then) . 
So, disconsolate, but not cast down, I went to the home 
of one of the white citizens, who, I was informed, had 
bought a piece of the beef, and laid my condition before 
him. His dwelling occupied a commanding position well 
back in the yard, from the sidewalk, and was guarded 
at night, by a large, fierce dog, which was generally kept 
chained in the day time. 

I, unsuspectingly and fearlessly, entered upon the 
premises, when, to my amazement and horror, that savage 
brute came bounding directly towards and up to me. 
What defence could I make, what could I do? I had no 
weapon, I was "empty handed." Looking the dog straight 
in his eyes, I snapped my fingers at him and spoke 
kindly words to him, when he to my great relief, wagged 
his tail and trotted along by my side, until I was accosted 
and met, by his master. 

With every manifestation of true gentility, this 
southern man, "to the manor born," as the current phrase 
was at that time, cut off from his portion, a nice large 
piece of that beef, and presented it to me gratis. I earned 
it to my wife, and had the pleasure of seeing tears of 
gratitude standing in her beautiful eyes, by reason of 
that man's unselfish generosity. I am sorry I cannot re- 
call his name; it was fifty years ago, and memory fails 

On another occasion, we needed a little tea, black or 
green tea, it mattered not which. In order to procure it, I 
was compelled to send to Wilmington, N. C. for it; and, 
needing a dentist, later on, when I had come into the 
possession of a little money, I was compelled to travel a 
hundred and thirty or forty miles, and place myself under 
the skillful treatment of the late Doctor Rodrigue, of the 
old regime, in Charleston, in order to repair the damage 
done to me by a "native dentist," one who did the best 
he knew how to do, but who after seven ineffectual at- 


tempts to draw a wisdom tooth, merely broke it off, and 
exposed the nerve. 

When the fall approached and the cotton crop was 
"laid by," cousin William suddenly discovered that my 
services, in the little "grocery" store were no longer need- 
ed', that he and Mollie could attend to it, until after pick-, 
mg time. This condition left me and my family, substan- 
tially homeless, for we could not remain there, pension- 
ers on their bounty (?) and I was not in a financial condi- 
tion to go elsewhere. 

There was a man in that county, John G. Grant, 
by name. He was the Probate Judge of Marlboro County, 
and since his term of office was nearly ended, he was 
seeking the Republican nomination for re-election; and, 
knowing that I was active within the ranks of that party 
he sought my friendship and assistance, in that behalf. 

"Green," he said to me, "why don't you rent Brewing- 
ton's comer room, and open a grocery for yourself in it?" 
I told him, I had no money to rent the room with, and 
least of all to stock it with groceries. "Well," he replied, 
"I have seven barrels of spirits of turpentine, which is 
quite valuable. I will ship it to Adrian and Vollers, large 
dealers in Wilmington, N. C., and you can go there and 
Invest the proceeds of that spirits in groceries, and start 
your store. 

A drowning man will grasp at a straw ; and I hurried 
to avail myself of this opportunity ; altho, one of the con- 
ditions was that, he should be a "silent" partner, and re- 
ceive one-half of the net profits of the business. 

This was on Friday, the next day being the day of 
the Republican Convention, by which he was duly nom- 
inated for a second term, I assisting, as best I could. 

The next day, Sunday, after attending Divine services 
and superintending the Sunday School, I began to collect 
money to pay my fare to Wilmington, in order to collect 
for the spirits of turpentine, buy the groceries and ship 


them to Laurinburgh. It was not an easy matter to bor- 
row nine or ten dollars. I had three dollars, belonging to 
the Sunday School. I appropriated that, with a proviso ; 
and I returned it out of my first earnings, later on. Sena- 
tor Henry J. Maxwell loaned me three other dollars and I 
reckoned on borrowing three others from another cousin 
of mine, Mr John Brewington, on reaching the station, 
which as I have said, was twenty long miles distant 

At half past seven, on that Sunday evening, as the 
"shades of night were falling fast," and while the bell of 
a neighboring church was sweetly inviting sinners — and 
others to "come," fondly embracing my well-nigh dis- 
consolate wife, who stood in the door, holding "little 
Johnnie" in her arms (she weighed ninety-five pounds). 
I started on my "hike" to Laurinburgh. 

The intervening seven miles, before reaching the 
forest, was through thick sand, and, since I wore a pair 
of boots, given me, before leaving Cleveland, by the late 
Frank Judd, which were "snug"' on my feet, to say the 
least, they began to pain me to an uncomfortable degree, 
but I gave, no heed to that ; that last image of my wife 
and little one, standing in that door dependent and for- 
lorn, and the expectancy of securing the means of making 
them comfortable and happy, stimulated me to such a 
degree, that, I literally devoured space; and sooner than 
I expected, I found myself at the beginning of the "blazed- 
way," on the edge of the forest. 

It was now, quite dark, save as the moon and stars, 
ever and anon, peeped through the foliage and revealed 
to me the ruts made by the wagons, which traversed ths-t 
route, and some familiar objects which I had seen before. 
The occasional hooting of an owl and the quaint noises 
made by other tenants of the forest, lent a wierd charm 
to all the surroundings. Mile after mile, ' "reeled off;" 
never wearying, not once complaining; altho, by this 
time, my heels and toes were blistered and my gate was 


somewhat, halt and lame. To add to the seriousness of 
my plight, the sky was now overcast with heavy clouds 
and some big drops of rain began to fall as the rumbling 
of ominous thunder began to be heard in the distance. 
Under these conditions, I ^failed to discern my "land- 
marks," and I found myself out of the direct route, and 
was compelled to retrace fully a mile of the distance. 

'The night is long that never finds the day," says one 
poet, while a profound philosopher, more prosaic, carries 
the same idea when he says, "It's a long lane that has no 
turn!" And so, I found in this instance, for at half past 
eleven o'clock (exactly four hours from the time of start- 
ing), I knocked at the door of Mr. John Brewington, at 
the end of my first "lap," and was welcomed, foot-sore 
and weary, with mingled feelings of joy and surprise. 

After answering many questions, hurriedly asked of 
me, I laid myself on a rough counter, with an empty 
raisin-box for a pillow. In the morning, when I attempted 
to pull on my boots, I found that my feet were too swolen 
to admit of success, but, as time was precious, I put a 
little soft soap on the side of the heels, and so, succeed- 
ed in pulling them on, splitting the inner side of one boot 
leg, however, in doing so. The blisters on my heels and 
toes, the swolen condition of my feet, and a pronounced 
pain in one hip, caused me to limp along in a very ungain- 
ly way from the house to the train, en route to Wilming- 

I must not forget to state, that, "Cousin John" loaned 
me three dollars, and thereby, assured me the means of 
returning from Wilmington. 

Arrived, in a few hours, in the city of Wilmington, I 
went "as the crow flies," to the wholesale house of Adrian 
& Vollers, and, immediately introduced myself to Mr. 
Vollers, a quiet appearing man, of very few words, who 
had before that day, neither seen me nor heard my voice, 


and for aught that I know, to that day, had never even 
heard tell of me. 

In a few moments, he made me aware of the fact, 
that, on his part, he had neither seen nor heard of the 
seven barrels of spirits of turpentine! Thereupon, I said 
to him, "Mr. Vollers, I have spent my last cent, for tickets 
to this city, from Bennettsville, S. C. and return. I left 
behind me a frail wife with a baby in her arms, and I dare 
not return there without this bill of goods. I am the 
cousin of William Brewington, with whom you are 
acquainted. Can't you let me have the goods on credit?" 

Mr. Vollers looked me straight in the eyes. "How 
much do you want?" he dryly inquired. "Here is the 
list," I replied. In a few minutes he had made an estimate 
of the cost of the goods. One hundred and ten dollars, 
was the amount. "You may have them," he said. "But, 
Mr. Vollers!" I exclaimed. "I have not a dollar with which 
to pay the freight on them.' "Well," he said, "we will pay 
that for you." 

If an angel of light had spoken to me, I could not 
have been made more happy. Truly God was with me! 
Truly, as a reward of merit, in return for some kindness- 
es, on the part of my dear deceased father or some one 
closely related to me, God was blessing me, and I silently 
lifted up my heart in thanksgiving to Him, from whom 
all blessings flow. The goods were placed on the same 
train which carried me back to Laurinburg, on the next 
day, and a few hours later, I again found myself on that 
same platform, with a pile of merchandise, and Bennetts- 
ville — twenty miles away!" 

"What was done, what to do, 
A glance told me both!" 

So, says the poet Reed, when describing Sheridan's 
famous ride, to Winchester "twenty miles away." But 


in the case of the writer, a glance did not suffice; for, I 
was in a semi-hostile country, a stranger to every one 
and without the means of employing friends or foe to 
transport my merchandise for me. 

Let no youthful reader of this narrative forget that 
time honored maxim. "Where there is a will, there is a 
way." I love and confide in those old maxims, for, gen- 
erally, they have come thundering down the ages" and 
contain great truths, for our guidance and encourage- 
ment, in many of the perplexities of life. 

Inquiring of sundry persons whom I met in the one 
business street, I was finally directed to the home of Mr. 
Edward Roper — a youthful, hard-fisted, good-natured, 
kind-hearted Negro man, of family. A "freedman," so 
called, who had spent the greater part of his life in 
bondage, until the immortal Abraham Lincoln issued the 
Proclamation, which broke his bonds asunder. 

Fortunately, Mr. Roper was at home; and gave me 
a right hearty welcome. His good wife and little ones 
joining him. An invitation to eat followed, which was 
accepted ; and then, after listening to my "tale of woe," he 
hitched his mule team to his wagon, loaded my goods into 
it, invited me to sit on the seat beside him, and set me, 
with my goods, down at my door, in that far away Ben^ 
nettsville, and all this, without exacting from me any 
money whatsoever; but, simply relying on my individual 
oral promise to pay him, when able to do so ! 

Whatever may be said detrimental to the Negro race 
by persons who, for one reason and another, do not 
admire it, I, a person in whose arteries flows a modicum 
of that self -same blood, here and now, record my "knowl- 
edge and belief," that, for love and filial affections, sym- 
pathy and generosity, patriotism and martial heroism, 
industry and a philosophic, hopeful, poetic temperament, 
it is not surpassed by any race of people on the face of 
this habitable globe. And "Ed" Roper was one whose 


blood had never been "tainted" by an admixture with that 
of any other race. 

During my absence, Ed Sawyer, * a friendly car- 
penter, had procured some lumber, and, in a sort of Wild 
West way, built me a counter and a meat-stand, and 
placed some shelving in the corner room, referred to in 
the foregoing, where, on the first day of my experience 
as proprietor, I sold out nearly everything except my 
scales, knives and "fixtures;" and sent a "rush" order 
for supplies to Wilmington, together with a money order 
for the payment of my original order. 

In explanation of my rapid sale of all my small stock 
of groceries, I will state, that, it was one of the results 
of a hanging which took place on that day; and which 
attracted a large crowd of people to that town (the 
county seat), to witness it. This was a legal hanging, 
however, in accordance with the required forms of the law. 

The name of the unfortunate victim was Berry Mc- 
Intyre, a young and good-looking colored man, who, in 
an evil moment, had decoyed his wife to a lonely place 
near a gloomy pond, and after killing her, had thrown 
the body into the pond. For some reason that could not 
be explained, one of the arms of the victim was missing, 
and although the defendant, finally, made a full confes- 
sion of the crime, yet, he, to the end, denied the dismem- 
berment of the body. 

NOTE — This Ed. Sawyer was the father of Edward J. Sawyer, 
Esq., of Bennettsville, S. C. f who, at the time referred to, 
here, was a youth of some seventeen summers. Since then 
he has been admitted to practice law in S. C; has reared and 
educated a numerous family; has become possessed of a 
thousand or more acres of land in Marlborough County, and 
in other ways attained to a very high standing in the esti- 
mation of everyone. 


The gallows was erected in the "public square" of 
the village, without any attempt to screen it from public 
view; and numbers of the on-lookers, stood near the 
"foot" of the scene. When the "trap" was "sprung," the 
body plunged downward, breaking the neck of the vic- 
tim, I suppose ; for when an attempt was made to shorten 
the rope and clear his feet from the ground, it was limp 
and unconscious. I do not believe the man knew what 
killed him. After the execution, the crowd thronged the 
groceries, and their patronage was welcome and beneficial. 
In the course of a few months, my income from the 
grocery was such that I bought a lot on a hillside, front- 
ing on the south side of the little square and erected 
thereon a humble residence and storeroom combined. 
Long piles, from the bodies of pine trees supporting the 
rear of the house, which was raised about ten feet from 
the slant of the hill, while the front rested on low sills 
near the brow of the same. The depression between the 
sill of the house and the "main land," was planked over. 
Here, owing to my political activities and social endeavors, 
my business grew rapidly, and in the course of a year, 
I was well established. 

In the month of September, 1870 (the 20th day of 
September, to be exact), I made application to be ad- 
mitted to the bar of South Carolina. Judge J. M. Rutland 
(a carpetbagger) presiding over the Court of Common 
Pleas of that District. 

There were two other applications filed on the same 
day, by two promising white young gentlemen, resi- 
dents of that town — J. Knox Livingston and H. Hope 
Newton — both of whom were admitted during the course 
of that day. But in my case, a committee of three lawyers, 
consisting of Colonel J. L. Hudson, Duncan D. McColl and 
Charles Townsend. 

By order of the committee, I visited the office of 
Judge Townsend, "after early tea," which proved to be 


at seven-thirty P. M., and was orally examined by those 
gentlemen, in turn, until eleven-thirty o'clock, of the same 
evening. I am pleased to record the fact that, I answered 
satisfactorily, every question asked of me, save one ; and 
that related to "marine" law; which, to us in Bennetts- 
ville, was not of much interest, inasmuch as the nearest 
body of water to the town was the stagnant swamp at 
the foot of the hill, in the rear of my little home ; and the 
only running stream, which I can now recall, was the 
creek tributary to it, which in its course, furnished our 
swimming hole. 

In making their report to the Court, on the following 
day, the committee said, in part, "we find your applicant 
John P. Green, not only qualified, but well qualified." I 
took the examination there, instead of going to the State 
Capital, and being admitted on motion, because I craved 
the respect and professional assistance of the members 
of the Marlboro Bar ; which 1 cheerfully say, was accord- 
ed to me, as long as I practiced there. 

During the year and a half and more, given to the prac- 
tice there, I saved two lives, the third John J. McQuaig 
(white) , indicted for murder (they had no varied degrees 
only murder and manslaughter), made his escape from 
prison, plunged into the "dismal swamp," in the rear of 
the jail, and, to my knowledge, was never heard of again. 

One of my fortunate clients was, Irene McRae, a 
colored girl, not yet seventeen years of age, who, one 
hot July day, gave birth to a child — cut its head off, and 
then got into a tub of cold water. Since she had no money, 
and the other lawyers did not care for the case, she be- 
came my client; and, adopting the defense of puerperal 
mania, I secured a verdict of "not guilty." Some mention 
of this defense was made in one of the Harper periodi- 
cals of that day. 

When we were empaneling the jury for the trial of 
that case, old Peter McColl, clerk of the court, who was 


nearly a hundred years of age, and shook in his voice 
and his hands, almost like an aspen, proceeded, as fol- 
lows: "John W. Crossland," he called. To the front came 
a "southern gentleman," owner of much land, and erst- 
while owner of numerous slaves, who tilled the soil for 
him. "P-r-i-s-o-n-e-r," said the aged clerk, 1-o-o-k o-n t-h-e 
j-u-r-o-r; j-u-r-o-r, 1-o-o-k o-n t-h-e p-r-i-s-o-n-e-r!" Then 
we both looked. "W-h-a-t s-a-y y-o-u?" he asked. Now, I 
was in a quandary, as to whether I should say, 'swear 
him," or "excused ;" for, Crossland bore the reputation of 
having been a very cruel driver of his slaves, and it was 
reported that any one of his ex-slaves could be disting- 
uished by the white patches of hair on his head, where 
wounds had previously been inflicted ; and I feared, lest he 
should show prejudice against this colored girl, in the de- 
liberations of the jury. On the other hand, I knew that 
in weighing professional and scientific questions, relating 
to the case, he was just the man, of all, needed. So, I said, 
"swear him!" He was made foreman of that jury; and 
by his elucidations of the technical questions growing; 
out of the defense, brought us safely through. 

The other case was that of a colored man, who, in a 
drunken brawl, severed the femoral artery of an- 
other. I was one of the three who defended Frank 
Cook. He was duly convicted of murder, and sentenced 
to be hung. After the gallows was erected, at the earnest 
plea of his wife, who was soon to become a mother, I 
went to Columbv(S?-and by a political bargain, persuaded 
the late Governor Scott, (of Henry Co., Ohio, who was 
then Governor of S. C, and was afterwards tried in 
Henry Co., Ohio, for murder and acquitted) to commute 
his sentence to life imprisonment. He was subsequently, 
pardoned, after I left the state; and, for aught that I 
know, is still living with that wife and his children. 

In the year 1903, after having finished a term of nine 
years' service in the employ of the United States, at 


Washington (of which, more, later on), I applied for ad- 
mission to the bar of the District of Columbia, and, in 
order to evade the requirement of a formal examination, 
I wrote to the late Duncan D. McColl, Esq., of Bennetts- 
ville, requesting him to send me a copy of the Journal 
entry of my admission to the bar of South Carolina in 
1870. His letter breathes such a spirit of friendliness that, 
I shall record it ; not more as one of the incidents of my 
career in South Carolina, in my youth, than as a testi- 
monial of my high esteem and grateful remembrance of 
a southern gentleman, scholar and man of affairs, who, 
recognized merit in all men, regardless of color or pre- 
vious condition, and he lived a long and useful life. 

The letter follows: 


Bennettsville, S. C, May 2d, 1903. 
Hon. J. P. Green, 

Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Sir: — 

Your favor of the 29th ult. read. Am certainly glad to hear 
from you. Went to Clerk's office and found the date of your ad- 
mission, to practice law, entered on the minutes of the court. 
Had no trouble, owing to your good recollection of date, etc. I 
enclose your certificate, from the clerk of the court, under seal, 
showing you to be an attorney at law, in this state, in good 
standing, etc., and copied in the certificate, the order of the court, 
admitting you. I hope it will answer your purpose and be all 
you desire. 

I paid him 50 c for the Certificate, but do not pay back to 
me, as I hope, some time or other to get even, in some other way. 

If you will notice, you were admitted to practice, on my 
motion; and I am proud to say, that, while you practiced at this 
bar, you did great credit to yourself and the profession. 

I recall, distinctly, although it has been thirty years (32 
years, is exact — J. P. G.), your defence of Alford (Frank Cook — 
J. P. G.), charged with murder. 

This was a case of infanticide (the writer now refers to the 
Irene McRae case, mentioned above — J. P. G.), and your great 


skill and knowledge in successfully establishing the defence of 
puerperal mania. 

Hope you are well and doing well, 

Yours truly, 

D. D. McCALL. 

State Senator Henry J. Maxwell, now deceased, treat- 
ed me, at first, with almost contempt. He was about fif- 
teen years my senior, in age, a brick layer, by trade, and 
a politician by profession. He was a South Carolinan, by 
birth, and was evidently proud of the fact. 

The colored people of the county, who were all active 
members of the Republican party, almost blindly followed 
his leadership, and he dictated the policies pursued in the 
county, which were implicitely obeyed by them. In the 
Senate, at Columbia, he was, facetiously, denominated, 
"the Duke of Marlborough;" and he commanded atten- 
tion and exerted influence. 

I paid little attention to him, at first ; but, when the fall 
campaign came on, and he was a candidate for re-elec- 
tion, we became well nigh "chummy", and not only visited 
each other, but, sat on the same platforms, and addressed 
the same political gatherings. Here is yet, another of 
those wise old "saws," of which I spoke, in a former chap- 
ter, and which, as a rule, are etemallv true: 

"Politics make strange bed-fellows." 

This was literally verified, eventually, when he and I, 
in Columbia, S. C, actually, slept in the same bed, to- 

During my brief political experience in and near 
Bennettsville, I faced three separate contingencies in 
which, I suspect, my life was endangered, the first was, 
when on one pretty July afternoon, in a grove near the 
village, I was delivering a political harangue, in which 
I censured some of the methods resorted to by the Demo- 
cratic party, a large man John W. Harrington, by name, 


"who was made fierce looking by bushy whiskers, rushed 
at me with an ugly looking knife, and attempted to cut 
me with it. He was intercepted, however, by several of 
my auditors and disarmed. They, too, had big, sharp 

My second jeopardy was, on the Fourth day of July, 
1871, when I, as "orator of the day," was literally, making 
the eagle scream, on a platform erected on our little Pub- 
lic Square, in Bennettsville, when Harris Covington, Esq., 
Democratic nominee for Congress, rushed forward, 
grasped me by one of my legs, and attempted to pull me 
down from the rostrum. Mr. Covington narrowly escaped 
being run through the body by a sword, in the hands of 
-a colored by-stander; and a riot was prevented by the 
counsels of judicious persons, present. 

The third jeopardy was self-made; and from this 
point of view, I can see that, my conduct was ill-advised 
and silly. The "Greely Democrats," of the County had 
just adjourned a large meeting which they had held on 
the public square, and, with several of their Negro em- 
ployes, were preparing to return to their homes, I, there- 
upon, in the absence of Senator Maxwell, constituted my- 
self Republican leader, and declared that, I would mount 
the vacant platform, and answer the statements which 
had been made to the colored men, in attendance, by the 

Sheriff Joel Easterling, the long-whiskered-patriar- 
chal Republican official, said to me: "Green, don't you do 
it ! They will kill you ! If you persist, I, as sheriff of this 
county, will not guarantee you protection !" Yet, I mount- 
ed that platform ; and for forty minutes, preached a pure, 
unadulterated, Abraham Lincoln republicanism. 

They did not touch me; but, in the next issue of the 
local paper, there was a statement, that, after the ad- 
journment of the Democratic meeting, "a fellow by the 
name of Green, who came from nobody knows where, and 


lives on nobody knows what, got up on the stand and 
harangued the Negroes." 

Occasionally, we would awake to find "Ku-Klux-Klan" 
literature strewn near our front doors or tacked on the 
trunks of the large pine trees in the public square. I 
have never known whether the dodgers, whicl} earned 
at the top the death-head and cross-bones, of the Ku- 
Klux-Klan, were a mere hoax or a dire threat and menace. 
Of one fact I am certain; they caused us all to be quite 
apprehensive; and, on many nights, Maxwell, William 
Brewington, John Brewington, this writer and others, 
"armed to the teeth," took turns in patrolling the streets, 
in the vicinity of our homes, in order to prevent a sur- 
prised assault ; and my own doors were locked, barred and 
propped, as a source of protection. 

On one "first Monday" (the day of the month when 
the sheriff sold lands and effects, by order of court), a 
half drunken fellow, McQuaig by name, started in pur- 
suit of me — to "kill me," as he said; I heard of it; and, 
arming myself with a long, sharp knife, pursued him. He 
dodged me, and that ended the fiasco. 

Early in 1872, I was elected delegate to the Republi- 
can State Convention, which held its sessions at Columbia, 
the capital of the state. There were present, in the elegant 
hall of the House of Representatives, which had been 
furnished at a cost of sixty thousand dollars (and con- 
tained cuspidors at a cost of fifteen dollars each), not 
only delegates from all parts of South Carolina, but, many 
members of Congress, judges, public officials and the 
Governor of the state. 

During the deliberations of the committee on cre- 
dentials — on motion of Captain Robert Smalls (of the 
steam-boat "Planter" fame), I was, unanimously invited 
to address the convention. It came to me like the prov- 
erbial "clap of thunder". However, I did not shrink, but, 


on the contrary, "grasped" the opportunity, Thomas 
Carlyle says. 

"Occasion, God-like, rushes storming on swift — perilous, 
Like a whirlwind — like a swift, lightning steed; 
Manfully, thou shalt grasp him by the mane, 
And vault into thy seat on him; 
And ride and guide there thou!" 

I took his advice. F or nearly an hour, I addressed that 
august assemblage, paying no more attention to the per- 
sonel of the assemblage or the coign of advantage, from 
which I spoke, than if I had been speaking to a jury in 
the Court House. 

The portion of my address which attracted most at- 
tention and which was widely criticised by politicians, 
was that, wherein I declared that, the people should select 
as public servants, men known to be intelligent and 
lionest; that, unless this policy were speedily adopted 
they would be reading the "handwriting on the wall;" 
that, the reconstruction (carpet-bag) governments of the 
southern states could exist no longer than they were sus- 
tained by the public opinion of the North; and that, fail- 
ing in respect of that support, they would fall, to rise no 

Coming down from the rostrum (the speakers' 
stand), Senator Allen, of Greenville, grasped my hand, 
and said: "Mr. Green, you have made just the speech 
which I have desired to make, all this session; but, from 
policy sake, have not dared to do." 

I soon found that Senator Allen was correct; for, on 
returning to Bennettsville, I ascertained that a garbled 
report of my address had out-run me. It was reported 
and current, that I had said, that, none, save "college- 
bred men," should be elected to office, and since there 
were no men of that class amongst the Republican voters 


of that county, I readily deciphered the handwriting on 
the wall, for me. My political name was henceforth 
'Dennis !' 

This convention, elected me an alternate to the Phil- 
adelphia National Convention, which re-nominated Presi- 
dent Grant, for President, I represented the First Con- 
gressional District of South Carolina, and it was my first 
appearance, in National politics. 

The swamp, in the rear of my little home, at the foot 
of the hill, breathing forth poisonous miasmata, during 
the summer season, having impaired my health, and 
threatened the life of both my wife and our baby-boy, I 
suddenly concluded that I would, "pull up my stakes," 
and return to Cleveland; there, "for better or for worse," 
to try the fates as a member of the Ohio bar. 

In less time than it takes to record these facts, I had 
run over to the office of Colonel C. W. Dudley, the Nestor 
of the town, surrendered to him my deed and all claim on 
the hill-side lot of land; giving to cousin William Brew- 
ington, the horse which I was buying, and for the full 
payment of which he was surety ; sold to him, in bulk, the 
contents of the little grocery ; distributed gratis some and 
crated others of our meagre household effects, and were 
enroute towards Fayetteville, N. C. 

No tongue can ever express the joy of my wife, when 
she clearly understood that she, "really and trully" was 
leaving Bennettsville, to return no more. Her gratitude 
to God and her husband, knew no bounds, and she re- 
ferred to the event during the remainder of her life. 

We had some true and tried friends there, of both 
races, who regretted to see us leave ; even Colonel Dudley, 
who generally represented the sentiment of the white 
people of the county, said to me, "If you had permitted 
the white people to take you up and fight Maxwell, you 
could have succeeded politically and otherwise." However. 
that policy was out of the question. I was colored, and I 


was a black — Abraham Lincoln, John Brown, Frederick 
Douglass Republican, and everybody knew it. How then, 
could I, with Democrats of that day, join hands and fight 
Maxwell and his hosts ; many of whom walked from Red 
Bank, twenty miles distant, to vote for Ulysses S. Grant, 
as against Horace Greeley ! 




In the city of Fayetteville, we found ourselves in the 
midst of many relatives and warm hearted friends, two of 
whom, most highly prized by us, were Mr. A. J. Chesnutt, 
father of Charles W. Chesnutt, Esquire, author and schol- 
ar, whose name I have mentioned heretofore; and the 
other was, the late Mrs. Sophia Carter, a sister of Mr. A. 
J. Chesnutt, who temporarily, in a motherly way, received 
my dear wife, and made her comfortable and happy, as 
long as we remained there. We left, with Mrs. Carter, 
a cook stove (rara vis, in that part of the countiy), con- 
ditioned that, when convenient, she should remit to us the 
sum of fifteen dollars, the purchase price of the same. Of 
this transaction more anon. 

Arriving in Cleveland, after spending a month as the 
guest of my dear mother and sisters, we rented a suite of 
two rooms, on the second floor of a frame dwelling house 
(still standing) in Brownell street, (now E. 14th), fur- 
nished it at an expense of twenty-seven dollars, and 
moved into it. It was now near winter, and the remainder 
of cash, which I had brought with me from Bennettsville 
had dwindled down to a negligible amount ; and, as I was 
not known in Cleveland, as a lawyer, I began to have 
visions of the "gaunt finger of want." 

Under these conditions, the late R. L. Holden and I 


planned and executed a tour of some of the prominent 
cities of the east, including some of those which I had 
visited in my school days, when I sold my little book, and 
lectured. During this tour, we acted in a dual capacity; 
I lecturing first, and Holden following, with some "side- 
splitting" stories. We were well treated, and received 
enough money to defray all expenses ; but, little more, and 
on my return to my wife and two babies, now, I found 
myself in the most dire strait, financially, I had ever been 
in before, even more so than when I took that midnight 
trip to Laurinburg, for, then, I had no rent to pay, on the 
spot; and I had only one baby to care for; moreover, I 
could see flitting around and past me youths and men of 
my acquaintance, who had never orated in public, and 
whose names had never been blazed forth as an orator, 
hero, lawyer, and what not ; yet, sleek and well clad, still 
acting in the role of waiters and menials, while I was, 
almost, "hungry and naked." 

I was out of coal, with the mercury at almost zero; 
my rent was in arrears, with no prospect of payment; 
and the larder was well nigh empty. In this plight, Mr, 
Cicero M. Richardson, one of the foremost and well to do 
citizens of color, kindly sent me a few bushels of coal; 
and none too soon; another dear good friend, Mr. James 
Thompson, a Roman Catholic, small of stature and very 
dark, visited me, and gave me of his advice and assist- 
ance ; a favor which, later, on I repaid, in kind, of which 
he never knew. 

I went out into the city amongst several of my erst- 
while colored friends and tried to persuade them to loan 
me the sum of five dollars; but, in vain. I regret to say, 
they proved to be in a worse financial condition that I 
myself was ; provided, they told me the truth. I then went 
to Mr. Byron Hunt, a white man, clerk at the old Birch 
House, where I worked, for my meals, during a part of 


my school days; he loaned it to me, without hesitation; 
and, I afterwards returned it to him. 

I went to a grocery store, around the comer of East 
14th street (Brownell) and Prospect street, and filled my 
basket with groceries, one morning; but, not having 
money sufficient to pay the bill in full, I handed him back 
the butter. Arriving at home, we ate our bread without 
butter, which I had often done before. 

Frequently, I attended the police court, hoping 
against fate, that, somebody, of all would retain me to 
defend him ; but in vain. What knowledge had they of my 
legal ability or the contrary? None at all. Some of them 
perchance had heard of me as being an apt and success- 
ful school boy, and that, I had been graduated from the 
Law College, but, the report of my signal success, at the 
South Carolina Bar had not reached them, and, when the 
life, liberty or property of a man is at stake, he wants the 
best and most influential lawyer he can obtain. But — 

"Let Hercules do as he may ; 

The cat will mew, and the dog will have his day!" 

and my day finally came, when, a young colored man, 
J. A. Hawkins, by name (long since deceased), who was 
unjustly accused of an oifense, seeing me in the court 
room, came to me and gave me a retainer of twenty-five 
dollars, to defend him! To say I was pleased, only mildly 
expresses the sensation which nearly overwhelmed me; 
not more by reason of the retainer, than because it would 
give me an opportunity of being seen and heard in that 
legal arena, where I was destined, for so many long 
years, to "strut and fret," and contend, as an advocate 
of justice between man and man,^ and "The State of Ohio 
and the defendant, at the Bar." 

Mr. Hawkins was speedily aquitted; and went from 
the presence of the court, "without delay," to blazon 


forth my merits as a lawyer; and thereby, assist me in 
securing my "daily bread", — butter or no butter. 

It was a pecular coincidence that, just before Mr. 
Hawkins retained me, when I was, once more "dead 
broke," I received a letter from that dear Mrs. Sophia 
Carter enclosing three five dollar bills, in payment of the 
little cookstove, which we had placed in her possession on 
leaving Fayetteville. Truly, i ? or us, I could say with 

"Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day 
Stands tip-toe on the misty mountain tops." 

We had now, forty dollars, in cash, at our disposal; 
and I was determined to make the most of it, and from 
that time down to the present day, we have been above 
sheer want; and, at times, able to cast a little bread on 
the waters. 

The advent of the municipal election, drew near, 
a maj r or was to be elected, and various and sundry muni- 
cipal afficials, including a number of justices of the 
peace, to serve the township and city of Cleveland, dur- 
ing the ensuing three years. In that contingency, to my 
great surprise and gratification, up rose Pard B. Smith, 
sheriff of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, William T. Clark, Esq., 
attorney at law (in whose office I had my desk) and 
"Johnnie" Francisco, highly esteemed veteran of the Civil 
war; and, in the convention they wrought so manfully 
and successfully that, I received the nomination, for jus- 
tice of the peace, at the hands of the Republican party. 
At the same time, John Huntington, Esq., was nominated 
for mayor. 

When the votes were counted on the night of the 
first Monday in April, 1873, the results proved that Mr. 
Huntington was defeated by more than twelve hundred; 
while this writer was elected, by more than three thous- 
and majority. 


This was the first instance within my memory, of 
the election of a colored man to any office, in the state of 
Ohio ; and, to the best of my knowledge, the first time a 
colored man was elected to a judicial office, in the great, 
North, East and West. In the former slave states, where 
the colored voters, assisted by a few white men, were in 
the majority, and members of the race, who could neither 
read nor write, were, in some instances, elected even to 
the law making branch, it was different. When I attended 
a state convention in Columbia, South Carolino, I met and 
associated with Justice Wright, a pure Negro, who was 
an associate justice of the Supreme Court of that august 
state ; the home of the Rhetts, the Barnwells, and of John 
C. Calhoun, of senatorial fame. *i 

I rented the office and succeeded to the judicial 
functions of the late "General" David L. Wood; and, 
thereafter, for nine consecutive years, by re-elections, I 
remained one of the justices of the peace of this populous 
wealthy and intelligent city of Cleveland, Ohio. 

In order that the significance of my promotion may 
be fully appreciated, it may be recorded, that the bond 
required of a justice, was five thousand dollars (which 
would be equal to ten thousand dollars now) . My bond was 
signed on the several occasions by the late W. C. Mc- 
Farland, the same attorney whose office I cared for, when 
I was in the Law College, in 1369. An able, kind and gen- 
erous man was Mr. McFarland and in his death, the Cleve- 
land Bar sustained a real loss. 

Justices of the peace, at that time had, in civil cases, 
jurrisdiction to the amount of three hundred dollars. 
Exclusive jurisdiction in Forcible Entry and Forcible 
Entry and Detainer cases; and examining powers in all 
felonies and misdemeanors, from murder down. Which 
made the court of justice of the peace of more importance 
than that of Municipal Judge in Washing-ton, D. C, or 
elsewhere at that time. Moreover, it was an elective office 


by a majority of the votes of the people; which I have 
always considered, the most honorable way of obtaining 
office, no matter of what importance. 

Amongst the conspicuous lawyers who appeared in 
my court and transacted legal business, may be men- 
tioned, ex-senator Theodore E. Burton, who informed me, 
when he was a notable candidate for the Presidency, that, 
he tried his first case in my court. Mr. Andrew Squire, 
who, at that time was a youthful practitioner, also tried 
cases before me, as did the late Virgil P. Kline, R. E. Mix, 
C. W. Noble, and Mr. John G. White, now famous as a 

Thomas J. Carran, John J. Carran and Mr. William 
Heisley, all able attorneys, gave me business and ap- 
peared in my justice's court. A long list would be re- 
quired to contain all the names of those attorneys, living 
and dead, who honored me with their business and pres- 
ence. The Honorable Myron T. Herrick, ex-governor of 
Ohio, and ex-U. S. Ambassador to France, says to me, in 
a postscript to a nice letter, "I recall that you were one of 
my first friends when, as a young man, I was admitted 
to the Bar." 

Johnnie McGraw, C. R. Heller and James Sweeney, 
(the first and third of Irish descent) , were two of my con- 
stables ; while Parker Hare, L. W. Turner and J. H. Wash- 
ington, all colored men, were, at times, in my office. 
Parker Hare, for five consecutive years. 

While I was serving my second term, as justice of 
the peace, in 1877, I was nominated, by the Republican 
Ijparty of Cuyahoga County, for the lower branch of the 
ttaiieral Assembly of Ohio. The canvass was long and, at 
times, exciting. I "stumped" the whole county, and tried 
to meet the objections of a colored man, now deceased, 
Madison Telley, by name, residing in the Hay market 
district, who was favoring the Democratic ticket, and 
boasted that he would defeat me. There was another 


man (white), Wilson Treat, by name, who resided in the 
"old Eleventh" ward, on the West side of the river, who 
quite effectively, opposed me ; because, when he was in his 
"cups", he squeezed one of my hands until small beads of 
blood oozed from the roots of two of my finger nails ; and 
I then and there, "insulted" him by telling him what I 
thought of him; which was not flattering, by any means. 
The next morning after the election, I was declared 
elected, by sixty-two majority over the late John C. Cov- 
ert, at that time, one of the editors of the Cleveland 
Leader. The late Edwin Cowles, who, with the late Joseph 
Medill of the Chicago Tribune founded the Leader, and 
for many years, made it a great power for the abolition 
of slavery, — the preservation of our glorious Union and 
a true wholesome Americanism, was Emeritus, then, 
while young men were at the helm. My election was bla- 
zoned forth with big head lines in all the daily papers. 

Great was the consternation of the friends and sup- 
porters of Mr. Covert ; they had "run" him as a champion 
of the demand that all church property should be taxed 
thereby, to inflict a telling if not mortal blow, on the 
Roman Catholic Church, in Ohio. 

Another night passed, when an alleged recount of 
the ballots cast for me was had, in "old ward No. Four", 
which had its headquarters in the engine house, still 
standing, in East 18th street, (then Huntington Street) , 
near Central avenue; the result of the recount, as an- 
nounced, on the following morning, was that, they had 
thrown out eighty-four votes, previously counted for 
me, — because they could not determine whether they 
were intended for me or for F. W. Green, one of the nom- 
inees on the Democratic ticket! 

Thus, they declared me defeated; and John C. Covert 
was declared elected, by a small majority; and he was 
subsequently, re-elected, and served four years as a law 
maker of the great State of Ohio; but, as far as I can see 


the taxation of church property, belonging to the protest^ 
ant or Catholic congregations, remains as it was at and 
before the time of Mr. Covert's "election." 

Ex-Mayor R. R. Herrick and Colonel Louis Smithnight, 
were the "bosses" of that ward, at that time. I am not 
sure that they were cognizant of the recount which was 
made, in the absence of myself and my political friends. 

I was advised, by many voters, of all races, to go to 
Columbus and contest the election (?) of Mr. Covert; 
but, I had neither time nor money to do so ; and I let it 
drop,awaiting another opportunity to win promotion. 

During the nine years of my service, as justice of the 
peace, I also, practiced law, principally in the criminal 
branch of the Court of Common Pleas ; and, in that sphere 
of action, it was my good fortune to be confronted by 
some courteous and able attorneys, who prosecuted for 
the State of Ohio. Amongst these were the late Homer 
B. DeWolf, William Robinson, S. M. Eddy, Peter H. 
Kaiser, Alex Hadden, Edward P. Slade ; and last, but not 
least, our present Judge W. B. Neff, who, for so many 
years, has presided with learning and dignity, in our 
Court of Common Pleas. 

The first "murder case," in which I defended, in 
Cleveland, was that of the State of Ohio vs. Stephen 
Hood, charged with murder in the first degree, in the 
premeditated killing of his foster son, "Green." It was, 
charged that, early one spring morning, Hood took his 
two boys Fred and "Green" to the camping grounds, 
from which a circus had just departed, ostensibly, to 
search for lost money and other things of value; and 
that, after searching for a short time, he went into a. 
neighboring wood, accompanied by "Green," and pounded 
his head almost into jelly, and left the corpse there, to 
be discovered, later on, by searchers for him. 

Hood professed innocence ; and that, he had no recol- 
lection of committing the deed ; and the fact, which was, 


not disputed, that Hood had adopted the boy, had always 
been kind to him, and even protected him when his wife 
would chastize him, left us all in doubt, as to whether or 
not, if he did commit the act, he did it when in a rational 

I adopted the defense of insanity, and proved, as I 
thought, that Hood was subject to hallucinations, when, 
his mind was unbalanced; and argued that, if he did kill 
the boy, it was done when he was under the influence of 
one of these spells. William T. Clark, Esq., then a young 
attorney, by my request, came into the case to assist me ; 
and very ably aided me in the entire defense. The late 
Judge R. F. Paine presided and conducted the case with 
his well known judicial ability, fairness and honor; while 
Mr. Homer B. De Wolf, young, energetic learned and able 
prosecuted, for the State. 

The trial lasted a number of days, and the court 
room was filled to the doors. Finally, the court having 
charged the jury, it retired in the afternoon and remained 
out, all night. On the following morning, the foreman 
handed in a sealed verdict of guilty of murder in the first 
degree. No sooner had the verdict been read and the jury- 
polled, than, it became known that, the jury, in its de- 
liberations, during the previous night, had made use of 
some law books, which had been negligently, left in the- 
jury room; and that, one of the jurors had assumed the 
role of Judge, mounted the platform, and, from the 
Judge's Bench, had expounded the law. I should have 
said, before, that the jury was locked up in the Court 
room, to deliberate. 

We obtained the affidavits of several of the jurors, 
establishing these facts ; but, owing to a decision ren- 
dered by our Supreme Court, to the effect, that, the oath 
of a juror will not be received to impeach the verdict of his 
fellow jurors, the verdict was not set aside by Judge 
Paine. We took the case, on error, to the Supreme Court;. 


but, met with the same refusal, and that is the law of 
of Ohio, to this day. 

Failing to get any relief from any legal source, I went 
to Chilicothe, Ohio, where resided Governor Allen, some- 
times called "Fog Horn" Bill Allen, in token of his sten- 
torean voice, which waked the echoes amongst the hills 
of southern Ohio, when he spoke at political gatherings, 
many-many years ago. The governor had retired from 
active political life ; but the exegencies of the Democratic 
party had called him forth from his beautiful and peace- 
ful country home, "Fruit Hill," which was nestled in the 
suburbs of Ohio's former capital, to do valiant service 
and once more reinstate his party and himself in power. 

The Governor, a gentleman of the type and character 
of the days of Calhoun and Clay and Stanley, received 
me with all the indications of good breeding and gentil- 
ity; and, after thoroughly discussing the merits Of the 
case, launched out into a sea of reminiscences of his con- 
gressional career, and did me the honor to state, that he 
served in Congress and was well acquainted with the late 
Edward Stanley (mentioned m the first chapter) one of 
my reputed uncles. Upon the whole, my hour and a half 
was spent with pleasure and profit, in the home of this 
distinguished statesman ; and I left him, the wiser for my 
visit to him, but, without profit to my client. 

Hood had to die. I advised him and tried to nerve him 
for that horrid ordeal ; and, had the satisfaction of seeing 
him firm in step and every movement, as he mounted 
and stood upon the "Trap" of the gallows, before he was 
launched into eternity. After the fall, a few shrugs and 
tremors of the swaying body, were the only indications 
that it had any life in it, and, in a few minutes, the doc- 
tors pronounced him dead. 

I could never get from him a confession of the deed, 
And I still believe, that, when he killed that unfortunate 
boy, he was non composment ; s, not of sound mind. 


Many other men and women, indicted for murder in 
the first, and second degree, I defended, while I served 
as justice of the peace, but, to even mention the cases 
briefly, would tire the reader of this narative, so, I wTl 
desist; later on, it may be necessary to make reference 
to one or more of my experiences, in order to bring to the 
front some of the public actors in the dramas ; but, until 
then, let the foregoing suffice. 

While engaged as justice of the peace, it was my 
pleasure and, indirectly, my profit, to make the acquaint- 
ance of a number of young gentlemen connected with the 
daily Press of Cleveland, who, afterwards become noted 
and, in two instances, at least, famous as journalists. The 
first of these was the renouned Frank G. Carpenter, who 
has, since, under the patronage, more or less, of Presi- 
dents and other high officials of the United States, and 
of Royalty, in Europe and Asia, traveled over the whole 
civilized world; and, as a correspondent of syndicated 
newspapers and other publications, contributed much 
towards the enlightenment of mankind. 

I recall Mr. Carpenter, as a frecklefaced, diminnui- 
tive young gentleman, with an abundance of ruddy hair. 
He was, then, connected with the news department of 
the Cleveland Daily Leader, and in his Quest of news 
items for his paper, was the soul of energy and persis- 
tency. I, for a long time, looked forward to his daily 
calls, and did my "bit" in securing and furnishing to him 
whatever of interest I thought would be of value to him: 
and, on more than one occasion, he reciprocated the favor 
by making notice of me and my office in the Leader in a 
way that was of substantial benefit to me. 

Another young gentleman with whom I became much 
more familiarly acquainted, was Mr. R. F. Paine, Jr., son 
of Judge R. F. Paine, the learned jurist who presided on 
the bench, during the trial of Stephen Hood, of whose un- 
fortunate ending, I have just spoken. Mr. Paine repre- 


sented one of the departments of the "Penny Press," as 
the Cleveland Press was then denominated, and it was 
largely through his indefatigable energy and skill, that 
the Press changed its name and became one of the great 
and influential papers of Northern Ohio. 

He too, in the commencement of his journalistic career 
came regularly to my office, in search of news items; 
and we all, justice, clerk and constables, were pleased to 
accommodate him, when practicable. In return for these, 
alleged favors, Mr. Paine did us many favors in the way 
of advertising the office, which of course, meant, finan- 
cial profit to us. 

I can never forget the large heartedness of this gen- 
tleman when, years afterwards, as the managing editor 
of the Press, he ran a conspicuous portrait of this writer, 
on the front page of the Press, gratis ; which contributed, 
substantially, towards the election of the writer to a much 
higher and more honorable office than the one then held 
by him ;, and again, after my return from a trip in Ire- 
liand, he published a lengthy letter, written by me, des- 
criptive of my tour, in the Press, and paid me, handsome- 
ly, for it. 

I may be excused for recording an interesting 
event, connected with the Penny Press, at the inception 
of its publication in Cleveland; which, I think, was the 
indirect cause of Mr. Paine's connection with that paper. 

There was a young man, since deceased, by the name 
of Maurice Perkins, who was connected with the news 
department of that paper, from its inception here. Mr. 
Perkins was energy personified; and he could write a 
story which every one would stop to read. In one of the 
«arly editions, appeared an article, quite readable, which 
greatly displeased a member of a great business firm of 
the city. A day or so, later on, in pursuance of an invi- 
tation extended to him, Mr. Perkins visited the place of 
business of the aforesaid young gentleman; and, while 


in there alone, he received such treatment, (in which tar 
played a conspicuous part.) that he subsequently was 
confined to his bed, and his health was seriously impaired. 
I think it was about this time that Judge Paine was re- 
tained by the paper, and his talented son became one of 
its reportorial staff. 

Mention has already been made, in the foregoing, of 
a number of prominent attorneys at law, who practiced, 
occasionally, in my office; but they were, for the most 
part, persons who were young in the profession, at that 
time; attention will now be called to several of riper 
years, who were conspicuous for their learning and suc- 
cess; and, as that Nestor of our Bar, W. S. Kerruish, 
Esq., was in the same hall, where my office was located, 
and only about fifteen feet removed from it, I will first 
mention him. Mr. Kerruish, then a man of middle age, 
and residing with his large and interesting family, in 
Woodland Avenue, which was then a beautiful residence 
street, was a very active practitioner. He spoke the Ger- 
man language, fairly well, and by reason of this fact, 
brought into his office a clientel, largely German. 

In the same hall, occupying an office contiguous to 
mine, was George A. Kolbe, Esq., a justice of the peace, 
of many years' experience, who, with a noble band of asso- 
ciates had, literally escaped from Germany after the col- 
lapse of their attempted revolution, finding asylum and. 
protection here in the United States. At the same time, 
came Carl Schurz, Franz Siegel, Jacob Mueller, August 
Thieme, J. W. Schmidt, Esquire Boehne, Edward Bohm 
and many others. I think they are all deceased now ; But, 
in their day, they were all politically influential and did 
much to stimulate the study of the German language in 
our schools, and to foster the love of their fatherland, 
which during the world war, made so much inconvenience 
and trouble for some of their successors. 

Squire Kolbe was veiy fond of Mr. Kerruish, for the 


reason that he spoke German ; and exerted himself to add 
to the number of his clients in every practical way. I 
suspect, also, that, there was a reciprocal feeling for the 
squire on the part of the able lawyer. 

Mr. Kerruish was cosmopolitan in his feelings and 
conduct; he was generous and liberal, and conceded to 
every man the right to the same enjoyment of all the 
constitutional rights which he and his enjoyed, without 
regard to race or color. 

I recall, an anecdote which ho has related to me on 
seferal occasions, during the past forty-seven years of 
our acquaintance, which proved plainly, the character- 
istics of the youth, as developed in the man. lie with 
some of his classmates, who were students at Western 
Reserve College, when it was located at Hudson, Ohio, in 
the early Fifties extended an invitation to Frederick 
Douglass, who was then famous, throughout the land, 
for his eloquence and the strenuous fight he was making 
for the abolition of slavery, in the United States, to ad- 
dress them in the big tent, in the Campus in Hudson, on 
the annual occasion. The President and Faculty de- 
murred; and endeavored to persuade them to cancel the 
invitation; but they were abdurate, wou-d not yield; as 
a consequence, at the appointed time, Mr. Douglass, made 
his appearance; and, in his own telling way, addressed 
an immense throng, which completely filled the big tent. 
In answering an argument (?) which was frequently put 
forth, by the slave holders and their Northern friends, 
that one of the proofs of the Negro's inferiority was that, 
he had a "weak voice", Mr. Kerruish says, that, when he 
uttered that phraze "weak voice", he used the power of 
Gargantua, or roared like one of the bulls of Bashan. Mr. 
Kerruish derives great pleasure, from the telling of this 
anecdote of his school days. 

During my official career, as justice of the peace, an 
incident occurred which very forcibly displayed this 


characteristic of love of fair play, as developed in Mr. 
Kerruish, which I will here, record. 

Not feeling in the best of health, I went to the restau- 
rant of the late Captain J. M. Richards, on the site of the 
present American Trust Building (of which I have 
already spoken), and was refused service of a meal, 
because the enclosed "stalls" were occupied. I suggested 
to the usher, that, I was willing to eat at the outer table, 
where I saw numbers of young lawyers, and others, eat- 
ing. The usher ("Harm," I think they called him), said, 
0, I can't seat a colored man at that table; the Captain 
would raise the d 1 if I should do that!" 

So, with my heart "bowed down" and my stomach 
empty, I left the place and betook me to the office of that 
grand old patriarch, Probate Judge, Danniel R. Tilden, 
who, for more than thirty years, was not only Probate 
Judge of Cuyahoga County, but, was also a father to the 
fatherless, and a very kind friend in need to those who 
called on him. 

I found sitting with him, that John Marshall of our 
Ohio Constitution, of 1851, the late Judge Rufus P. 
Ranney, who, as a member of the Supreme Court of Ohio, 
had made his name famous, for all time, for his legal 
learning, as seen in the constructions placed by him on 
that important document. 

I related to them my experience in the restaurant of 
Captain Richards; which greatly surprised and chagrined 
them both. "Why, did J-o-e do that?" said Judge Ranney. 
"Is that a fact?" asked Judge Tilden. "Why Dan," said 
Judge Ranney, "Green and my Charlie used to «o to 
school together!" From these good men. I went to Ker- 
ruish. "Green," he said, tomorrow, we will go to that 
place; and if they refuse to seat and serve you, we will 
kick the table over, get arrested, and let the whole thing 
go before the people, that a justice of the peace of Cleve- 
land cannot buy a meal in an ordinary restaurant!!" 


On the following day, at noon, Kerruish and I went, 
side by side, to the same restaurant ; fully determined to 
overturn the table, if the "justice" were not served. 
When we entered, "Harm" (?) the usher looked at us, 
drew a chair for each of us, and we both were politely and 
satisfactorily served, according to our orders. My pleas- 
ure and relief were inexpressible; for, as an officer of 
the "peace", I was loth to be arrested and fined, for break- 
ing the peace. Long live W. S. Kerruish! May his posteri- 
ty practice his virtues and emulate his example. 

Judge Stevenson Burke, was another of the fearless 
frank practitioners at the Cleveland Bar. The judge was 
well along in years and his professional career, when he 
came to Cleveland. In the Lorain district, he had been 
elected Judge, on his merits, as an honorable man and 
good lawyer. He was serving on the Bench, during the 
exciting times, precipitated by the Wellington Rescue, 
when a large number of persons, citizens of Oberlin, in- 
cluding ministers of the Gospel, professors in the col- 
lege, lawyers, merchants, mechanics, and ordinary labor- 
ers, rushed to Wellington, eight miles distant, forcibly 
took a fugitive slave from the custody of a United States 
Marshal, and set him at liberty. 

They were arrested, brought to Cleveland, incarcer- 
ated, temporarily, indicted, and ultimately, brought to 
trial and convicted ; several of them being ab?y defended 
by the late A. G. Riddle, Esq., good lawyer, M. C. and 

Then it was that, the Grand Jury of Lorain County, 
under the charge of Judge Burke, indicted the owner of 
the fugitive for kidnapping; when, becoming aware of 
the fact, the owner returned to his Kentucky home, and 
the prosecutions, on both sides, were abandoned. Such 
was Judge Burke, and much more ; for, during the re- 
mainder of his long life, after he came to Cleveland, he 
proved himself to be a great lawyer, in the important 

affairs of "big-business;" his name became associated 
with those of the great Captains of Industry and com- 
merce, of his day. He lived in princely style, on our 
leading avenue; and, dying, left a generous competancy 
to his sorrowing family. 

The late Edwin P. Slade, Esquire, one time, prosecu- 
tor of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is recalled with "mingled 
feeling of joy and regret. Mr. Slade (brother of the late 
Albert T. Slade, who was noted for his legal and literary 
attainments), was naturally, a noteworthy man; but, by 
reason of the fascination the "cup" had over him, he was 
his own worst enemy. The name of his friends was 
legion, not more for the reason that, at times he would 
make a valorous fight to withstand the temptation, than 
because of his high social and professional standing. 

As a final and last resort to help him to overcome his 
one seductive fault, he was elected prosecuting attorney 
of this populous and wealthy county. And, paradoxical as 
it may seem, he prosecuted its criminal cases and conduct- 
ed its business affairs in a sober, intelligent, praiseworthy 
manner; but, once again, out of office, he rapidly degen- 
erated to his former condition. 

"Staggering into my office, occasionally, he would 
exclaim. "0, Brother Green; Brother Green!" Then, 
lapsing into silence for a few seconds, he would mumble 
out, those well known words of Cassius; "Drunk? and 
speak parrot? and squabble? swagger? swear? and dis- 
course fustian with one's own shadow? O thou invisible 
spirit of wine, if thou hast no name to be known by, let 
us call thee — devil!" Then, as if to add emphasis to the 
last four words, he would wag his head, up and down, 
sorrowfully, pitifully. Ere long his flickering light went 
outs we all sighed over his bier ; but, submissively, bowed 
to the decree of Providence. 

Judge W. A. Babcock not so long deceased, was a 
conspicuous example of what a man, naturally endowed 


with an active capacious brain, and educationally trained 
for activities in the higher walk of life can do and be, if 
he wills to conquer. 

I met the judge when he was plain, W. A. Babcock; 
an alumnus, "fresh" from Hiram College, the very name 
of which linked with that of the lamented J. A. Garfield, 
should be an inspiration to any man. The "bright lights" 
and seductive influences of the big city, seemed, at first, 
to seal the fate of the young man ; who, really, deserved 
a warmer reception and more wholesome environment 
than fell to his lot. If only some kindly, hand had been 
stretched out for "Will" Babcock, which would have led 
him up on to the mount of vision, where he could have 
beheld the honors which the future held in store for him, 
how different the first years of his career, on this stage 
of action, might have been! 

However, some of the greatest names that grace the 
pages of human endeavor have been, like him, "tried as 
by fire;" and, like him, have come through victorious. 
Judge Babcock. upon the whole, made an able and efficient 
judge. He was a voracious reader and a careful student 
of law and his decisions carried weight with them, 
wherever they were reviewed. The judge was also in al- 
most, constant demand for speeches and addresses, which 
were not only instructive, but entertaining, as well. 

I met the Judge near the middle of the Public Square 
on one occasion. He halted me, and said, abruptly, "Green 
what is that quotation which you used in an argument, 
the other day. I want to use it in an address, tonight; 
something about making a 'scare-crow of the Law' ". "O 
yes, Judge," I answered ; "I runs like this : 

"We must not make a scare -crow of the Law, 
Setting it up to fear the birds of prey, 
And let it keep one shape, till custom make it 
Their perch, and not their terror." 

— Measure for Measure, Act II, Scene I. 


"Ah yes!" he exclaimed: "Where is that found?" I told 
him; and he thanked me. Judge Babcock was an open 
minded, "free hearted" man. He had his failings, some 
of them quite glaring, but, what human being is perfect? 
Once, after I had finished defending a man, indicted 
for murder in the first degree, as soon as the jury retired, 
Judge Babcock leaned forward and said to me, in open 
court and the presence of many persons : "Green, the ar- 
gument you made in this case, today, is the ablest I have 
listened to during the eight years I have been on the 
Bench!" Surely, this was praise, and the stimulous it 
imparted to me, still impels me onward and — upward, 
I trust. 

In the foregoing, special mention has been made of 
the constabulary force, connected with my office, but, 
this sketch would be noticibly deficient were not the 
clerical force gratefully acknowledged. 

On succeeding and taking possession of the office 
furniture, dockets and notarial seal of (General) David 
L. Wood, I found in possession, awaiting my advent, a 
very efficient clerk, in the person of Mr. George Menger 
who, for years, had faithfully served my predecessor, in 
that capacity. I was pleased to learn, from him, that 
he was ready and willing to retain the same position and 
discharge the same functions as under D. L. Wood. For 
it must not be forgotten that, when elected, in 1873, 
I had little or no experience in practicing civil law, 
before justices of the peace or in any other courts, and, 
since Mr. Menger was expert in the technicalities of the 
business, it was in the nature of a God-send that he came 
to me. 

Mr. Menger was a German by birth, about twenty- 
five years of age, and quite "festive" in his proclivities, 
by which term, I suppose, I am fairly well understood. In 
the office of Esquire George A. Kolbe, there were two 
young men, of German birth, also, August Kiel and Ed- 


ward Beltz, by name, respectively; and they, with Mr. 
Menger, formed a trio, which in social festivities, was 
hard to beat. 

Mr. Kiel was rather proud of his record of having 
drunk, in one day, thirty-five glasses of beer; while the 
two others were endeavoring to emulate his example. 
Tho, I must state, that, of the three, Mr. Beltz was, at 
all times, comparatively, conservative. 

One fine evening, this writer joined them in a jolly 
meeting, at the home of Mr. Menger' s uncle, in Marion 
Street; and, after the feast and flow, we repaired to the 
street; and, in our meanderings, ultimately found our- 
selves at the intersection of Erie (now East 9th) and 
Ohio (now Central Ave) streets. It was past midnight 
and we were quite hilarious, tho not intoxicated, and we 
were at a loss as to how we could pass the remainder of 
the time agreeably ; as there was an old horse strayed in 
the street, we took turns in mounting and riding him, 
"bare back", for a block or two and back again. 

At length, in the "wee sma" hours, we repaired to 
our several homes; where we, for a few short hours, 
became oblivious of the past and careless as to the future. 
Mr. Edward Beltz was a gentleman of culture and indus- 
try. Under the instruction of Esquire Kolbe, he entered 
upon the copying of records, in the County-Recorders 
office, pertaining to real-estate, and continued in one 
phase and another of that business until he had laid the 
foundation of a great abstract company, which I con- 
sider the most fitting monument to his industry and skill, 
during his long life. 

The other men died in comparative youth, and, today, 
I am the only one of that nocturnal quartet left to tell 
the tale. 

Mr. Linden C. White, a genial, efficient young man, 
succeeded to the duties of Mr. Menger. Mr. White's 
health was poor, which necessitated frequent absences 


from his desk. On such occasions Mr. Louis W. Turner 
a gentleman of color, very ably filled the interim. Mr. 
Turner was subsequently elected one of the constables 
of Cleveland Township, which position he ably filled, in 
my office and that of others. Mr. White died in his youth 
sincerely mourned by many friends. , 

The last clerk whom it was my good fortune to em- 
ploy was Mr. George P. Phibbs, a native of Ireland, who 
had been "discovered" by my colored constable, Mr. 
Parker Hare. Mr. Phibbs gave up the business of bar- 
keeper, for a man by the name of Connor or Connors, 
whose establishment was located on the northeast corner 
of Michigan avenue and West Third street. His writing 
was like "copper plate", and his spelling and diction gave 
evidence of the fact that, he had enjoyed reasonable 
education facilities. 

After acting as an assistant to Mr. Hare, for some 
few months, he consented to enter my employ, as clerk, 
and from that time on for about ten years, we were 
almost inseperable. He was, truly my Fidus Achates ; and 
by his industry, and influence amongst the Irish people, 
especially, along business and political lines, he added 
very materially to my official and political successes. On 
one occasion (when I apprehended defeat at the polls), 
by his untiring energy and influence, he caused me to 
run ahead of the ticket, in two democratic wards, the 
"bloody Fifth," and the "Rock bound" Eighth ; although, 
I was denominated a "Black Republican." 

After I ceased to perform the functions of Justice 
of the Peace, Mr. Phibbs and I became partners in the 
practising of law. He having (on my certificate) been 
admitted to the Bar. 

Mr. Phibbs and I inducted "Squire" Wm. R. Ryan 
(subsequently sheriff of Cuyahoga County, Ohio) into the 
mysteries of his office when he was elected justice of the 
peace of Cleveland Township, and a little later on in life, 


he stood as God-father to ex-sheriff W. G. Smith of the 
same county, when an infant, he was christened. 

On one occasion, while still in the employ of my office 
he visited his old home, Ireland ; on returning, he brought 
and presented to me a beautiful black-thorn cane, and, 
in return for the favor, later on, in one of my European 
trips, I made a detour, and visited the "ould sod", and 
even kissed the Blarney stone, through the courtesy of 
some tourists, who held me head downwards, from the 
parapet, until I performed the osculatory feat. 

From Cleveland, Mr. Phibbs went to Pomona, Califor- 
nia; removing from there to Los Angeles, where for a 
time, he was assistant county or city prosecutor. Later 
on, he became interested in the manufacture of a cereal 

breakfast food, and became wealthy. He died a decade 
ago; and, I have left only the delightful memory of a 
man whom I considered my best friend, next to my dear 

mother, sisters and niy family. 

Speaking of my Irish friend, brings to my mind the 

fact that Mr. Michael Gallagher, *a giant in stature, and 
one time marshall of the city or town of Cleve^nd, used 
often to honor us with presence ; and, occasionally, served 
writs for us. "Mike" Gallagher was a genial whole-souled 
fellow full of reminiscences of the early days of the city, 
and withal, companionable and helpful. He too, has 
crossed the "great divide." 

Looking backwards over my career as a Justice of the 
Peace, I think the most humorous episode that occurred 
m my office was the following: 

Mr, BeScott Evans, who for many years, was noted 
as being perhaps, the most skillful portrait painter in this 
section of the United States, and who, with his beautiful 
mi talented daughter, were lost in mid ocean, when a 
qpeat French liner foundered, on their return trip from 
Paris, where he had spent some time in perfecting him- 

self in the art of delineating laces and draperies. He was 
also something of a wag, as well. 

On one occasion, seeing a picturesque little colored 
"newsie", on the avenue, whose appearance attracted his 
notice, he offered to compensate him, if he would come 
into his studio and, not "pose," but, submit to some dec- 
oration. The boy consented, and once in the studio, Mr. 
Evans painted his nose a bright vermilion hue, streaked 
his forehead and cheeks more or less, with the same, and 
sent him into an adjoining room, tenanted by a lady, 
lover of art, to deliver to her a note which, appropos, the 
artist had written and given to him. 

The note ran, somewhat, as follows: "Dear Miss: — 
knowing you to be fond of natural subjects, I send you, 
herewith, one on foot. He has a pedigree", etc, etc, etc. 
The boy, instead of delivering the note, as he was paid 
to do, carried it home, to his mother, who, being strongly 
saturated with Indian blood, went "on the war-path," so 
to speak, which led to the office of the late J. B. Mc- 
Laughlin, Esq., an attorney at law, who, immediately 
came to my office and sued the artist for three hundred 
dollars damages, sustained by the boy, by reason of the 
"malicious" decorations which he had inflicted on him. 

Mr. Evans, being duly summoned, appeared in court 
with his lawyer, John J. Carran, Esq., and demanded a 
trial by jury; which being granted, the case was, in due 
course, formally tried. 

Strange to relate, the jury returned a verdict for the 
plaintiff, in the sum of one hundred dollars. The defen- 
dant, of course, was both surprised and shocked at the 
result; and gave notice of appeal; but, before the lapse 
of the ten days' limit, for appeal, the parties settled the 
case, by defendant paying to plaintiff the sum of twenty- 
five dollars and the costs of suit; all amounting to about 
forty dollars. In the absence of more important news to 
print, many papers, in the United States carried a' story 


of this case— even beyond the Mississippi river; one of 
them finishing its account as follows : "Lawyer McLaugh- 
lin, in arguing the case, created a profound sensation in 
court, by the startling definition he gave to the term 
"pedigree!" ' 

Another case, which I have never forgotten, was one 
of embezzlement, brought by the Wilson Sewing Machine 
Company, in which, the complainant, "Muck Bunnell," 
by name, was declared to have appropriated to his own 
use the sum of five hundred dollars, belonging to his em- 

This case lasted two days. Henry C. White, Esq.,. 
subsequently probate judge of the county, represented 
the defendant. Fourteen witnesses, for the state, testi- 
fied to the identity of the defendant; and he was bound 
over, to await the action of the grand jury; but, it was 
subsequently ascertained, that, the defendant was not 
"Muck Bunnell!" and the company settled with him, for 
his wrongful arrest, imprisonment and prosecution, by 
paying him five hundred dollars in cash. 



In the fall of 1881, I was again nominated for the 
lower branch of the General Assembly of Ohio. This 
time my majority was so large that, I succeeded in get- 
ting my certificate; and in the early part of the month 
of January, following, I was sworn in and took my seat. 
My desk was immediately in the rear of a group com- 
posed of some very conspicuous and able members; 
amongst who were, Dr. Scott, ex-consul to Honolulu, from 
Warren county; Mr. Hathaway, learned lawyer and very 
high "Masonic," from Chardon, Geauga county; Mr. 
Jones, able attorney and ex-member of Congress, from 
Delaware county, and Mr. Freeman Thorpe, a courteous 
and dignified gentleman, a portrait painter, from Ashta- 
bula county; all of whom treated me without discrimina- 
tion, and with marked consideration. I may say, here, 
that, without exception, during the entire sessions of the 
General Assembly, I had nothing to complain of, in this 

This fact would seem somewhat remarkable, from 
the fact that, some years theretofore, when a member of 
the "House" invited the late John Mercer Langston, fa- 
mous for his learning, eloquence and general utility, to 
sit by his side, on the floor of that body, serious objection 
was raised, on the ground that Mr. Langston was a col- 
ored man; although his father was a wealthy white Vir- 


ginian, who had given him a college education, and a fi- 
nancial competency, in addition thereto; and I may add, 
Mr. Langston, a few years later could add, after his 
name, the significant letters, M. C. 

The Speaker of the House was the Hon. Orlando J. 
Hodge, a noted parliamentarian, who had seen much ser- 
vice in legislative bodies, municipal and state, and had 
been a member of the Senate of Connecticut, his native 
state. In making his assignments for committees, he 
put me on corporations other than municipal, library and 
insane asylums ; of the latter, he made me chairman ; and 
on various occasions he honored me by calling me to the 
chair, and allowing me to preside over that august body. 

I was now acting in a dual capacity, being justice 
of the peace of the township of Cleveland, and a member 
of the General Assembly, from Cuyahoga county, which 
included the city of Cleveland and also a number of towns 
and villages in the suburbs of Cleveland. Of course, I 
could attend to my magisterial duties only when at home ; 
and since I received no salary in that office, no valid com- 
plaint could be made — by reason of my frequent absence 
from my office. This dual condition ceased to exist, how- 
ever, after the lapse of one year, when my term as jus- 
tice expired, after a tenure of nine consecutive years. 

During the existence of this assembly, I performed 
a mass of work, in committee and on the floor of the 
house; but I shall notice here only two matters, which 
the press took notice of, as being of special interest. 

The first, was my strenuous opposition to the enact- 
ment of the so-called, "Scott Liquor Taxation Law," fath- 
ered by Dr. Scott, of whom I have spoken, and opposed 
by many people throughout the state, on the ground that 
it was, essentially, a license law; while the constitution 
of the state provided substantially, that no law to license 
the sale of intoxicating liquors should ever be enacted. 

I, with many others, contended that, permitting the 
sale of such liquors, on the payment of a "tax," was, sub- 
stantially, a license; and, therefore, such a law would be 
unconstitutional and void. The contentions pro and con 
were strenuous and, at times bitter; but, the "pros" were 
in the majority, and ultimately, won — the bill becoming a 

The validity of the "law" was speedily tested; and 
the Supreme Court of the state declared it unconstitution- 
al and void. Thereupon, commenced some strategic po- 
litical work — "log-rolling," during the interim, between 
that sixty-fifth and the following sixty-sixth General As- 
sembly, the like of which I did not suspect could be con- 
summated — for, I was young and inexperienced in legis- 
lative procedure ; and, was quite surprised. 

By the time that the constitutionality of the next 
liquor-taxation-law came before our Supreme Court to be 
tested, the personnel of that august tribunal had under- 
gone a radical change; and a new governor was in the 
chair. As a matter of course, the lav/ was upheld; and 
from that time down to the beginning of our present era 
of prohibition, saloons were maintained and liquor was 
sold, without any hindrance, upon the payment of the 
"tax" license. 

During the first session of that General Assembly 
(the 65th), Speaker Hodge received a letter from Hon. 
Oliver G. Cope, of Cadiz, Ohio, who was collecting data as 
to the Commercial status of the city of Cleveland, and the 
reasons underlying its rapid growth. I was both sur- 
prised and pleased, when he handed the letter to me, and 
requested me to answer it. In a humble way, I attempted 
to comply with his request; but, since I was limited in 
the number of words my answer was to contain, I will 
here present a copy of my answer for the inspection and 
criticism of such as may care to read it. 


Columbus, Ohio, February- 21, 1882. 
Honorable Oliver G. Cope, 

Cadiz, Ohio. „ 

My dear sir: — , 

Through the courtesy of Hon. Orlando J. Hodge, speaker of 
the House of Representatives, the pleasing task of submitting to 
you my "opinion" as to the leading interests or occupations 
"which have caused the great influx of population into the City of 
Cleveland," is delegated to me. Permit me, then, to state, in brief, 
the following: 

First — As to our iron industries, including smelting and the 
manufacture of bar, rail and other irons, as well as steel. 

The superior qualities pertaining to Lake Superior Iron Ore, 
have long been known ; and, during the last decade and a half, the 
iron masters of the country, acting upon that knowledge, have lo- 
cated extensive works in Cleveland, for the manufacture of the 
same; and, obeying a well-known law of political economy, the 
workers in furnaces and rolling mills, have flocked here, followed 
by their army of dependents. , 

The close proximity of Cleveland to the Massillon-Brier Hill 
and other coal and coke districts and vast limestone deposits, has 
added materially, to the desirableness of Cleveland as a suitable 
place for the manufacture of iron and steel on an extended scale. 

Second — Closely allied to our iron and steel industries, and 
largely dependent upon them, are the manufactories of stoves, hol- 
low-ware and machinery, of various kinds; to mention one or more 
of them, where there are so many, would be invidious. Suffice it 
to say, their name is legion, and they are rapidly increasing in 

Third — May be mentioned the oil-refining industries and those 
collateral industries dependent on them, such as the manufaccture 
of acids and other chemicals, parafine, etc.; all of which are handled 
on an immense and increasing scale, as the mere statement of the 
fact, that, the Standard Oil Company alone possesses facilities for 
turning out 10,000 barrels of refined oil, daily, will prove. 

Fourth — Cleveland is the grand distributing port of the north- 
western lumber trade, for this section of the United States; our 
marine and railroad facilities being such as to make the trans- 
portation of lumber and its products, not only practical, but, phe- 
nominally, cheap. 

Collaterally, with this industry, have sprung into existence 
all those industries which depend upon the lumber trade, such as 


the manufacture of barrels and kegs, on a gigantic scale; and 
also, woodenware manufacturing, on a large scale. 

Fifth — Pork-packing should not escape our notice. Years ago, 
Cincinnati claimed, and justly was acknowledged, to be the "Porko- 
polis" of America; but, it is the proud boast of Cleveland, today, 
that she is not only in the line of competition, but, at our present 
rate of progress, is destined in the near future, to outstrip her 
fair sister in the race. See, Statistics, for 1881. 

Sixth — Ship-building must not be ignored, in taking a cursory 
glance at our leading industrial enterprises. This interest, as 
managed in Cleveland, has acquired deserved fame throughout the 
lake regions; and the skill of our shipbuilders is proverbial. We 
have recently launched an elegant and commodious steel ship, the 
product of one of our great ship-building companies, which is at- 
tracting the attention of our nautical men, everywhere; and is 
prophetic of increased activity in this line, in the near future. 
This ship is of 3,000 tons burthen, and floats like a swan, upon 
the waters. 

To attempt a statement of all our principal industries would 
be useless, as they are numerous rnd complicated. I may state, 
in addition, however, that, thousands are also engaged in the man- 
ufacturing of beer, cigars, tobacco and clothing; to say nothing of 
the myriads of mechanics and artisans who are engaged in the con- 
struction of the commodious and elegant blocks and private resi- 
dences in this city. Nor can Ave deny that the location of our 
beautiful city with her miles of f haded streets and avenues; her 
abundance of pure water; and her unexcelled church and school 
facilities, have contributed largely towards "this great influx of 
population." And, last, but not least, an able and intelligent press 
has exerted a wonderful influence, in this direction, by acquainting 
the people with our peculiar adaptation for commei*cial and manu- 
facturing enterprises." 

During the session, there was a junket to Washing- 
ton, by the members of the house. I do not know who 
managed it; but, of one fact, I am certain; I received no 
invitation to join the company. So, I did not have the 
opportunity of seeing or interviewing Giteau, the assassin 
of the great James A. Garfield, before he was executed. 

Perhaps, it was just as well. For, had I accompanied 
them, we would have been compelled to part company, in 


Washington, by reason of the caste, which, then and now, 
excludes persons of color from hotels and dining rooms 
— except as menials. 

An incident occurred, in the House, during that ses- 
sion, which enabled me to aid the late Tom L. Johnson in 
obtaining a sure and firm foothold, as a resident and citi- 
zen of Cleveland ; and since this fact has played so impor- 
tant a part in the recent history of Cleveland, and, indi- 
rectly, given to the nation our great and efficient secre- 
tary of war, the Hon. Newton D. Baker. I shall record 
it in this place. 

When Mr. Johnson first came to Cleveland, directly 
from Indianapolis, where he had some experiences in the 
line of street railway aifairs, he found all the main ave- 
nues, extending from the public square to the eastern 
suburbs of the city, "preempted," occupied by "existing 
companies" — Broadway, Woodland avenue, Central ave- 
nue, Cedar avenue, Prospect street, Euclid avenue, Su- 
perior street and St. Clair avenue, were established and, 
beyond his reach. 

He offered to pave Scovill Avenue, which was, at 
times little more than a quagmire, if the denizens of that 
thoroughfare would concede to him a franchise to build 
and operate a street railroad through it. The offer was 
quickly accepted; but shortly, Mr. Johnson became aware 
of the fact that, as conditions then existed, he would be 
unable to run his cars beyond Scovill avenue to the 
"square," unless he could, in some way, secure an ease- 
ment over at least, one of the old lines, which permission 
was refused him, by the offcials of each line. At that 
time, each car line had a separate president and board 
of trustees. 

Then, there was introduced in the General Assembly, 
a bill known as the Weitzel Bill ; by Mr. Weitzel of Cin- 
cinnati, which provided, amongst other things, that, no 
new company should operate its cars over the tracks of 


an existing company a greater distance than one-eighth 
of a mile. 

Immediately, the City Council of Cleveland, unani- 
mously adopted a resolution, requesting the senators and 
representatives from this county to oppose that bill; for 
the reason that, if enacted, it would prevent any compe- 
tition in the street-railway business, and create a mono- 
poly in Cleveland, in favor of the old companies. 

When this bill was put on its passage, in the House, 
I alone, of the whole delegation, opposed it. I read the 
resolution of our City Council, and made the fact as clear 
as possible that, the bill was inimical to the best inter- 
ests of the car-riders of Cleveland ; that, the present man- 
agement of the street-railroads was not for the conven- 
ience of their patrons, but, for the profit of stockholders, 
of the same. 

The result, to the surprise of the friends of the bill, 
was, that, it failed of passage! Mr. Bruner of Wyandotte 
county, who had some interest conserved by other provis- 
ions of the bill, moved that, it be referred to a "select 
committee" of one, which was himself — this course was 
adopted; and, in the course of the session, he reported 
it back to the House; when it was passed, with the ob- 
jectionable clause eliminated. 

Thereupon, Mr. Tom L. Johnson, through the Coun- 
cil, or by agreement with one of the old companies, ob- 
tained permission to run his cars over other lines, down 
to the square; and also, to and over the viaduct, to the 
West Side; and from that time forward, he became an 
honored and useful citizen of Cleveland; serving her in 
Congress end as Mayor. Likewise, he was here to wel- 
come Mr. Newton D. Baker, who, for years, collaborated 
with him and others, and succeeded him as Mayor of 
Cleveland; also, Mr. Baker, by virtue of his connection 
with Mr. Johnson, as well as by his extraordinary ability, 
displayed in every position to which he was called, ulti- 


mately, headed the delegation to the Baltimore National 
Democratic convention, which nominated Woodrow Wil- 
son, in the first instance, for President ; where, he showed 
great ability and "masterly activity," in contributing 
towards Wilson's nomination, which fact paved the way 
for his appointment to his present august position. To 
what extent was this writer contributory thereto? After 
the defeat of the bill, L. A. Russell, Esq., who was the 
able and efficient attorney of Mr. Tom L. Johnson, came 
to me and thanked me, for the successful fight I had 
made, for the people of Cleveland, as well as Mr. Johnson." 

Some criticism of my failure to introduce and secure 
the passage of a bill to repeal the so-called "black laws," 
which were still standing on the statute books of Ohio, 
has been made. They were, like the clause of our State 
Constitution, which restricts the electoral to "white male 
citizens," relicts of the old slave regime, a menace to and 
abridgement of our rights as citizens of the state of Ohio, 
and diametrically opposed to the Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth amendments of the Constitution of the United 

There were several reasons why I did not prepare 
and introduce such a bill during that term of the assem- 
bly, which I shall now explain. 

In the first place, there was considerable opposition to 
the passage of such a law, which was manifested, when I 
mentioned the subject, in a .general way to some of the 
members, who were quite influential, and were of that 
"lily white" faction of the Republican party, who were 
led by the late Congressman C. H. Grosvenor, of the Ath- 
ens district, whose influence was still felt in the counsels 
of the state. During the Sixty-fourth General Assembly 
when the general statutes of the state were revised, and 
an effort was made to eliminate the "Black Laws," from 
the code, General Grosvenor, personally objected; say- 
ing, that the colored people of Ohio had not petitioned for 
their repeal ; and that, they did not desire it. This argu- 


ment was, of course, specious; but, it answered the pur- 
pose of defeating action, and they were included in the 
revised edition. 

Now, this condition of affairs prevailed, when I was in 
the assembly; and to prevent the same objection being 
raised again, I endeavored to secure the assistance of my 
colored constituents, at home, in having petitions signed 
by colored voters, asking for the repeal of those un- 
just-prejudicial laws; but, without success. 

Time and again, I called attention to this necessary 
action; but, without avail; and when the Assembly ad- 
journed, not one petition had been formulated and signed ; 
and the matter was postponed, until a later day. 

Another reason, why I did not then act, was, that 
the late Senator George S. Ely, who was elected from the 
Cleveland district, notified me that, he had a bill, in his 
pocket, for the repeal of those laws, which had been given 
to him by some of the voters of Cleveland; and that, he 
too, as myself, was waiting for a petition, numerously 
signed by colored people, to file, before introducing the 
bill. The petition never was delivered to him; and the 
Assembly adjourning he postponed action to its next 
meeting, which I am sorry to say, never came; for, the 
next Assembly was Democratic, on account of the anti- 
saloon legislation of the Sixty -fiftTi Assembly, and George 
Hoadly, a "Greely Democrat," was elected Governor. I 
was inclined to defer to the wishes of Senator Ely, be- 
cause he was a grand good man, high in financial and 
political circles, and I, quite naturally, believed that the 
bill would be more liberally and successfully supported 
under his leadership, than under mine, without any home 

The late Bishop B. W. Amett (colored), a member from 
Greene County, fell heir to the Ely bill, and carried it in 
his pocket until a clamor for its introduction was heard 
all over the State, amongst the colored voters and others. 


It was said by some, that, as a condition to his election, 
he had pledged himself to the voters of Greene county, 
not to introduce a bill of that purport ; and that, he could 
not break his word. Whether that was true or not, I have 
never ascertained; but, it is a matter of history, that, 
during the latter part of the session the bill was intro- 
duced, and the repeal effected, by a Democratic Assembly 
aided and abetted by George Hoadly, an old free soil aboli- 
tionist, who went wrong under the leadership of Horace 

Subsequent to the defeat of the "Weitzel" bill, and 
before the adjournment of the General Assembly, a .group 
of four gentlemen, each of whom was the president of 
one of the street railroad systems of Cleveland, came into 
my office, in Superior Street, and tried to persuade me 
to agree to support that bill, when reported back to the 
House, by the "select committee" of one, in whose hands 
it still rested. After much talk (arguments) and mutual 
explanations, I wearied of it; and, to cut off further dis- 
cussion, I exclaimed: "Gentlemen, I would not vote for 
that bill if you would give me ten thousand dollars !" One 
of them answered: "Well, you are very positive, to say 
the least!" Another remarked: "Well, there is one paper 
in Cleveland, that will support you, if you will support 
that bill!!" 

Failing to swerve me from my determination to stand 
by the car-riders of Cleveland, they finally left, in a dis- 
appointed mood. In justice to those gentlemen, all of 
whom it is necessary to say, were the soul of honesty, I 
will here state, that, during the whole controversy, from 
beginning to the end, no one of them, nor all combined, 
offered me any money or anything of value, to secure my 
support of that or any other measure. 

That my entire course, in the Sixty-fifth General As- 
sembly was endorsed by the Republican party, goes with- 
out saying; and if any proof of this statement be lack- 


ing, I will here state, that, I was renominated for a sec- 
ond term, by acclamation, no one dissenting; but, in the 
next general election, we not only lost the Governor and 
Assembly, to the Democratic party, but, we also failed 
to elect a United States senator — the Honorable Henry 
B. Payne, of Cleveland — an "old line" Democrat, being 
elected to that high office. 

In those days, the liquor interests were tried and 
faithful allies of the Democratic party, and to suggest or 
support any legislation which could be construed as 
hostile to their interests, brought down, speedily, con- 
dign punishment ; Query. In the light of the Nation-wide 
abolition of the liquor manufacture and traffic, by Mr. 
Wilson's Democratic administration, what do they think 
now? And what course will they pursue to enforce their 
maledictions against those who have destroyed their 
business and in some instances, confiscated their property 
and imprisoned them? 

Being a candidate, again, for the same position, I 
was met, in the Republican convention, by those four, 
street-railroad presidents; and, to my great surprise and 
dismay, they worked intelligently, persistently and ably, 
to compass my defeat. Success crowned their efforts. 
They defeated me, by securing the nomination of another 
colored man, a carpenter and joiner and mail carrier, the 
late Mr. Jere A. Brown. He served through the 67th and 
68th Assemblies. After that, he filled several clerical po- 
sitions, in Columbus, Washington and Cleveland, during 
the remainder of his life. 

During the six years which elapsed between the 65th 
and the 69th Assemblies, I was engaged in the practice 
of my profession, which enabled me to buy a home and 
get my family comfortably settled, and I, probably would 
have eschewed politics for all time, had not the Conven- 
tion plan of nominating candidates been discontinued, 
and the "Australian" or "popular vote" plan been sub- 


stituted for it. By this token, I knew that, the influence 
of the "bosses," so called, would not be so potent as on the 
convention floor; and I determined to "pick my flint" and 
try again. 

The dry details of professional practice, whether it 
be along the lines of theology, medicine or law, are of 
little interest to the average reader; but, perhaps, some 
reference to a few of a humorous nature, will not be 

During the years between 1885 and 1897, the prose- 
cuting attorneys of Cuyahoga County were, far above the 
average, in both learning and effort, although, Messrs. 
Homer B. DeWolf, "Sam" Eddy, Alexander Hadden, Peter 
H. Kaiser and William Robinson, who antedated them, 
were all gentlemen of liberal education and high profes- 
sional standing. 

Between the dates mentioned, there were a large 
number of murder cases tried, and it so happened that, 
this writer was defending, in a number of them. In those 
days attorneys were not restricted in time ; on both sides, 
they were allowed to discuss all the evidence, ad libitum, 
especially, in felony cases, and, frequently, the argu- 
menst, in homicide cases, occupied a day or more, on both 

I recall a case of murder in the first degree, which 
carried with a conviction a life penalty, in which my ar- 
gument for the defendant had run over into the second 
day; and, it being then near noon, William B. Neff, Esq. 
(Now Judge Neff) , was nervously pacing the floor. What 
the condition of the jurors was, "depondent saith not." 

Some one said, "Neff, when are you going to make 
your argument?" to which, Mr. Neff answered: "God only, 
knows; if Green does not finish soon, my administrator 
will have to make it!" However, before the recess, I 
resumed my seat, and Prosecutor Neff began his reply. 
In his gentle-suave manner, he began : "Now, gentle- 


men of the jury, don't you be swerved from the path of 
rectitude by Mr. Green's tears. Gentlemen, Mr. Green is 
a born actor, and his proper sphere of duty is on the 
stage — not at the bar. Why, gentlemen, recently, after 
one of those copious flows of tears, I went to the trouble 
and expense of having one of them analyzed by a compet- 
ent chemist ; and, when that chemist reached the last 
analysis of that tear, what do you think he found? — Sim- 
ply a dollar mark — for revenue only!!" 

The jurors and onlookers who had been absorbed for 
the instant, gave loose rein to their feelings — and laughed 
audibly. Such was one of the tactics of that eloquent and 
able gentleman. 

There was another case tried during that decade, 
which caused considerable comment, and added to my rep- 
utation, as a "criminal attorney;" although, if the 
amount involved is not considered, my civil practice far 
exceeded my practice in the criminal branch. The case, 
now referred to, was that of Ohio vs. Clark, one of two 
men indicted for the murder of a poor youth who was on 
his way to catch a train, for his school, at Hudson, Ohio. 

There was another "first degree" indictment, in that 
case ; it was that of a man by the name of Dempsey ; who 
was ably defended by the late Harrison J. Ewing, Esq., 
who was assisted therein, by this writer. Mr. Ewing also 
assisted me in the trial of the Clark case. We were en- 
gaged, from first to last, about thirty days, in the trial of 
these two cases; and the outcome was, that, both defen- 
dants were found guilty of murder in the second degree ; 
and received a life sentence in the penitentiary. Mr, 
Clark, who was tuberulous, died, after a few years incar- 
ceration; but, Mr. Dempsey, after the lapse of seven or 
eight years, was pardoned ; and, being married, he is now 
living the life of an industrious, respected citizen. 

In defending Clark, this writer and others (including 
the late Judge Carlos M. Stone, who presided), shed a few 


more of those tears, to which reference has been made, 
during the delivery of my argument for the defense; 
whereupon, Prosecutor Theodore L. Strimple (now Judge 
Strimple) exclaimed: "Well, you have shed tears, now, 
you had better offer up a prayer!" Taking him at his 
word, this writer immediately knelt and "offered up" a 
prayer, for wisdom, strength and success in his under- 

This was a decided innovation in the method of try- 
ing a law-suit; and it attracted universal attention, on 
the part of both the bar and the public. The newspapers 
contained accounts of the incident; and one of them sent 
a representative to interview lawyers and others, as to 
the propriety, first, of a lawyer crying, in the course of 
his argument; and, second, with reference to the prayer 
that was offered. 

The attorneys gave various answers, as to the first; 
but, fortunately, for me, the Supreme Court of Tennes- 
see, had, just at that time, handed down a decision which 
involved this identical question — of tears; in that decis- 
ion, the court said, in substance, that, a lawyer may weep, 
in the midst of his argument, if he is moved, by the merits 
of his case, to do so ; and, doubt is expressed as to wheth- 
er or not the attorney has performed his whole duty, if 
he feels like crying and refrains from doing so. This 
was all in my favor; but, as to the question relating to 
the prayer; they shook their beads and remained silent. 

So, the time flew by, for weeks and months; until, 
on one fair day, I met W. S. Kerruish, Esq., hereinbefore 
mentioned — lawyer, scholar, antiquarian, who stopped 
me, in the street. 

"Green!" he exclaimed: "I have a precedent for 
your praying in court!" "Indeed," I answered. "Please 
give it to me." "When Lord Brougham defended Queen 
Caroline," he said, measuredly, "he got down on his mar- 
row-bones and prayed, in open court!" 


Here, then, was a real precedent; and coming from 
that illustrious source, I was vindicated, beyond all ques- 
tion; and, thenceforward, the matter was allowed to 

There was another case, of a civil nature, which at- 
tracted considerable attention during that period of time, 
the interregnum, as I have occasionally termed it. It was 
the well known case of Florine A. Combes vs. Dr. J. B. 
Fox ; and was predicated on a claim of seven hundred and 
fifty dollars, which plaintiff alleged was due her from 
the defendant for board and lodging and services rendered 
for him, at his request. 

This case was tried before the late Judge Henry Mc- 
Kinney and a jury, I appearing for plaintiff, and W. S. 
Kerruish, Esq., the late Judge Henry C. White and Jeff 
M. Stewart, Esq., all representing the defendant, Dr. Fox ; 
who, metaphorically, exclaimed, "millions for defence; 
not one cent for tribute!" 

This case was desperately contested by the numerous 
and able attorneys for the defendant; but, all to no pur- 
pose; the jury found for my client — Mrs. Combes, for the 
full amount, with interest. 

Defendant's attorneys carried the case to the Cir- 
cuit Court (now Court of Appeals), where the defendant 
was represented by the late L. C. Ford, Esq., who, by the 
way, had taught me Greek, when I was a student, under 
him in the old High School; and, being defeated there, it 
was taken to the Supreme Court, at Columbus, where, I 
regret to state, it slumbered during several years; and 
was finally decided in favor of the plaintiff. The attorney 
for Dr. Fox, in the Supreme Court, was Solomon A. 
Schwab, Esq., who was one of my classmates in the same 
old Central High School, 1868-69. 

I had the pleasure of turning over to Mrs. Combes, 
after a litigation of seven (7) years, the entire amount oi 
her claim, together with interest. 




At the primaries, in the fall of 1889, I was, again, 
nominated for the General Assembly; and my majority 
exceeded, by six hundred and forty-two (642) votes, that 
of all others, on the Republican ticket; being, to that 
number, in excess of the vote cast for Hon. Orlando J. 
Hodge, ex-speaker of the lower branch of the 65th Gen- 
eral Assembly; and, since there were eleven candidates 
on that ticket, my signal success was taken as a substan- 
tial vindication of my previous record. 

At the general election, I was, duly elected, by a ma- 
jority of about three thousand votes; and in due time, 
took my seat in the Sixty-ninth General Assembly. 

I shall mention only a few of the measures which 
received my special attention, during the sessions of this 
Assembly, lest I weary the patience of the reader. 

The first was, a bill to modify the school law of Ohio, 
introduced by Mr. McDermott of Muskingum County; 
which provided, in substance, that, whenever twenty-five 
parents of colored pupils in the schools of any district 
petitioned for a separate school, for their children, it 
should be granted to them. 

I fought this measure, desperately, every time it 
came before the House, for the reason that, such an 
amendment of the law would have been only an "entering 


wedge," for the system of separate schools ; which, in my 
opinion, would be calamitous to the colored children of 
Ohio. The bill was, finally, defeated ; and our schools are 
still intact. 

The second was the attempt on the part of the Ohio 
State University, under the leadership of the late ex- 
President Rutherford B. Hayes, to "hog" the agricultural 
scrip, which was given to Ohio (and other states), to pro- 
mote higher education. 

This movement was ably and persistently opposed by 
the late Prof. Mitchell, President of Wilberforce Univer- 
sity, for which institution he desired to secure a minor 
portion of that fund. Conferences were held on the floors 
of both houses ; and, on one occasion, one of the chambers 
was given up for a general discussion of the matter, in the 
presence of many members of both branches of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

The entire amount was, ultimately, given to the Ohio 
State University, although, in urging the claims and ne- 
cessities of Wilberforce University, President Mitchell 
demonstrated his wisdom, courage and industry to a 
marked degree; and, evoked, even from his opponents, 
many enconiums. Had a less able and influential man 
than ex-President Hayes been opposed to Pres. Mitchell, 
he probably would have won his point. 

On the day following the discomfiture of Pres. Mitch- 
ell, I spoke, before the House, in open session, for an in- 
crease in the tentative appropriation for the State Nor- 
mal and Industrial department of Wilberforce; and my 
interest and energy was such that, my argument covered 
a space of five hours; and the proposed appropriation, 
which was six thousand dollars, then printed in the Ap- 
propriation Bill, was changed to sixteen (16) thousand 
dollars ; and the bill, as passed, carried that amount. 

This was the first large appropriation which was 
given to the Normal and Industrial; and the school was 


so stimulated and enthused, by reason of it, that a steady 
growth set in, which has culminated in the large, hand- 
some and useful plant which is at Wilberforce today. As 
a token of regard for the interest displayed by me, for the 
school, as well as for the speech which I delivered on the 
floor of the House, in behalf of the increased appropria- 
tion, the Faculty of the University bestowed on me the 
degree of LL. D., the diploma being signed by every mem- 

The third bill was drawn and introduced by myself 
entitled (as I now recall it) "A Bill to Create Labor Day, 
in the State of Ohio. The law was enacted April 28th, 
1890, and, from that date, the first Monday in September, 
has been a legal holiday, in Ohio. 

There were marchings and counter-marchings, in 
various states, before the enactment of that law; but, 
closely following the legalizing of the day in Ohio, Con- 
gress took up the matter, and made it national in its 
scope, as it remains, to this day. If there was any legis- 
lation concerning Labor's Holiday, before I drew and se- 
cured the passage of that bill, I have yet to be informed 
of the fact ; but, as to Ohio, I am positive, there was not. 

On the first Monday in September, following the cre- 
ation of the day, I was the guest of the Amalgamated 
Trades of Cincinnati, Ohio. I was received at the depot 
by a committee of the Trades Union, and escorted to 
headquarters, and when the great procession moved, I 
was in a carriage, at the head of the procession, with 
some of the leading officials of the organization. 

In the evening of same day, a banquet was given upon 
one of the high hills which look down on a portion of the 
city ; and I was feted, as I had never been before ; nor have 
I been since. Champagne and other wines, and beer, 
flowed freely, as I was hailed by those honest work-men, 
"The daddy of the day!" The Cincinnati Enquirer, and 
other papers gave full reports of the proceedings; nor 


did I hear or read then, that, the day had been legalized 
before my bill was enacted. 

On the following Labor Day, 1891, I was again th* 
invited guest of the same organization; and, arriving in 
the early morning, I was escorted to the Gibson House, 
a hostelry which, in those days, was regarded as amongst 
the first of that city. 

At the breakfast table, I was received and served as 
a gentleman ; but, when I presented my hat to the usher, 
at the dining-room door, at the dinner hour, he informed 
me that, he had orders not to receive it; for the reason 
that, I was a colored man. At the office I was insulted 
by an oif er made to me, that they would serve me in the 
"ordinary," — a place reserved for the use of servants and 
children. This offer I promptly refused ; and immediately 
accepted the offer of a reporter of one of the daily papers, 
to escort me to another hotel. 

Arriving at the Burnet House, a larger and better ap- 
pointed place than the Gibson House, I was received as a 
gentleman, assigned to a front room, with a bath-room at- 
tachment; and served in the dining room, in all respects, 
as any other American citizen. 

During the course of the day, I was honored by ex- 
Governor Joseph B. Foraker, who paid mea formal call ; 
and also by ex-Congressman McKinley (afterwarls Gov- 
ernoor of Ohio, and President of the United States), who 
refused to be a guest of the Gibson House, after he was 
informed of my treatment there by the management. 

On a third occasion, we went to a suburban resort 
and celebrated the day pic-nic-ing. Governor Campbell, 
then Governor of Ohio, headed the list of speakers; but, 
he sent his secretary, Claude Meeker, in his stead. 

McKinley did not wish to precede Meeker ; thereupon, 
I offered to see the managers of the day and have the 
order changed; which I did. McKinley following Meek- 
er, as he desired. This writer was also one of the speak- 


ers ; of which fact he was very proud — under the circum- 
stances. Since that date, I have not been the guest of any 
labor organization; but, their friendship for, and fidelity 
to me, have been manifested, in business as well as in 

At a later day, when Governor James Campbell of 
Ohio, addressed a vast throng of working men, at Good- 
ale Park, Columbus, I was honored by being on the pro- 
gramme, as one of the speakers. The Governor, who was 
not only eloquent but, also, humorous, on this occasion, 
said, in the midst of his speech, referring to laboring men, 
that, there was one position which he had always coveted, 
but had never attained to; then, glancing at me — sitting 
near him, he exclaimed, "that position is porter on a Pull- 
man car!" Loud laughter greeted this essay of wit and 

However, my opportunity finally came; when glanc- 
ing at the Governor, I said : "Gentlemen, I am more than 
than surprised to hear the Governor of the great state of 
Ohio, declare that, he does now or ever has aspired to the 
position of porter on a Pullman car. Why, gentlemen, 
nearly thirty years ago, I was a porter on a sleeping car, 
which ran from Cleveland to Cincinnati; and I labored 
and studied to attain to a higher position ; and here I am, 
today, sitting and speaking by the side of the Governor 
of Ohio — the guest of a great Labor organization of the 
State of Ohio!" 

The effect of this retort can be better imagined than 
described ; but, from the noise the crowd made, I imagined 
I had given him my "Rowland for his Oliver." 

Another bill which I drew, when in the 69th General 
Assembly was one to exempt from garnishee process, the 
wages due to a person who is the "sole support of a wid- 
owed mother." It remains to this day in the statute books 
of Ohio, and is frequently invoked to protect poor widows 
from want. 


I ought to say, perhaps, that, during the sessions of 
this 69th General Assembly, I drew, introduced and se- 
cured the passage of a bill, which added one thousand dol- 
lars to the salaries of our under-paid common pleas 
judges. In addition to this, I led the fight for the addi- 
tion of a fraction of a mill to our tax assessments, to 
create a fund which paid for the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument, on our Public Square. This I did in compli- 
ance with the wishes of the late Levi T. Schofield, Esq., a 
grand, good, talented man, who was the architect and soul 
of the whole movement. And I also made special effort 
for legislation fathered by Councilman Curtiss of Cleve- 
land, for the construction of our Central viaduct. The 
foregoing, with a mass of routine legislation, too numer- 
ous to mention, called for much energy and effort, until 
the close of that session. 

Having now served four eventful sessions of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, to the neglect of my professional business, 
I began to tire of it; for, in very truth, my only reason 
for neglecting my law office, and spending my winters 
and springs in Columbus, came from a desire, on my part, 
to blaze the way for others of my class ; who, I believed? 
would follow me; and now, that the road was open and 
clear, I was ready to retire to my private duties. 

Thereupon, numerous of my friends, of both races, 
began to advise me to stand for the senatorial "toga," 
which, I must confess, found in me a ready and willing 
listener; not more because the term "senator," was music 
in my ears, than for the reason that, the fact of repre- 
senting such a populous, wealthy and intelligent consti- 
tuency as inhabited the great city of Cleveland and her 
environs — the first city of the great State of Ohio, would 
be an additional honor which few men would decline. 

So, I yielded; and, thereforward, was recognized as 
a candidate for senatorial honors. The convention, in due 
time was called to order; and the contests for the place 


were "hotly" waged. At one time, I considered that I 
had been defeated; and I went " 'way back" and sat down. 
The fact that the Honorable William H. Clifford, a colored 
man, was on the floor of the convention, distributing his 
tickets and soliciting support for the lower house, did not 
aid my cause in the least; for, I was certain that, with 
only about one colored vote in a hundred, at that time, 
the colored people would not be given a member in each 
branch of the Assembly; and then too, those who were 
contesting my candidacy for the Senate, pointed to the 
fact, that, the colored voters were not united — one fac- 
tion demanding representation in the House, and another 
seeking a footing in the Senate. 

Finally the late Charles W. Snider, Esq., who, for 
five consecutive years, had a desk in my office, and on my 
certificate, took his examination for the Ohio bar, came 
to me and said, that, if I would promise to support John 
sner man's re-election to the United States Senate, he 
could secure for me the votes of two wards. I readily ac- 
cepted the proposition, because John Sherman, was my 
choice, in any event; and, another ballot being taken, I 
was nominated by a safe plurality, amidst loud acclama- 
tion on the part of my friends. One of my most earnest 
and energetic supporters, amongst the colored people, was 
The Honorable Harry C. Smith, then and now editor of 
the Gazette, the militant and unswerving advocate of the 
rights of the colored Americans. 

At the general election I was duly elected by a plu- 
rality of several thousand votes; and, for the first and 
only time, thus far, Ohio had elected a colored man Sena- 
tor; a fact which I could scarcely realize. I had declared 
before being elected to the Senate, that, if elected, I 
I would never be a candidate for any other representative 
office. I have, thus far, kept my word, and expect to in 
the future. 




When the Senate of the 70th General Assembly was 
organized I was duly sworn in, and took my allotted seat, 
which was near the center aisle, in the outer rim of the 
semi-circle. My nearest neighbors being the senators 
from Hamilton county. 

Of course, I was, easily, the cynosure of all eyes ; but, 
that fact was not to be wondered at; for, it was an his- 
torical event, which marked, in an unmistakable way, 
the steady, onward trend of a great people, whose ances- 
tors, for the most part, had scarcely emerged from a 
barbaric despotism. 

True it is, that prior to this time, two different col- 
ored men had been elected to the Senate of the United 
States; and had been sworn in, as members of the same; 
and served their term; but, these men were not elected 
by popular vote. They were elected by members of leg- 
islatures, in two of the "Gulf States," during the "Recon- 
struction" period; at a time when their respective states 
were dominated by the votes of the Freedmen, and some 
of the legislators could neither read nor write. 

The relative strength of the respective classes, white 
and colored, in Cleveland and Cuyahoga County, at the 
time of my election, was, about, as one or, perhaps two, 
to a hundred; and all the functions, social, political and 

educational, were in the hands and under the control of 
"white male citizens," which constituted a marked con- 
trast, between elections of colored men in Ohio and 
those in the lower tier of southern states. As an indica- 
tion of the view taken of my election, by white in Ohio, 
the following anecdote will be enlightening : 

I was sitting at my desk, on the floor of the Senate, 
when a white gentleman, visitor, approached me, and the 
following colloquy ensued: Gentleman: "I beg pardon; 
but, are you a member of this Senate?" 

The writer: "Yes, sir, I am a member of this body." 

Gentleman, with apparent surprise: "Where are you 

The Writer: "I am from the 25th— the Cleveland 

Gentleman, still more surprised: "How, on earth, did 
you ever get here?" 

I answered him by saying, that the people were not 
only just, but, generous; and that they had sent me to 
the Senate, partly, out of compliment to the colored resi- 
dents of the district ; and, partly, as a reward of merit for 
my long years of fidelity and labor in behalf of the Re- 
publican party, and, at the local bar. Then followed a 
long conversation between him and me, in which he 
showed his great surprise at the extraordinary progress 
made by the colored people, since emancipation, under dis- 
couraging handicaps. 

The presiding officers of this senate were the late 
Andrew L. Hams, President of the Senate, and Elbert 
L. Lampson, president pro tern; both learned and able 
men. Mr. Harris, subsequently, became Governor of 
Ohio, and Mr. Lampson, was, for years, the honored and 
efficient reading clerk of the House of Representatives, 
at Washington. 

On an auspicious occasion, President Lampson called 
me to preside over the Senate of Ohio; and t I gladly and 


eagerly availed myself of the opportunity; for, although 
my active experience as a parliamentarian was exceeding- 
ly limited, yet, here was Opportunity knocking at my 
door, and I dared not let it pass me by. 

During the half hour or more which elapsed, while I 
occupied the chair, the Hon. James E. Campbell, ex-Gov- 
ernor of Ohio, entered the Senate Chamber, and I had the 
superlative pleasure of introducing him to the Senators, 
who stood, to receive him. 

It is, also, worthy of note, I think, that, during the 
same period of time, I was the defacto Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of the State of Ohio. 

Later on, I will include a list of all the bills which I 
actively supported, while a member of the Senate; but, 
at present, I shall confine myself to mentioning a few, to 
which I gave especial and energetic effort. 

First, the Street-car Vestibule Bill, which made it 
obligatory on the part of the owners and operators of 
street-cars, to annex to them enclosed "vestibules," for 
the protection of motormen and conductors from the 
rigors of winter and inclement weather. 

Prior to that time, both of those employes, were com- 
pelled to protect themselves from the weather, as best 
they could, without any other than that of their wearing 
apparel, and, since their motor power was horses, the op- 
portunities of warming themselves were few, and quite 

The bill came over to the Senate from the House; 
but, the lobby in opposition to it, in the upper house, was 
so strong and influential, that it found, at first, little or 
no favor. Here, I found an opportunity of repaying, to 
some extent, the many favors which the laboring men 
had conferred on me ; and I lost no time in going to "the 
front," in support of this bill. I builded more wisely than 
I anticipated ; and ere long had the satisfaction of seeing 
the bill enacted into a law — still existing, which resulted 


in the placing of vestibules on the front and rear of every 
railway passenger car. 

It was argued that the glass windows in the front 
of the proposed vestibules, would become frosted and cov- 
ered with snow, so as to obscure the vision of the motor- 
man, thereby increasing fatalities and other accidents; 
but, down to this date, the prophecy has not been ful- 
filled, nor does it seem likely to be in the future. 

Another bill which I took under my wing — metaphor- 
ically speaking, was the one which provided that the coal 
miners of the state should be paid "by the run of the 
mine," instead of "by the screen," which was then in 
vogue. Now there were annually, many thousands of 
tons of fine coal which passed through the screen and sold 
at a good price, in the market, for the mining of which, 
the miners received no pay; and it seemed only reason- 
able and fair, that, they should be recompensed for all 
that went into the market. 

This bill was bitterly — stubbornly opposed by the 
mine owners, throughout the State; and the arguments 
and other efforts to secure its defeat, were numerous, and, 
at times, interesting. I, as in the case of the Vestibule 
Bill, espoused the cause of the laborers ; but, as my mem- 
ory now serves me, the bill could muster the support of 
only six (6) votes, amongst the entire membership of the 
Senate — and failed of passage. However, it is still a 
source of great satisfaction to me, to know that, I strenu- 
ously supported our idea, which ultimately, prevailed, and 
that, for many years, the hard workers — "down in the 
coal mines, underneath the ground," have been receiving 
their just reward, in this respect; whatever else may be 
said, apropos of other contentions. 

A humorous sequel arising out of this contention over 
the "Anti-Screen Bill," will bear repeating, here, I think ; 

and, I will add, I did not become fully informed, in the 


premises, until after the lapse of a decade or more of 
years; so well had my informant kept the secret. 

At a time when the contest was at its topmost height, 

a senator came to me and said: "Senator, the 

Coal Co. has a "book" of abstracts of coal lands, which 
they desire to have examined by an expert; and I have 
referred them to you. They will pay you well for your 
work; and, I hope you can accept the offer." I thanked 
him, and lost no time in coming in touch with the com- 
pany, and receiving from them a "book" of about thirty 
abstracts of title, to coal lands, in the heart of the coal 
producing section. 

I carried the "book" to my lodgings and, from five 
o'clock a. m., until the breakfast bell rang, for several 
days, I scrutinized those abstracts, until the work was 
finished; when I returned it to the office in Cleveland, 
duly certified, in accordance with my instructions. The 
gentleman who received it, asked me my charge; when I 
promptly replied, "twenty-five dollars," I shall never for- 
get the blank stare which he directed at me; but, he said 
nothing. Going to his desk, he drew a check and handed 
it to me. I accepted it, gratefully, and took my departure. 

As the years passed by, the transaction passed out of 
my mind; until, one fine day, a personal friend of mine, 
said, "Senator, I have a joke on you, which I have kept for 
ten years; but, I guess, I can tell it to you now." I, of 
course, became curious to know the purport of it; and 
said to him, in substance : 

"Let me see what in thereat is, 
And this mystery explore." 

Then he made known to me the fact that, the employ- 
ing of me to examine the abstracts, was one way of win- 
ning my vote against the "run of the mine" bill ; by giv- 
ing me an opportunity of collecting from the corporation 


the sum of five hundred dollars— more or less. I collected 
less; hence the ''blank stare," when I presented my bill 
for twenty-five dollars. 

The establishment of a system of Parks and Boule- 
vards was a subject which at this time was claiming 
much attention in Cleveland. The munificent gift of Mr. 
J. H. Wade, Mr. J. W. Gordon and Mr. Jacob B. Perkins 
had made this possible ; but, all three of the gifts being 
predicated, to some extent on the future development and 
upkeep of the system, it became necessary to finance the 
undertaking, in order to preserve them, and initiate the 
much-needed improvements. 

To that end, a bill was drawn, having as its object 
the bestowal upon the City of Cleveland, through the des- 
ignated authorities, power to issue and sell bonds, in the 
sum of one million dollars, for the purpose of carrying out 
the conditions of the several grants, and to render them, 
to some extent, adaptable to the needs of the people. 

This bill was placed in the hands of Senator Wilbur 
Parker; but, after it came from the committee, on his 
motion, it was referred to a "select committee of one" 
(himself), and for some reason which I have nearer 
known, he carried it in his "pocket," for several weeks; 
and notwithstanding the importunities of the Cleveland 
friends of the bill, he failed to report it back to the Senate. 
Finally, one day, when he appeared on the floor of the 
Senate, after a long absence, I moved that, "the select 
committee of one, to whom was referred Senate Bill No. — , 
be discharged from further consideration of the same;" 
and, the motion carrying, the bill came, once more, before 
the Senate, for consideration. Thereupon, at the instiga- 
tion of Senator Parker, a, motion was made for the re- 
consideration of the motion just adopted; and a "battle 
royal" ensued between the friends and foes of the bill, 
led by this writer, which threatened, at times to eventu- 
ate in the loss of the bill ; for the adjournment of the Sen- 


ate was near at hand, and the present opportunity was 

The motion to re-consider was lost, and the law was 
enacted, which placed on a firm foundation our present 
elaborate, extensive and beautiful system of parks and 
boulevards; which is a source of so much pleasure and 
healthfulness to all classes of our people. 

About this time, a bill which had passed the House 
of" which the late Senator William T. Clark was the au- 
thor, came over to the Senate and was put on its passage. 
It was a bill which provided that the firemen of Cleveland 
should be allowed a few hours off duty every week (since 
at that time they had no time off at all, for any purpose 
whatever.) In consonance with the policy which, during 
my entire legislative career had characterized my con- 
duct, I supported the bill — in fact, took charge of it; and 
had the satisfaction of seeing it become a law. 

When the passage of this bill became known in Cleve- 
land, there was an immediate outburst of anger, on the 
part of some interested persons; an indignation meeting 
was called and held ; and Mr. Clark and I were soundly be- 
rated ; for, it was said, the granting of a few hours of rec- 
reation to each fireman, would require an addition to the 
number of firemen, and, thereby entail an extra expense, 
which the tax-payers would have to pay. 

I came from Columbus and confronted that boiling- 
bubbling meeting, and demanded to be heard. After much 
pounding of the stand with his gavel, the chairman se- 
cured a hearing for me, and before I took my seat, my ut- 
terances were loudly applauded; but the general trend 
seemed to be averse to allowing the firemen any time off ; 
and, within a few days, the Hon. Joseph C. Bloch (now 
ex-Judge Bloch) introduced a bill to repeal the abnoxious 
legislation; and it was eliminated from the statues of 
that General Assembly. The sequel to all this "tempest 
in a tea-pot," is, that within a year or two, there was a law 


enacted granting to the firemen more "time off" than the 
Clark Bill" provided for; and, today, they have still more 
time allowed them." "Truth (justice) crashed to earth, 
will rise again!" I recall my connection with that ill- 
fated bill as one of the proudest transactions of my life; 
and, I enjoy telling about it. 

It is generally known that, we have on the pages of 
our statute books a law known as the Civil Rights Law, 
which was fathered by The Honorable Harry C. Smith, 
who, for three terms, represented the County of Cuya- 
hoga (Cleveland) in the House of the General Assembly. 
This law is far-reaching in its scope, and includes, 
amongst other public services, barber shops; tho it is, 
as regards them, a dead letter; since there are few men 
who have the nerve to compel by law, an unwilling hostile 
barber to shave them. 

During the 70th General Assembly the Honorable 
George H. Jackson, of Cincinnati, who was the colored 
member of the House from Hamilton County, introduced 
a bill to repeal that portion of the law relating to barber 
shops; and supported it on the floor of the House with 
much eloquence and force ; so that it passed without a dis- 
senting vote, as I now recall the transaction. 

The question now was, how to pass it in the Senate, 
Mr. Green's opposition to it, non obstante ; for it was well 
known that I was fundamentally opposed to turning Revo- 
lutions backwards ; on the contrary, it was easily apparent 
to all the friends of the colored race in the state, that, 
what the law stood most in need of was, not the elimina- 
tion of any of its provisions, but more thorough enforce- 

It was thought that, if Mr. Jackson could make his 
great speech before the Senate, the bill would pass that 
body, no matter whether this writer opposed it or not. 
So, a little strategy was adopted in order to enable Mr. 
Jackson to address the Senate; and since, by the rules 


of the Senate, he could not be permitted to address that 
body, as such, it was resolved into a committee of the 
whole Senate ; and the author of the bill was permitted to 
make his argument for it, before that body sitting as a 

This trick seemed to be a success, until after the 
committee rose and went back into its legitimate form of 
a Senate; when, this writer arose, at his desk, and char- 
acterized the whole procedure in anything but a compli- 
mentary way; and, with clenched fist, which hammered 
the desk before him, dared the Senators to eliminate any 
portion of that law; and he threatened, if the bill passed 
the Senate, to go to the colored voters of the State and 
denounce their action. 

On the roll call, the bill failed to receive the required 
number of votes to pass it; and from that day until the 
present, no other effort by white or colored, has been 
made to repeal or emasculate the law. 

About the year 1892, The Cleveland Railway Com- 
pany, which was composed of all the street railway com- 
panies in the city of Cleveland, save and except the inter- 
est represented by Mr. Tom L. Johnson, began to consid- 
er, seriously the necessity of disposing of its horses and 
adopting electricity as a motor power; and this made 
necessary an entire change in the way of trackage, roll- 
ing stock, power plants, and employes; to say nothing of 
the vast outlay necessitated in the erecting of poles, 
stringing of costly wires, and the acquiring in some in- 
stances, of additional rights of way and sites for the loca- 
tion, of enlarged and costly buildings. 

The late Senator M. A. Hanna, upon whose broad 
shoulders rested, principally, the responsibility and bur- 
den of financing these very costly projects, decided that, 
it would be necessary to sell the "paper" of the company 
in New York, in order to compass success, in this behalf ; 
and, that they might get a fair consideration for the 


same, it was equally essential to make a showing- of a 
franchise adequate for the proffered security. 

For the foregoing reasons and as a first move towards 
the accomplishment of these designs, a bill was prepared, 
commonly known as the "ninety-nine-year franchise bill," 
and given to the late Senator Frank 0. Spencer, who in- 
troduced it in the Senate; and it was, thereafter known 
of record, as "Senate Bill No. 50." 

The bill provided, in substance, that the trustees 
(Councilmen) of any city or township should be empow- 
ered to grant to any railway corporation within its limits, 
a franchise, not to exceed ninety-nine years in duration; 
provided the trustees or directors of the company should 
agree to pay to the city or township a percentage of the 
gross earnings of the road, to be fixed by and between the 
respective parties at the time of the granting of the 
franchise. At that time, the only financial benefit Cleve- 
land was receiving from the said companies was a tax of 
ten dollars on each car in use ; while a percentage of their 
earnings by the provisions of the "Spencer Bill," would, 
even then, have amounted to hundreds of thousands of 
dollars; and, at the present day, the city's income from 
that source would be, perhaps, a million or more annually,, 
provided, however, that the trustees of the city were hon- 
est and business-like, and withheld the franchise until an 
adequate percentage of the earnings was secured by the 
terms of the contract. 

This bill was favored by some of the leading finan- 
ciers and politicians of Ohio ; and it had behind it, in the 
lobby, the influence and professional services of one of 
the greatest law firms in this state. Moreover, the gov- 
ernor of the state, in the person of the late President Mc- 
Kinley, favored it and permitted the use of his office, in 
which to caucus, with reference to it. 

"Dan" Ryan, Secretary of State, favored it ; and lent 
his great influence to secure its passage. The Toledo 


Blade, Ohio State Journal and Cleveland World, all influ- 
ential newspapers, spoke of it in commending terms ; and 
the entire sentiment in and about the State House, in so 
far as I could discover, favored its passage. 

This narrator, too, was of opinion that a contract, be- 
tween the city of Cleveland and the street railway lines, 
could be framed, by the terms of which the city would 
derive a substantial income; whereas, under the then 
existing conditions (and down to the present time) — lit- 
tle or nothing was going into our treasury. 

Under the circumstances, I determined to obtain the 
opinion of the great daily papers of Cleveland; and, with 
that object in view, I mailed to The Cleveland Plain Deal- 
er, The Cleveland Leader, The Cleveland Press and The 
Cleveland World, respectively, a copy of the bill, and en- 
closed with it a written request, signed by me, that they 
publish the same and comment on its merits or demerits, 
editorially. The World was the only one of the quartette 
which complied with my request, in any manner; and its 
editorial comment was favorable. 

However, the fact remains, that, prior to its passage, 
in the Senate, it had never been published in any paper 
that had come under my notice ; and the people of Cleve- 
land, to this day, have never read the bill. 

The parties interested in the passage of the bill, in 
the Senate, insisted that I should explain and champion 
it, on the floor of the Senate; for the reason, they 
said, that I was "more practiced as an attorney, and fluent 
and eloquent" than was its author. 

I objected strenuously; for the reason that the Cleve- 
land newspapers, with one exception, had remained non- 
committal ; but, day after day, time and again, I was com- 
pelled to listen to arguments by its friends, and have cited 
to me the fact of its support by the eminent and influen- 
tial men and papers, outside of Cleveland, mentioned 
above. Finally, word came to me, "ex cathedra," if I may 


use the expression in a political sense, that I had better 
stand by my friends; and knowing who those "friends" 
were and forecasting the wonderful part some of them 
were to play in the great world drama of the near fu- 
ture — 

"Swearing I would ne'er consent — consented." 

I explained the bill, spoke in favor of it, and, almost 
unaided, in so far as it was apparent to the casual ob- 
server, secured its passage through that body. 

Then, the Cleveland newspapers "spoke out," and 
with no uncertain sound. To read the papers alone, see 
the names of Senator Spencer and myself at the head of 
the editorial column of the Cleveland Leader, in mourn- 
ing, and have no other information, in the premises, one 
would have thought that some great outrage had been 
perpetrated on the state; yet, those same papers, only a 
week before, with a copy of that identical bill in their 
hands, had remained mute. 

Later on, however, after an indignation meeting, at 
which I was present and explained the merits of the bill, 
and drew from the large audience, in the Council Cham- 
ber, encores of applause, popular sentiment was molified 
and modified; and another Assembly actually enacted a 
fifty-year franchise law, without evoking an indignation 
meeting or the anathemas of the press. 

The men who originated and procured the passage of 
the first bill, through the Senate, were subsequently high- 
ly honored by the State and Country ; and properly so, for, 
they were of nature's noblemen, and dedicated their 
whole life to the public welfare, whether negotiating 
along private or public lines ; all of which the community, 
when adequately informed and free from blind passion, 
readily saw and appreciated. 

The following certificate, mailed to me by Hon. Alex. 


C. Caine, after I had ceased to be a member of the Senate 
gives a detailed statement of work done by me, in the 
Senate, in addition to what I have already mentioned in 
the foregoing : 

I hereby certify that Hon. John P. Green supported all the fol- 
lowing named bills in behalf of labor while a member of the Senate 
of the 70th General Assembly. 

A. C. CAINE, Clerk of the Senate. 

1. Compelling railroad companies to equip cars with air- 
brakes and automatic couplers. 

2. Protecting lives of mechanics employed in the building 

3. Protection of street car employes. 

4. Regulating competition of convict with free labor. 

5. Arbitration of labor troubles. 

6. Providing employes with attorney in action for wages. 

7. Preventing discrimination against organized labor. 

8. Increasing opportunity of education for working people. 

9. Relief of over-worked railroad employes. 

10. Increase in force of mine inspectors. 

11. Additional factory inspectors. 

12. Enlarging the power of shop inspectors. 

13. Imposing heavier penalties for imitation of union labels. 

14. Restricting manufacture of knit and woolen goods in pub- 
lic institutions. 

15. Employes not to be intimidated in voting. 

16. Providing for the more distinct labeling of convict-made 

17. Counter floors for safety of employes in construction of 

18. Providing for pure oils for illuminating purposes in mines. 

19. Preventing fraud and imposition of minor employes. 

20. Against seven days' work for six days' pay. 

Mr. Greene is also author of the Labor Day Law. 

One of the most agreeable episodes of my life oc- 
curred about this time, in connection with a grand ban- 
quet tendered to Governor McKinley, by the Protective 
Tariff League of Canton, Ohio. Quite unexpectedly, to 
me, I received an invitation to this notable function, to- 
gether with an invitation to respond to the following 
toast : "America — the Land of the Free and the Home of 
the Brave." 

At the appointed time, I appeared in Canton; and 
was received in a kindly, gracious way, by the disting. 


uished committee, which was made up of some of the 
leading gentlemen of the city. I was escorted to the first 
hotel; where I registered and was, for a day, one of 
its guests. 

At the banquet, I was seated at the head of the table, 
on the left of Governor McKinley ; while at his right, sat 
James R. Garfield, a son of ex-President James A. Gar- 

My response to the toast assigned to me, met with a 
very enthusiastic reception ; and, at the close of the exer- 
cises, I was heartily commended, by many of those pres- 
ent. It has often occurred to me that the climax of my 
political honors was reached on that occasion ; when I, an 
ex-waiter, boot-black, janitor and fac-totum, in general, 
now a member of the Senate of Ohio, from the most fa- 
mous district in the state, an invited guest at that very 
notable function, sat beside the Governor of the State, 
then destined, soon, to be President of the United States, 
and responded to that significant toast! 

O, ye humble, struggling, ambitious, American 
youth, both white and black! Reflect on these facts — 
ponder over them; take courage; and persistently, press 
onward and upward. 

About this time, also, when the session of the Senate 
was nearing its close, I had an experience, the relating of 
which may prove of interest to the readers of this bio- 
graphical story. 

During the banquet, Governor McKinley became 
aware of the fact, that I had an increasing desire to visit 
parts of Europe, including Great Britain, France, Italy, 
Spain and Vienna, in Austria. Coming to me, he said, 
"Senator; I think I can be of some service to you, in for- 
warding your desire to make a tour of Europe!" I said, 
"Indeed, Governor! I am more pleased than I can 
express to you, to hear you say so!" "Yes," he replied: 
"I am going to New York, in the near future, and while 


there I shall meet Colonel Eliott F. Shepherd, a friend of 
mine ; and I shall tell him of you and your plan. He 1,3 
the owner of the Mail and Express, which employs corre- 
spondents in parts of Europe, and perhaps, he will give 
you employment along that line, which will enable you 
to pay your expenses, while you make your tour." I 
thanked him, profusely, my heart swelling with joy and 
gratitude; for I had learned to know that, whatever Mc- 
Kinley espoused, was well nigh certain of success. 

After the lapse of about two weeks, the Governor's 
messenger came to my desk and said, "Senator, the Gov- 
ernor wishes your presence, at your leisure." I thanked 
him; and "stayed not on the order of my going;" but — 

The Governor informed me that, he had just returned 
from New York; where he met Colonel Shepherd; to 
whom, he made known my cherished desire. "And," he 
said, "the Colonel will wire you to meet him there, in a 
few days!" True to the expectation, in a day or two, I 
received a telegram from Colonel Shepherd, inviting me 
to meet him at his home, located on the comer of Fifth 
Avenue and Fifty-third (?) Street, in the great metro- 
polis — New York. 

When I arrived in front of the palatial residence of 
the son-in-law of the late W. K. Vanderbilt, Si*., it was 
all aglow with light, and liveried coachmen and footmen 
were in attendance upon the numerous equipages which 
bordered the curb in the vicinage; nevertheless, not one 
whit embarrassed by the fact, I pressed the button of the 
"Big Front Door," and, my card having been delivered to 
the distinguished host, I was immediately ushered into 
the elaborate library, where, ere long, I met a high born 
instinctive gentleman, Colonel Eliot F. Shepherd. 

"Senator Green," he said, grasping my hand, "Gov- 
ernor McKinley has been telling me about you and your 
plan to visit Europe." I have considered the matter; and 


I have concluded to offer you the sum of fifty dollars a 
letter ; and you may mail the Mail and Express one letter 
every week." I answered, that such an arrangement 
would be entirely satisfactory to me; and thanked him 
for it. Then I said to him, "Colonel, when shall I begin 
to write the letters?" "At once," he answered, "if you 

Seeing that his residence was gradually filling with 
the elite of social New York, he noticed my apparent sur- 
prise, and remarked, "Senator, this is the anniversary of 
my silver wedding, and the invited guests are arriving. 
1 am sorry that I cannot be with you longer." 

Just then, two gentlemen entered the library : "Sen- 
ator," he said, "Meet my brother;" and, turning to the 
younger one, he said, "Senator Green, this my only son. 
My son, meet Senator Green of Ohio." Then I took my 
departure, highly elated by my success; for, now, I con- 
sidered that my tourning venture was predicated on a 
sound financial basis; and that I could cast all worry on 
that score behind me. 

As an addition to the good words which Governor Mc- 
Kinley had spoken of and for me, I placed in Colonel 
Shepherd's hand a laudatory editorial which I had clipped 
from the Cleveland Leader, referring to the fact that I 
had risen from a very humble sphere in life. The Colonel 
did not approve of the reference to my former humble 
station in life. This surprised me greatly. 

The following week, I mailed to the Mail and Express 
an article, one column in length, on the growth of Cleve- 
land, as affected by the Protective Tariff. It was re- 
ceived and published; and, in a few days, I received a 
check for fifty dollars. The following week, in return for 
a second letter, which had been published I received an- 
other check, for the same amount. Then, a day or two 
later, I read in a newspaper, that Colonel Shepherd had 
died on an operating table, under the influence of an anes- 


thetic, while undergoing an examination, for a minor 
trouble ! 

I cannot say, whether my surprise exceeded my grief. 
I could not truthfully say : 

"Oh, ever thus, from childhood's hour, 
Ive seen my fondest hopes decay;" 

For, in very truth, my grief was not so much because of 
my individual loss, as for the fact that, a noble, kind- 
hearted, generous man had been, so suddenly, cut off in 
the "flower" of his manhood, without any notice or op- 
portunity to take his leave of all whom he held most dear 
on this earth. 

"Be good, my friend, and let who will be clever; 

Do noble things, not dream them, all day long; 
And so, make life, death, end that vast forever, 

One grand sweet song." 

— Charles Kingsley in "A' Farewell." 

The sequel to this narrative will come, in the next 
chapter. Suffice it to state here, other steps had to be 
taken — other plans formulated and consummated, before 
the contemplated journey could be taken; but, in the 
language of one of Milton's creations : 

"What though the field be lost? 

All is not lost; th' unconquerable will, 


And courage never to submit cr yield." 



I am writing this short sketch, embracing some of 
my personal reminiscences of Mr. Rockefeller and mem- 
bers of his family, for several reasons; but, principally, 
because I have always admired his sterling manhood, his 
exemplary life, his democratic affiliations amongst the 
people, of his acquaintance, and his unexampled, unsel- 
fish generosity. With all his wealth and social and finan- 
cial influence, Mr. Rockefeller has come very near to 
leading the plain ''simple" life; and tho I have met him 
frequently, in this, his home city, during the past sixty- 
three years, yet, I have never discovered in him or his 
family, anything of the supercilious — "highbrow" char- 
acteristic which is so often in evidence, on the part of 
persons who are "rich in this world's goods." 

He has always, worn his heart upon his sleeve, to be 
read of all men, whether in the church — the Sunday 
School, in the varied avenues of commercial life or else- 
where. Even the poor, despised Negro, both in the north 
and the southland, has basked in the light of his coun- 
tenance, and found in him a true, open-handed friend; 
hence, I not only admire him and wonder at his unheard 
of financial conquests, but, I hold him up, to the whole 
world, as an example of true manhood and unadulterated 

Many years ago, I noticed and was "struck" with the 
fact, that, whenever, as a "captain" of industry, Mr. 


Rockefeller absorbed collateral branches of his own gigan- 
tic business, it was to the advantage of the other party; 
it always took on new life, which led to overwhelming suc- 
cess; so that, in no sense, even along the lines of com- 
petative commercial transactions, can he be stigmatized 
as a ''business vampire." 

I have, already, mentioned the fact of seeing Mr. 
Rockefeller, as a young man, in 1858, when the family 
lived in Cedar Avenue, in Cleveland, at which time I paid 
no special attention to him; for the reason, principally, 
that, I was his junior, associating with a class of boys 
younger than he, of whom his late brother, Frank Rocke- 
feller, was one ; and for the additional reason that I could 
not then, foresee what the fates held in store for him, 
in the not distant future. 

Subsequently, in 1859, when I was a student in the 
Hudson Street School (now Sterling School), over which 
Mr. Eaton, afterwards, during the Civil War, General 
Eaton, was principal, I met a mild mannered, quiet little 
lady, who taught the class of which I was a member, Eng- 
lish Grammar. This young lady was none other than 
Miss Laura C. Spellman, the late lamented wife of the 
subject of this sketch; and the daughter of the Honor- 
able H. B. Spellman, ex-member of the Ohio General As- 
sembly, if I mistake not ; a gentleman who, for his social 
and business attainments, stood high in the esteem of all 

The fact that Miss Spellman and Mr. Rockefeller 
later on became husband and wife, more than any other 
cause, kept him in the eye of some of us school boys ; for, 
we regretted the loss of that estimable lady, from the 
faculty so keenly, that, we followed her, in the future, 
with undiminished interest. 

Aside from this casual acquaintance with Mr. Rocke- 
feller, I had no knowledge of him or his growing business, 
other than as I heard members of his Sunday School 


Class, speak of him, or r ( ead of his successful transactions 
in the daily newspapers. " 

The years glided (or flew) onward; and my subject 
"waxed fat" — became immensely rich, in the eyes of the 
world; and through competition, and, in some instances, 
jealousy, was frequently unjustly criticized; until, one 
day, during a session of the 69th General Assembly, if I 
mistake not, a member, without any apparent reason for 
it, disgressed from the line of his argument to brutally 
and falsely make a verbal assault upon Mr. Rockefeller, in 
the matter of his business transactions. 

When he resumed his seat, I waited, for a short space, 
to see whether any member would challenge his state- 
ments ; and the silence not being broken, I arose and gave 
expression to my views of Mr. Rockefeller, predicated on 
my knowledge of him from my boyhood days, in no un- 
certain manner; and, least of all, complimentary, to the 

Colonel Louis Smithnight was present during the 
whole transaction; and when the applause, following my 
short speech, had subsided, he came up and congratulated 
me on my effort ; and commended the spirit which moved 
me. All knew that Mr. Rockefeller did not need any ap- 
ologist or champion; yet, under any circumstances, it is 
difficult to remain silent, when uncalled for and unmerited 
abuse is heaped upon one's friend, especially in a legisla- 
tive hall. 

A year or two after the incident which I have just 
recorded, while passing through lower Euclid Avenue in 
Cleveland, I was confronted by a gentleman whose per- 
sonal appearance and mem stamped him as being "facile 
princeps," — first amongst men. I knew at a glance, that 
he was a Rockefeller ; but so much time had elapsed since 
I had last seen him, that, I could not positively identify 
him ; to my great surprise, he stopped and addressed me, 
calling me by name. I reciprocated the courtesy, and 


said, "Mr. Rockefeller — I believe!" "Yes;" he answered. 
"Which one?" I querried? "John," he replied. "How 
is Mrs. Rockefeller?" I ventured to ask. "She is quite 
well," he rejoined. Then, he added: "Mrs. Rockefeller 
and I have noted your political successes with much pleas- 
ure ; and she often speaks of some of her former pupils." 
To which I expressed much pleasure ; whereupon, he said : 
"By the way! We have a cozy home, in the East End. 
We would be pleased to have you and Mrs. Green come 
out and visit us, sometime." I inquired as to a convenient 
time for them; and he suggested that we notify them, 
and they would send the family carriage to the terminus 
of the street railway line (at Lake View Cemetery), to 
transport us the remainder oi the distance — to Forest 
Hill — the "cozy home." 

We then separated, each going his respective way — 
he conscious, I dare say, of having stooped — socially, at 
least, to lift up and encourage a f ellowman ; and I, radiant 
with pleasure and expectation, by reason of the unex- 
pected invitation. 

In due time, a notice of our coming was mailed to 
Forest Hill ; and, at the designated hour on the appointed 
day, we — Mrs. Green, our daughter Clara and our niece, 
Miss Kittie Skeene, together with this writer, alighted at 
the terminus of the street railway, and mounted into the 
carriage of John D. Rockefeller; and, in a few minutes, 
having passed the porter's lodge, we found ouselves upon 
the broad veranda of the Rockefeller mansion, the sub- 
jects of a genial and cordial welcome, on the part of Mrs. 
Rockefeller, her aged mother, her honorable sister and 
two winsome daughters. 

Mr. Rockefeller, we were informed, was in conference 
with gentlemen, who had come all the way from New 
York, for that purpose. 

During the half hour, while the ladies were engaged 
in conversation, I was, comparatively, mute; for, under 


existing circumstances, I felt that, like the "Moor of 
Venice," I could truthfully say: 

"Rude am I in my speech, 

And little blessed with the set phrase of peace ;" 

and, according-] y, I maintained that "golden silence," 
which, at times, is most becoming. 

Ere long, the touring carriage was driven up to the 
porte cochere; and, at the suggestion of Mrs. Rocke- 
feller, we all entered it, for a drive through the spacious 
and beautiful park, surrounding the residence; and, at 
the end of one hour and a quarter, without repeating any 
of the route, we declared it to have been the most enjoy- 
able of our existence. 

At one point, on our route, our hostess invited us to 
dismount; and while the driver waited for us on the op- 
posite side of a shaded grove, we meandered through it, 
engaged in reminiscent conversation and in gathering 
vari-colored mosses and sweet wild flowers. 

Then it was that Mrs. Rockefeller (whose friendship 
and generosity for me as one of her former pupils, be-. 
came apparent), addressed herself to me, and called up 
the past; as if it were a real pleasure to live over again 
her girlhood days; forgetful that she was now, the wife 
of one whose name, alone, attracts attention, wherever it 
is mentioned throughout the civilized world. 

She spoke of her late father, affectionately, and re- 
marked that, her husband had named Spellman Institute 
at Atlanta, Georgia, for him. She further informed me, 
that Mr. Rockefeller was, metaphorically, carrying it, 
"under his arm" ; and that during that same year, he had 
given it Fifty Thousand Dollars. 

Further, she said, that her father was a man of 
kindly impulses; and, invariably, favored the "under- 
dog". As for herself, she said, when teaching in the 


schools of Cleveland, she had no "pets"; but, that, her 
sympathies, invariably, went out to the one who needed 

It was during this conversation that I made known to 
her my increasing desire to make a tour of the principal 
states of Europe ; when, she with her characteristic gen- 
erosity, suggested that, I notify her when the time was 
ripe for my departure ; and, to anticipate, by a few 
months, I will here record the fact, that, upon that noti^ 
fication, her great husband sent me his check for half 
enough money to defray all the expenses of my trip. It 
was a gratuity, pure and simple ; for, I had never had the 
opportunity of serving either of them in any practical 
way, during my life time. 

As we neared the edge of the grove, where the car- 
riage was in waiting for us, Mrs. Rockefeller, with her 
own hands, pinned on the bosom of my wife the tuft of 
pretty moss and the sweet wild flowers which she had 
gathered in the wood. A very gracious act, I must say, 
considering the relative social standing of the hostess 
and her guest. How thoroughly the act was appreciated 
may be known from the fact, that, until her "dying day' 1 
my dear deceased wife recalled the act; and spoke in 
terms of admiration and gratitude of it. 

Returning to the residence, we were joined by Mr. 
Rockefeller, who, being released from the conference, 
now commanded his time. A light luncheon was, there- 
upon served on the veranda, of which all partook. 

My feelings, on that occasion can be more easily im- 
agined than described, for, who was I, a poor colored man, 
dependent upon my daily toil for a very livelihood, and 
with no social recognition that I could boast of, aside 
from persons of my own caste (a strange word for 
America), that I should be sitting at luncheon with the 
financial leader of the whole world, and his family! 

I recall that, I had said to Mrs. Rockefeller, during 


our stroll through the wood, somewhat as follows: "Mrs. 
Rockefeller, one of my most intelligent associates, main- 
tains, that, social recognition of the colored man, in the 
United States, will begin at the top of society and pro- 
gress downward, paradoxical as it may seem!" "Why 
so?" she ask'd. "Because," I replied, "persons of unlimited 
means and fixed social status, can, with impunity, afford 
to associate with persons of good moral character, with' 
Out losing their social standing, while others, of small 
or no financial standim?, and who, themselves are strug- 
gling for social recognition, dare not take the risk." 

"Well," she said : "I had not thought of it in that light 
before; it seems reasonable, and may be a fact." 

The time of our departure was at hand, the carriage 
with the waiting coachman was standing in the porte 
cochere; the adieus were pronounced; when Mr. Rocke- 
feller, and addressing himself to this writer, said, "Mr. 
Green, I spend most of my time in New York, and I am sel- 
dom here to make use of these grounds. If, at any time, 
you wish to drive in them, with your family or friends, 
you are welcome to do so." I heard him with amazement, 
thanked him, and we were whirled away by the well 
groomed steeds. I have never, to this day, availed myself 
of his magnanimous offer, to make use of his ample and 
beautiful grounds; tho his kindly offer is graven up on 
the "tablets of my heart", never to be erased. 

Some notice of our reception at the Rockefeller man- 
sion found its way into the columns of the news papers ; 
after which, I was approached by sundry needy persons, 
>vho tried to persuade me to use my "influence" with Mr. 
Rockefeller, in their behalf; which, of course I could not 

On another occasion, one of our best singers, who 
was arranging for a public concert, procured me to inquire. 
of Mrs. Rockefeller whether her name might be used as 
? "patroness" Mrs. Rockefeller answered, by inviting Mrs. 


Green and me to call, a second time, and bring the singer 
with us, which we did. Again, we were driven through 
some portion of the grounds; this time, a slight shower 
of rain having previously fallen, and Mr. Rockefeller de- 
siring to keep his drives in good condition, he mounted 
his bicycle, and "piloted" the carriage some portion of the 
way. When we reached a knoll which overlooks the lake 
and the neighboring country, the driver, in attempting to 
make a short turn, nearly overturned the carriage ; and 
I suspect, that, this writer prevented our hostess from 
falling out. 

On returning to the mansion, the sweet singer sang 
veiy beautifully for Mr. Rockefeller and his family, be- 
ing accompanied, on the piano, by Miss Edith, — now Mrs. 
McCormick of Chicago, who translated the difficult music 
at sight, to the astonishment of the singer and all others. 
I recall that Mr. Rockefeller remarked that, in his youth, 
he took lessons on the violin, and, for a while, practiced 
six hours a day. Was not this prophetic of future success 
in any vocation in which he might embark ; for, whoever 
has the nerve and persistency to apply himself to a violin 
or any other musical instrument six hours a day, will, in 
the end, say, "I came, I saw, I conquered." 

It was on this occasion, that we saw and were in- 
troduced to Mr. Rockefeller, Sr. He was a large well built 
man of ruddy complexion; and the resemblance of the 
two sons, whom I had met, was so striking as to cause 
remark. When we were in the act of leaving, Mrs. Rocke- 
feller invited us to attend a church social of the Second 
Baptist Church, which was scheduled to meet at their 
home, the following week. And Mr. Rockefeller drew, 
from one of his vest pockets, a little "bunch" of bank 
notes, with which he consoled the singer, for Mrs. Rocke- 
feller's refusal to lend her name as a "patroness." 

We attended the church social, of course; and had 
seated at the table with us several members of the family, 


in addition to a very wealthy and prominent lady friend 
of theirs. On every occasion, we were transported to 
and from the mansion in the carriage of our host and 
hostess; and altho, since then, we have been entertained, 
jboth at home and abroad, by some very distinguished 
people, yet, I have concluded that, in the courtesies and 
kindnesses, showered upon us by Mr. and Mrs. Rockefel- 
ler, as I have related in the foregoing, we reached the 
zenith of our social preferment; just as at the Canton 
banquet, I attained to the top-most height of my political 
aspirations. , 

I have searched in vain to ascertain the underlying 
reason for the unusual and liberal courtesies bestowed 
upon me and mine, by these august personages ; whether 
it was to gratify the desire of his great and good wife, 
who was always fond of her old pupils, or whether Mr. 
Rockefeller had heard of my conduct in the House when 
a member attempted to assail his business integrity; or 
was it the simple out-flowing of two great, big hearts, 
bent on scattering sunshine in the path-way of two hum- 
ble beings, yearning for recognition and encouragement, 
I shall never know perhaps; but, of one fact we are cer- 
tain; it was a substantial uplift; not only for us, but for 
others of our class; the good effects of which, like the 
ripples on the ocean or the waves in the air, go onward 
and onward, until they reach the bosom of Almighty God. 

During the first McKinley campaign for the Presi- 
dency, I had "stump'd" for the Republican party in Ohio, 
West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. In addi- 
tion to the foregoing, I had written a manifest for the 
use of southern colored voters, which Mr. Hanna and 
"Major" Dick denominated my "special literature." And, 
subject to their orders, I, with the assistance of two of 
my sons, had mailed fourteen thousand copies to places, 
in that section, designated by them. 

After the President had been inaugurated, I circu- 


lated, in Cleveland a petition amongst the leading poli- 
ticians and business men, requesting the President to 
appoint me to an office in Washington, at once "honorable 
and lucrative." This petition was signed by great indus- 
trial heads, bankers and railroad presidents. 

Having obtained the signatures of a goodly number 
of such men, who, collectively, were said to represent 
more than Two hundred millions of capital, I mailed the 
list to Mr. Rockefeller, with a request that he also sign 
it. I may add, that, I had drawn a line through the center 
of the page from top to bottom; and all, who had there- 
tofore received it had signed the name to the left of the 
line, and the occupation to the right, but, when Mr. 
Rockefeller signed it, he wrote clear across the "legal 
cap" page, in bold characters — John D. Rockefeller. 

I am regretting to this day, that I released that docu- 
ment to be filed in the Interior Department, in Wash- 
ington; for, in fact, I valued it more than I did the little 
office which I secured; and tho I made frequent inquiry 
and earnest effort to regain possession of it, no one had 
been able to locate it for me. Later on in life, I received 
another communication from him, which contains hi* 
autograph ; but, I mourn the loss of the first, for, it carried 
with it, in the very freedom and form of the writing of 
it, an intimation of the good will which inspired it. 

When I was in the employ of the United States Gov- 
ernment, in Washington, I had occasion to write to Mrs. 
Rockefeller, in behalf of a poor, forlorn person, who was 
struggling against fate; and 1 asked for "an alms" for 
her. She sent the money, small in amount, together with 
a beautiful letter, still in my possession, of which, the fol- 
lowing is a copy: 

My Dear Mr. Green: 

Enclosed, please find check for the amount desired in your let- 
ter of the 4th, to aid in lifting the debt from the distressed family, 
who find in you a friend. 


The case is unique and sadly pathetic — and how many such 
there are! The wrongs of crushed humanity cry aloud from the 

I recall, with no small pleasure, my teaching days, and many 
of the pupils still stand before m 2 with distinctness, and not a few 
with distinction. Among these are yourself, who has conquered 
untold obstacles; and standing for God and for truth, is helping 
the upward progress of race and the world. 

Mr. Rockefeller joins in kind regards for you and your family. 

Very sincerly yours, 
Golf House, Lakewood, N. J. 
March 7, 1904. 

On another occasion, I enclosed, to Mrs. Rockefeller 
a clipping from a newspaper, which complimented me, in 
no uncertain terms. The following is a copy of the letter 
which she sent to me, acknowledging the receipt of the 
same. I still retain the original. 

Golf House, Lakewood, N. J. 
My Dear Mr. Green: — 

I am pleased that you decided to send me the clipping that 
your letter of the 3rd enclosed. And I am glad to be kept in touch 
with one of my pupils in the public school, forty or more years 
ago. (Note: It had been just fifty-two years. — J. P. G.) The time 
does not seem so long to me since you sat behind the desk, with 
Abner Griffin not far removed, and the Alstons and Richardsons in 
the same school. 

I am as proud and grateful as you and your family can be, 
of the record you have made. It is a quiet but decisive victory 
against fearful odds, which still beset the path of your race. 

I remember the pleasant call of Mrs. Green and yourself, sev- 
eral years ago, at Forest Hill. 

Mr. Rockefeller joins me in kindest regard&c to you both. 

Very sincerely, 
April 11, 1911. 

Following the death of my beloved wife, I received 
the following telegram: 

Tarrtown, N. Y. 2-6-12. 
Mr. John P. Green: — 

Letter, Feby. 3rd rec'd; the first we knew of the death of Mrs. 
Green. Be assured of our sympathy for you and yours, in your 
great bereavement. 



There are other communications and transactions 
which I might record herein: but, what I have written is 
sufficient, I trow, to prove that, in my gradual rise from 
penury and want, I had gained the countenance and asso- 
ciation of some of the greatest and most powerful of 
God's children; and were it possible for me to close my 
biographical story right here, it would spell a career at 
once, unique, if not romantic, and, at least bordering on 
the successful. 

That Mr. Rockefeller may live to see the full fruition 
of his wonderful benefactions, is my humble prayer. 




~My senatorial term being ended, I declined to stand 
as a candidate for another election, on the ground that 
it entailed too great a financial loss on me ; and also, that 
my professional business was slowly but, surely diminish- 
ing: for, I had already found out that, when a business 
man has a legal affair to be looked after, he is apt to 
select a lawyer and not a politician to attend to it; and 
besides the loss of time from my practice, and the out- 
lay of cash, incidental to political campaigns, my keep 
at Columbus, and incidentals, such as the demands of 
charity and being a '"good fellow", amounted to more than 
I could continue to sacrifice. The following table will prove 
my contention, in this behalf. 

5 Legislative campaigns, at $300 each $1,500 

24 months at Columbus, lost to my business at $200 per 

month 4,800 

24 months Board at Columbus at £25 per month 600 

Charity and Good-fellowship money $100 per year 100 

Loss to business, indirect by neglect (?) 1,200 

Total $8,700 

Rects. from salary 6 yrs. at $600 per year 3,600 

Total loss $5,100 

The foregoing is an under rather than over estimate 
of my loss, during the twenty-four months, I served in 
the general Assembly; for. the sessions were held in the 

winter and early spring, when all the courts were in ses- 
sion; and my professional loss was almost total: more- 
over, during that time, I lost many good — valuable clients 
whose patronage I never recovered; and over and above 
all, some of my clients became offended, by reason of the 
active part I took in opposition to their party and friends, 
and dropped me. But, enough of this, statistics are dry. 
Complaints are unpleasant. 

My "grip" was duly packed, for my European tour. 
the au revoirs were all said: the steam was up and the 
sails inflated, and I was on my way not for Mandalay, 
but, for sights and scenes which, from my childhood, 
had been, for me, pleasant dreams ; now to be realized. 

Does the reader wish to know whence I derived the 
means of defraying the expenses incidental to this pro- 
tracted trip, after the collapse of my arrangement with 
Colonel Shepherd, due to his death? Well, I will let him 
into the secret. 

When I was fighting for the bill to finance the im- 
provement of our system of Parks and Boulevards, the 
argument most persistently pressed against the passage 
of it was, that parks and boulevards were for the rich 
not for the poor. That it would be the unjust appropria- 
tion of the people's money to foster the pride and pleas- 
ure of the rich. 

To which, I answered, in substance; that, the rich, 
like Mr. Rockefeller, Mr. Gordon, Mr. Wade and others 
had parks of their own; and many wealthy people spent 
their summers at sea-side and mountain resorts, and 
their winters at Palm Beach and in California, and, 
therefore, could get along without these, so called, lux- 
uries, at home, if necessary. While the poor were con- 
strained to remain at home, the year around ; and of all 
the inhabitants of Cleveland, most needed the few ''lux- 
uries. " 

Well, the law having been enacted, and the system 


now assured, some of our leading citizens said: "Now, 
Mr. Green, your fight secured the passage of our Park 
Bill ; and, since your contract with Colonel Shepherd must 
be abandoned, we will pay a part of your expenses, if you 
will visit the parks in different parts of Europe, and write 
a series of letters to the news papers, here, regarding the 
classes of people who most use and seem to derive the 
greatest pleasure from frequenting them. 

I readily agreed to this suggestion; thereupon, they 
contributed each a generous amount; which, with the 
check sent to me by Mrs. Rockefeller, through her great 
husband, easily made me comfortable during the whole 

The stanch and swift Cunard ship Umbria, made the 
run to Liverpool in seven days ; and, after landing, I went 
"as the crow flies", to the Adelphi Hotel, the leading 
hotel in Liverpool, at that time. I registered and was in- 
stalled in a cozy room where, temporarily, I was at home. 
In the dining room, I was treated far differently than at 
the Gibson House, in Cincinnati, as the guest of the 
Amalgamated Trades. Not only was my (silk) 
hat taken, at the door, but, the waiter in his "dress" 
suit, served me in a genteel way; and when I went 
into the barber shop I was shaved without objection. In 
short, I immediately forgot that, I was a colored Ameri- 
can citizen, and when the United States consul called on 
me — presto, I had changed to a full fledged citizen — 
abroad, still under the Aegis of my dear native land. 

I have made four visits to Europe ; and, on each occa- 
sion, saw and experienced many things which I am sure, 
will be of interest to the reader; I shall not attempt a 
detailed narative of them," but, will review the principal 
features in a general way, beginning with Great Britain 
and following the trend of my travels into other lands. 

The late Dr.. Adnette, who had been the traveling 
companion of the late John Huntington, when he made a 


tour of Europe, very kindly had provided me with letters 
of introduction to sundry persons of distinction, in Lon- 
don and its suburbs, amongst whom were Werner, of the 
Tower of London, a distinguished man, by the way, who, 
at the close of the Franco Prussian war, in 1870, had 
been the bearer of dispatches for the Prime Minister of 
Great Britain, which were closely connected with the 
final settlement of the peace proceedings. This letter gave 
us the entre into the Tower, and the opportunity of seeing 
much and of hearing some of the traditionary lore which, 
otherwise, we could not have enjoyed. 

My late friend, Mr. Fred J. Loudin, had also given 
us letters of introduction to some of his former friends 
and acquaintances, which opened doors for us, which, 
otherwise, we, probably, would never have entered. 

In addition to Werner, we met many other persons of 
social place and distinction; of whom may be mentioned. 
The Lord Bishop of London, Cannon Farrar of West 
Minister Abbey, Rev. Dr. Joseph Parker, of the City 
Temple, Rev. John Clifford, D. D., L. L. D.; L. Ment- 
zendorff, of Idol Lane, large exporter. S. J. Celestin Ed- 
wards, scholar, organizer and lecturer on the universal 
Brotherhood of Man, Mr and Mrs. L. G. Sharpe, high in 
musical circles, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel, Coleride Taylor 
great musicians, Mrs. Eliza Leech, of No. 4 Kensington 
Palace Garden, and many others. 

Amongst the objects of especial interest to us, may 
be mentioned, Westminster Abbey, The British Museum 
Saint Paul's Cathedral, The Tower of London, London 
Bridge, Crystal Palace, the Houses of Parliament, the 
Horse Guards, Westminister Hall and numerous parks; 
great amongst which, Hyde Park and Kensington Park 
were conspicuous. Then, there were Trafalgar Square, 
The National Museum of Art, The Nelson Monument, 
with its heroic lions conchant ; to say nothing of the Law 
Courts, The Bank of England, the ancient and famous 


sites of past and present theatres, with Piccadilly Circus, 
Leicester Square, the Marble Arch and "Old Curiosity 
Shop" made famous by Charles Dickens. 

Indeed, London is such a little cosmopolitan world 
within itself, that the mere mention of a few of its most 
important personages and objects of interest would fill 
the pages of a little book. 

As an illustration of the manner in which even old 
residents are, at times, surprised by new discoveries of 
old institutions, I will relate the following: One day, Mrs. 
Green and I, strolling down Oxford Street, made a detour, 
when we were near High Holborn, just following our 
noses, when to our surprise, we found ourselves in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, of historic fame; where, if I mistake 
not, at one time, numerous executions took place; and 
some other affairs, of more worthy note, were trans- 
acted. Quite unexpectedly, we iound ourselves in front of 
the residence of the late Sir John Soane wherein is now 
kept, on exhibition, a museum of paintings, statuary and 
Egyption and Oriental relics which cannot be duplicated. 
To mention only two, will tend to enlighten the reader. 
There is an alabaster sarcophagus, 9 feet 4 inches in 
length, 3 feet, 8 inches in width, 2 feet 8 inches in depth, 
and 2 1-2 inches in thickness; the alabaster is of such 
purity, that a lighted lamp being placed on the inside 
shines through the sides of the casket. 

Another curio is the original paintings by Hogarth, of 
the "Rake's Progress," showing the slow but sure decline 
of a handsome, promising youth, through dissipation, 
from good health to disease and death! We spent the 
remainder of our day in that one little museum, of which 
a few hours before, we had no knowledge, whatsoever. 

Another incident, quite surprising to me, was that 
of the discovery of an old Arcade, near the heart of West 
London, by my friend Mr. L. G. Sharpe, who, just prior 
to the World War, was the World agent of Paderewski, 


the unapproachable pianist. We were going down into the 
City, from Wandsworth Common, when we ran upon this 
mart of trade all unknown to or forgotten by this world 
treveled man. 

I have four men in mind now, of whom I am sure my 
readers will be pleased to hear something. And I will 
speak briefly of them: The first is the Lord Bishop of 
London; of whose unselfish and persistent labors for the 
uplifting of the poor and needy in the slums of London, 
the whole civilized world has heard; even in Wall street, 
in the city of New York, during his visit to this country, 
some years ago his voice was heard in support of the 
Golden Paile. 

I had never met the Lord Bishop before; and, my 
good fortune in meeting him on this occasion, was due 
entirely to the kindly inerposition of my good and help- 
ful friend — The Rt. Rev. W. A. Leonard, Bishop of Ohio, 
who mailed to me, while I was in London, a letter of which 
the following is a true copy: 

Et. Hon. A. F. Wilmington, Ingram, 
Lord Bishop of London. 
My dear Lord Bishop: — 

It gives me great pleasure to hand this letter of personal in- 
troduction to you of the Honorable J. P. Green, formerly Senator 
from this city, in our legislature, and for a number of years identi- 
fied with public interests. He is one of our most highly esteemed 
citizens and represents his race with dignity and satisfaction. He 
is a communicant of the church and one of the vestry of St. 
Andrew's Parish in this city, which is our only congregation 
amongst the colored people of Cleveland. 

He will greatly esteem the honor of meeting your Lordship, 
and I will be glad to have him get the inspiration from you which 
we all do. 

With cordial good wishes for this New Year upon which we 
have entered, I am, with respect, 

Faithfully yours, 
3054 Euclid Avenue, 
Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. A. 


As soon as I had received the Bishop's letter, I 
mailed it to London House, S. James's Square S. W. Lon- 
don and in due course of the mails, I received the follow- 
ing answer: 

John P. Green, Esq., 
42 Walterton Road, 
Paddington, W. 

Dear Sir: The Bishop of London will be pleased to see you 
here at 11:30 on Saturday, the 20th. 

Yours faithfully, 


Private Secretary. 

On time, on the appointed day, I was duly received by 
the great and worthy bishop, and unceremoniously, 
ushered into his cozy "workshop", as he was pleased to 
term his office. 

There was no sign of affectation in the demeanor of 
this great man. No patronizing air or lifting of the brows 
by this well bred English Lord; but, grasping my hand, 
lie bade me be seated, and the conversation began, as 
tho two old friends had cordially met. 

"Well now" he said, "tell me about your people, in the 
United States. When I attended the Council, in Richmond 
Virginia, I heard one phaze of the subject, but, I would 
like to hear your side of it." I thanked him, and did my 
"possible" as the French would say, to enlighten him, as 
regarded the "Negro question", from the standpoint of 
a colored — American. And was highly rewarded to dis- 
cover that, his views, largely coincided with mine; and 
that, he too, like many another great man let his sym- 
pathies go out, in favor of the "underdog." 

I intimated my fear that I was taking up too much 
of his time, to which he replied that, he had no other 
engagement, for the forenoon, until his Eminence Bishop 
Mathews, the Catholic Bishop of London, should call ; and 
requested me to be quite at ease, until that time. 


"By the way!" he exclaimed, in the course of our 
conversation, "what shall I do with this beautiful letter?" 
holding in his hand the letter of introduction from Bishop 
Leonard. "I may lose it, in the confusion of my office, 
and since it is of such personal concern to you, would 
you not like to have it?" 

I assured him that, I would be most pleased to receive 
it, and he gave it to me. This accounts for the fact that, 
I am able to give to my readers a true copy of it, as re- 
corded, in the foregoing. 

I discovered that the Lord Bishop has a vein of hum- 
or pervading his system; for, he took occasion to refer 
to a humorous incident, which owed its origin to the 
word Ohio, during the sessions of the Ecumenical Council 
in Richmond, Virginia, in the first decade of the present 

It was in this wise; quite a large percentage of the 
clergy, attending the Council, used the "continental i — 
pronounced e — thus, pronounced Ohio — Oheo — and drew 
a smile from our dear Bishop Leonard, when they re- 
ferred to him as "The Bishop of Ohio!" 

When the presence of the Catholic Bishop was an- 
nounced, he was seated in an adjoining room, while he 
wrote for me and my wife two passes to Saint Paul's 
Cathedral to be used on Easter Sunday, 1909, saying, 
"here Senator Green, if you will present these to one of 
the Vergers, in St. Paul's Cathedral, on Easter morning, 
he will show you and Mrs. Green to reserved seats, near 
the Chancel; and you will see that in England, we make 
no such discriminations as you have experienced in your 
South land." He also, gave me a pass which entitled me 
to a seat in the visitors' gallery, in the House of Commons, 
which, as the others, was duly used. Grasping my hand 
and thanking me for the call, we separated. I, full of 
pleasure and enthusiasm ; he, beyond doubt, conscious that 


in having done his bit to "one of the least of these," he 
had advanced his cause on earth. 

The second personage to whom I shall call attention 
was, the late Rev. Frederick William Farrar, Cannon of 
Westminster Abbey and Rector of St. Margaret's Church, 
which stands near, adjacent to the old abbey. 

I was enabled to meet Cannon Farrar, through the 
courtesy of the late ex-president Fairchild, of Oberlin 
College, who, quite painstakingly, wrote me a beautiful 
letter of introduction on his little office typewriter, and 
after receiving it, I was loth to surrender it to the dis- 
tinguished prelate ; for, I am unable to state, to this day, 
whether I was prouder to meet Cannon Farrar than to 
receive this mark of respect and esteem from so distin- 
guished a personage as President Fairchild. 

There was nothing in the fact of being received by 
Cannon Farrar, except that I was highly honored by being 
permitted to call on a distinguished churchman, scholar 
and author, in the ancient "Deans Yard," contiguous to 
the sacred land on which for centuries has stood West- 
minister Abbey. After mutual greetings and a pleasant 
conversation, relative to the conditions in "America", 
we separated, to meet again in the near future, at West- 
bourne Baptist Church, where he delivered a learned and 
eloquent lecture on John Milton. To me, it was a signifi- 
cant fact, that, the Cannon of Westminister Abbey, was 
in the pulpit of a Baptist Church, presided over by Dr. 
John Clifford, who was the incarnation of opposition to 
the Established Church of England, and was waging 
persistent war fare against it, in all parts of Great Bri- 
tain; but, since John Milton himself, belong'd to the dis- 
senters, perhaps the transaction was not remarkable. 

The third great man with whom I came in touch was 
the Reverend Dr. Joseph Parker, and I am inclined to the 
belief that I "scraped" this acquaintance, by virtue of 
the colored American "push" and persistency with 


which, twenty-five years ago, I was endowed. Dr. Parker, 
for some thirty years, had been accustomed to preach a 
Thursday noon sermon, which, with the beautiful singing 
and other attractions, drew large congregations of the 
literary elite of the whole civilized world to hear him ; for 
there is not a day, but that multitudes of wayfarers from 
all the points of the compass, find their way within the 
walls of the Greatest City, looking for attractions of one 
kind and another. Dr. Parker, received me in his "sac- 
risty," after preaching one of his famous sermons, and 
having in my possession the letter which the Lord Bishop 
had returned to me, I showed it to him. He read it with 
evident pleasure, and invited me to call at his home, on 
the following day, and dine with him and his good wife. 

It is needless to say, I accepted the invitation with 
undisguised pleasure; and spent an hour with the dis- 
tinguished couple which I shall remember to the end of 
my life. The conversation turned on Great Americans, 
and also, on the subject of public lectures. Dr. Parker 
expressed the opinion that, not even the Rev. Thomas 
DeWitt Talmage, with all his eloquence, could draw a 
large audience in London, at that time, to hear him lec- 
ture; so coldly were lecturers then received. I asked him 
what he thought Henry Ward Beecher's chances would 
be, were he alive and active. He was of the same mind, 
in both cases. Then changing the subject somewhat 
abruptly, he exclaimed, "I regard that countryman, of 
yours, a great philosopher! — Frederick Douglass, I refer 

I readily assented to that view (with a degree of 
pride), and said, that, Gambetta the great French states- 
man, had recently, expressed the same opinion. 

"I heard an anecdote concerning him (Douglass) re- 
lated recently", he added. "On one occasion, as the story 
runs, subsequent to the passage of the Fugitive Slave 
Law, and the rendition of the Dred Scott' Decision, the 


outlook for the cause of Emancipation was dark and well 
nigh hopeless. There was a meeting of the friends of 
liberty in progress. Douglass was demure and of a down 
cast demeanor. Old Sojourner Truth noticed these signs 
of discouragement; and at a proper time, she exclaimed 
in her piping voice — "Frederick, is God dead?" That ex- 
clamation, so full of truth and hope in the power of Al- 
mighty God, coming, as it did, from that infirm old wom- 
an, rekindled the fire within them, and so inspired them, 
that, from that moment onward, all was vigor and deter- 
mination to win. 

The personel of Dr. Parker in the pulpit was reas- 
suring, so to speak. One saw at a glance, a real man in 
his size, form and general bearing, one of "Nature's noble- 
men." He carried between his shoulders, a large head, 
a high expansive forehead, eyes deep set beneath the 
"umbrageous" brows, and a shock of "shaggy" hair, which 
caused him, when animated, to present that Leonine ap- 
pearance, which was, altogether unmistakable; and his 
deep, sonorous voice was quite suited to the man. He was 
such a plebean and approachable man, that, after his 
ponderous and entertaining sermons were delivered, he 
took pleasure in answering questions, and in conversing 
with any one who visited him, in his sacristy. This writer 
had the good fortune, on more than one occasion, to 
meet him there; and he condescended to spend some 
minutes in pleasant, instructive conversation with him. 
P" On one occasion, he said, "Well, you heard me preach 
the same sermon twice. I preached it last Thursday, and 
I repeated it, today !" I answered, that, it was well worth 
3 epeating, for, it was replete with instruction and edifi- 

On the occasion referred to, when Doctor Parker, in 
my presence, spoke in such admiring terms of Frederick 
Douglass, he expressed an ardent desire to possess a 
copy of the autobiography of Frederick Douglass; and 


on my return to our flat, I mailed one to him, which I 
happened to carry in my "luggage." The second day, 
thereafter, I received a letter from him inclosing a cheque 
for the sum of 1 £ sterling, an equivalent, at that time of 
about $4.83, of our money. After thanking me for my 
"thoughtfulness and kindness,*' in sending him the book, 
the letter proceeded to read: "I enclose a One pound 
cheque, for that son and heir of yours. I want him to see 
what a British sovereign looks like!" It is scarcely neces- 
sary to add, that, the "son and heir" (now Captain Wil- 
liam R. Green) lost no time in making the acquaintance 
of that, identical sovereign, but in the language of King 
Richard III, on an inauspicious occasion, he could have 
truthfully said : 'Til have it! but, I'll not keep it long!" 

The last, but, by no means the least, of the distin- 
guished Londoners, of whom I shall now speak, is Rev- 
erend John Clifford, D. D. L. L. D. pastor emeritus, of 
the Westbourne Baptist Church; whose name is more 
familiarly known than that of any other in Great Britain, 
save that of Lloyd George, perhaps. Dr. Clifford has spok- 
en much and written extensively, in the furtherance of 
every good cause which has come before the British 
public, during the last fifty years ; and prior to the great 
World War, it was generally believed of him, that his 
influence for good in Great Britain was greater than that 
of any other man except the Prime Minister. 

When Dr. Parker was expressing to me his doubt as 
to whether Mr. Talmage or even Mr. Beecher could at- 
tract a large audience to listen to a lecture, in London, 
in 1893, he added, "If any one in London can get out an 
audience to listen to a lecture, Dr. John Clifford is the 
man to do it!" and he gave me a letter of introduction to 
him, which was the foundation of a friendly acquaintance 
between us, and has resulted in the mutual exchange of 
some interesting and valuable instruction for me, to say 
the least. 


Doctor Clifford is the bete noir of the "State Church" 
of England ; he has spoken against it, organized for war- 
fare against it, and written volumes, in opposition to it. 
It remains to be seen, during these turbulent times, fol- 
lowing in the wake of the World War, what will be the 
fate of that relationship between the State and the 
Church, which has subsisted for so many centuries. That 
the Doctor is not narrow and intolerant, I feel sure; for, 
he is constantly working for a union of all the orthodox 
churches; and I have shown that, by his invitation, 
Canon Farrar, of the "State Church", lectured from his 
pulpit, on the subject, John Milton, to an audience com- 
posed largely of Baptists. 

We had not resided in London long before we became 
associated with a goodly number of congenial persons, 
whose every effort was in behalf of our comfort and 
pleasure, amongst whose names those of Mr. Harry A. 
Williams and his wife, Mrs. Lissette Williams; Mr. Clar- 
ence Cameron White, and his wife, Mrs. Beda White; 
Mrs. Eliza Leech and her companion, Miss Martineau, a 
niece of the late distinguished authoress, Harriet Mar- 
tineau, Mr. L. G. Sharpe and his wife, Mrs. Adelle Sharpe ; 
Mr. S. Coleridge Taylor and his wife ; Mr. L. Mentzendorff 
and his wife, and daughter of Balham; Mr. Henry J. 
Thrift and wife, Mrs. Mattie Lawrence Thrift, of Fair- 
field Lodge, Croydon and many others; all of whom we 
still hold in sacred remembrance even should we never 
again meet them on this earth. 


Through the kindly offices of Mr. S. J. Celestin 
Edwards, a colored man, residing at that time, in Lon- 
don, and publishing a small periodical, entitled, 'Frater- 
nity; an arrangement was made by which I was invited 
to visit Scotland, as the guest of The Society for the 
Promotion of the Universal Brotherhood of Man. I had 


visited Scotland before, but, only for a brief sojourn ; now 
however was the opportunity of becoming acquainted 
not only with its "rocks and liils, its woods and templed 
hills," but with her lads and lassies and her home life; 
with which, through the reading of her literature, I, 
already felt, almost familiar. I doubt whether it comes 
within the realm of possibility for a person of pure Afri- 
can or "white" blood to appreciate — understand the feel- 
ings of one who has a modieum of both ; a man who shares 
equally, the blood of both races; or who as in some in- 
stances has a preponderance of the blood of the English 
or Scotchman leaping and bounding in his arteries and 
yet, is ignored, to some extent, by both. 

There is a trite old saying, that "blood is thicker than 
water"; and I believe it is eternally true; for, he cannot 
"hold" to the one and despise the other," as in serving 
"God and mammon" ; for, the Negro blood is very strong 
and will manifest itself, in some instances, unto the third 
and fourth generation ; while of the Scotch English blood 
it is equally true. It does not quail in the presence of man 
or beast. 

Is it any wonder then, that, constitued, by blood, as 
this writer is, he should feel, in Scotland, as did that 
famous warrior when he exclaimed: 

"Ye crags and cliffs, 

I'm with you once again!" 

Or as that other one, John Home who makes one of his 
characters to say: 

"My name is Norval on the Grampian hills, 
My father feeds his flocks." 

I loved to gaze upon the "rock-ribbed" lands, as the rapid 
train whirled us through the grand old country. 


In my mind, I had always associated Scotland and 
her heroes, to some extent, with Switzerland and her 
freedom loving sons; the Highlands and beautiful lakes 
of Scotland, reminded me of the mountain decliveties of 
the little republic, with her splashing, dashing water 
falls, rippling streams and enchanting blue lakes. And, 
who can read of Wallace and Bruce ; of the former, of their 
romantic daring, astounding acts of heroism, for libery, 
and not think of William Tell and Arnold Von Winkelried 
of the latter, who defied tyrants and even death itself, in 
behalf of the same. 

Let not my readers, however, imagine, for a moment, 
that all my race pride is, swallowed up in my admiration 
of and love for England and Scotland; for, unfashionable 
as it may be, in some parts of the world, at present, it 
is, nevertheless, historically and metaphysically true; 
the Negro, is descended from an antiquity, ante-dating 
even that of some of our most powerful and favored na- 
tions of the present day and the continent of Africa can 
lay claim to a climate, in some of its parts, and relics of 
past wealth and grandeur which fill travelers with aston- 
ishment and awe. 

The great Bishop Heber, when he wrote 

"Where Afric's sunny fountains 
Roll down their golden sands," 

realized a part of this at least, and who can doubt, that 
when John Milton wrote these ravishing words, following, 
that, he too, had Africa in mind: 

"Now gentle gales, 

Fanning their odoriferous wings dispense 
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole 
Those balmy spoils." 

—"Paradise Lost"; Book 4, Page 118. 


The Africans were always brave in war ; for we read 
in the records of the Crusades, that, under one of those 
brave captains, fighting for the holy cross, valorous deeds 
were done, by his Negro troops ; and centuries before that 
in Homer's time, Virgil speaks of them as having been in 
the great review, before the walls of Troy. 

In Book 1, line 489, Virgil says: 

"Eoas acies et nigri Memmonis arma." 

Those eastern ranks and the black arms of ^Memnon : 
and the learned commentator tells us that, Memnon, the 
son of Tithonus and Aurora, and nephew of Priam, came 
with both Oriental and Ethiopian forces, to the succor 
of Troy, and was slain by Achilles : and I can never forget 
the eloquent tribute paid by the late Senator Roscoe 
Conkling of New York, when, speaking in the Garfield 
campaign, he said, "Their fathers fought and subdued 
lions and tigers, in the forests of Africa, when our an- 
cestors were yet in ignorance." 

Of the Egyptian antiquities, the oldest monuments 
show the Negro and negroid features. The Sphinx, the 
age of which is so far back that, it has not as yet been 
ascertained, has the features of the Negro. One of the 
modern commentators in speaking of its nebulous age, 
says, the priests of Nera supposed it to represent Horus, 
to hold up its head and catch the first light of his father, 
Ra — the rising sun. 

In my own native land, the United States of America, 
the success of the Negro is oven now puzzling the biolo- 
gists; for, he not only increased numerically, while, for 
two hundred and fifty years, he was driven, under the 
yoke of slavery, but, since his manumission, without 
"jewels of silver or jewels of gold," he has increased in 
numbers at an alarming rate, (to some people), reduced 
his illiteracy to a minimum, where he has had a fair op- 


portunity, voted for the welfare of the republic, and he- 
roically fought and died for "Democracy!" Save the mark. 
Unlike the Indian, the white man's civilization cannot 
kill him. On the contrary, he thrives in the midst of it. 
He has followed the white man everywhere, even to the 
top of the earth, and it looks as if, in the wisdom and 
mercy of Almighty God, the two races are destined, 
side by side, to work out their destiny, upon this Ameri- 
can stage of action. 

But, let us return again, to Scotland, the home of 
brave men, bonnie lassies, of poets, historians, philoso- 
phers, theologians and humanitarians. Here was the home 
of Hume-Maccaulay, Carlyle, Livingstone, Allan Ramsay, 
John Knox, Bobbie Burns, James Boswell, Sir Walter 
Scott and many others. 

I was met at the station by several members of the 
society in Edinburgh, and escorted to No. 5 Malta Ter- 
race, where resided Mrs. Frances M. Saleeby, the widow 
of a gentleman who, when teaching in Syria, fell — lit- 
erally, from the "house top," and lost his life. 

Mrs. Saleeby is the mother of two noble sons — Frank, 
late deceased, and Caleb W. Saleeby, M. D. F. R. S. (Edin) , 
who is the author of several voluminous works, on medico- 
philosophic and biological subjects, which are read around 
the civilized world. 

In the home of Mrs. Salesby, I did not lack for any 
comfort; the two sons, then boys, surrendered to my use 
during my stay, their own bed room; and little Frank 
acted as my guide; to make sure that nothing worthy of 
notice escaped my attention, in the famous city; while 
the mother, assisted by some of her many friends, ar- 
ranged a series of entertainments, for my pleasure and 

My coming had been heralded, to some extent, and a 
meeting to be held in the Cavrubbers Close, in the High 
Street, almost contiguous to the old John Knox residence, 


had been amply advertised. On the occasion of the meet- 
ing, I had the honor of addressing a large audience of 
Scotch men and women, for the first time, on their "na- 
tive heath." 

Invitations to social functions were numerous, and 
kept me busy. Amongst those who extended these 
courtesies to me were Mr. and Mrs. Sangster and family, 
who had recently, returned to Great Britain, after an ab- 
sence of thirty-five years in government service, in India ; 
it was an intelligent and very interesting family. An- 
other was Mr. Marshall and daughter, of 4 East Castle 
Street, who gave me a "Drawing Room." That is to say, 
the parlors were furnished with chairs, to accommodate 
a numerous audience and a personage of known promi- 
nence in the community presided. 

When the invited guests are all seated, the chairman, 
in a few "well chosen words," introduces the guest of the 
occasion; who, in an address of some thirty minutes, 
makes known his mission and the causes sustaining it. 
At the conclusion of the speech, he answers such ques- 
tions as may be propounded to him. Then, any brief com- 
ments are indulged in by individuals in the audience, 
which may seem apropos; after that, light refreshments 
are partaken of, and the Drawing Room is ended. 

Mrs. J. Miller of York Place, a near relative of the 
late John Bright, next received me. It was on the occa- 
sion of a drawing room given in honor of Rev. Dr. 
Laws, who, at that time, had been a missionary on the 
west coast of Lake Nyanza, for nineteen years. I spoke, 
by invitation, for ten minutes, on the subject — "The Col- 
ored American." 

Mrs. Miller is( or was, I know not whether she be 
still living) the daughter of the late Duncan McLaren, 
who represented Edinburgh foi: fifteen years in the House 
of Parliament. His widow was a sister of the late John 
Bright; one of Mrs. Miller's brothers as was a Lord Jus- 


tice of Scotland ; and another, Walter Stowe Bright ; Mc- 
Laren, was in Parliament. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Pease Nichol, of Huntley Lodge, 
Napier Road, Merchiston, Edin; signally honored me, 
by inviting me to call on her. Mrs. Pease was, at that 
time eighty-six years of age. She was a beautiful elderly 
lady, with a fair complexion and silvery- white hair; and, 
was totally blind; but, with mental faculties quite un- 

Her late husband, Professor John Pringle Nichol, was 
associated with The University of Glasgow, for many 
years; and was famous, as an astronomer; some of the 
treatises written on that science being three books, en- 
titled Views of the Architecture of the Heavens, The 
Stellar Universe, and The Planetary System. 

Mrs. Nichol, in her active life, had been the intimate 
acquaintance and friend of the late William Lloyd Gar- 
rison, who was her guest, for two weeks, on the occasion 
of his visit to Scotland. She had two portraits of Mr. 
Garrison, hanging on her walls; and, also a marble bust 
of him; and, even then, being "stone" blind and almost 
ninety years of age, she was in regular correspondence 
with his sons ; and kept fully advised as to public affairs. 

Mrs. Nichol was proud of the fact that, both she and 
her husband had met the great Irish patriot, Daniel 
O'Connell, on several occasion;? ; and had travelled in the 
same railway coach with him, on one occasion. She stated 
that O'Connell was very gallant in her company; and oc- 
cupied much of the time in conversing with her. She 
spoke of his "sweet Irish accent." I suggested, "brogue," 
but, she replied, "No, it was not a brogue — it was "a sweet 
Irish, accent!" 

One statement made by O'Connell, during their con- 
versation, she said, had made a lasting impression on her 
mind — referring to capital punishment; O'Connell said 
he had always favored it; until, on one occasion, three 


brothers were condemned and duly executed; although, 
protesting their innocence. 

At the scaffold, their mother fainted away, in a dead 
fit ; and after the execution, it was discovered that they 
were innocent. Frederick Douglass and all the great 
American abolitionists were well known to her; and, ad- 
mired by her. 

She had two house servants and a "maid;" one of the 
servants had been in her employ forty-one years, and was 
treated as one of the family ; the other had been with her 
twenty-nine years, and was held in very high esteem. 

This grand old lady was bitterly opposed to vivisec- 
tion of dumb animals and ail other needless cruelties to 
them ; and she still held in pleasant remembrance, a faith- 
ful dog, which, for seventeen years, was the constant com- 
panion of herself and husband; his grave was in her yard; 
and a head-stone bore an inscription, as to his friendli- 
ness and fidelity. 

She has long since gone to her rest; where, all eyes 
are opened, and she now sees her Lord and Master, "face 
to face." 

This story would be singularly imperfect, did it fail 
to make particular mention of Miss Eliza Wigham, of No. 
4 S. Gray Street, Edin. ; where she had been (in that iden- 
tical house), from her birth, at the time when I first met 
her — she was then seventy-five; and, well preserved in 

Miss Wigham informed me, that, in twenty-five years, 
she had not suffered a day's sickness. She was a mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, Quakers ; and, in conversa- 
tion, she used their accustomed "thee" and "thou." 

Her sympathies for the poor, the afflicted and the 
oppressed, were as wide and as deep as is suffering and 
need universal; the roll of membership list of every elee- 
mosynary society and institution in Edinburgh bore her 
well known name. 


.She had, through her individual efforts, established a 
"Penny Banking and Depositing Institution," of which 
she was the sole corporate existence; and the poor of that 
city, both adults and children, were accustomed to entrust 
to her keeping, without any security whatever, their 
small earnings, consisting of a few pennies each ; and, in 
some instances, even a single penny. By so doing, in 
time, each one had a small account with her, which was 
surrendered, on demand. 

In a single year, Miss Wigham had ten thousand 
transactions, along this line; of which she kept a simple 
account, without any assistance; often sitting up until 
three and four o'clock in the morning. 

During the anti-slavery agitations, in both England 
and The United States, she was a great power in behalf 
of the oppressed; and her acquaintance with all the anti- 
slavery workers was very extended. Her library, which 
was large and well selected, contained in it, a number of 
books by colored authors, and much information concern- 
ing Africa and its inhabitants. 

One of the books, written by a colored man, which I 
scanned, was that of John Box Brown. I asked her why 
the author bore such a unique name. She answered, that 
he was so dubbed, because he had escaped from slavery, 
nailed up in a box ; so, they named him for the box ! 

One of her dearest associates and friends was Mrs. 
Patterson, wife of Doctor Maurice Patterson of 7 Hatton 
Place, Grange, Edin. One son of these distinguished 
people, Mr. R. H. Patterson was, at that time, a student at 
law, in the University of Edinburgh ; and he was also the 
local secretary of The Society for the Recognition of the 
Universal Brotherhood of Man. When I spoke of the 

"Whips and scorns of time, 
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumeley, 
The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, 
The insolence of office and the spurns 
That patient merit of the unworthy takes," 


her eyes filled with tears, while the others cried, "0, for 
shame! for shame!" 

I must not protract these individual sketches, tho 
the temptation to do so is great. 

One of the dwellings I loved to gaze upon, at times, 
was that of Sir William Simpson, the discovery of chloro- 
form, which all the victims of the operating table will 
rise up and call, "blessed." 

In taking a rapid stroll through the streets and sub- 
urbs of Edinburgh, the objects of historic interest are so 
numerous and interesting as to fill one with astonishment. 
There, in the High Street, is the former residence of the 
late John Knox, the inflexible Presbyterian preacher of 
eternal damnation ; whose denunciations of sin caused the 
unfortunate Queen Mary of Scotland, to tremble; next 
door, is The Carrubbers Close, of which I have spoken, 
the Peoples Temple, built, "in the first instance, through 
the efforts of the late Dwight L. Moodie; and, after- 
wards enlarged, if I mistake not, through the generosity 
of the late Andrew Carnegie. 

Not far removed from here, is the grand, old church 
of St. Giles, in which John Knox, more than three hun- 
dred years ago, preached. It has undergone changes on 
the interior; but, it still maintained its original form and 
dignity, on the outside. I heard an able and eloquent ser- 
mon preached in this church, while in Edinburgh. 

In the neighborhood, not far removed, stands Edin- 
burgh Castle, now, unfit for martial purposes ; but, of ab- 
sorbing interest, in the light of ancestral days. What 
most interested me v/as, not the tower, the keep or the 
antiquated, big gun ; but, the cunning little dog cemetery, 
where lie the remains of a number of dogs, duly marked 
with slabs, bearing inscriptions on them. 

Down at the other end of the old High Street, is Holy 
Rood Palace, once the home of royalty; but, now, only 


a curious relic of the past. In going to the palace, one 
passes through the "Canon Gate" — so called, we are told, 
because, King David I, in the twelfth century, founded 
the Abbey of Holy Rood, and gave the canons of the ab- 
bey the right to build a suburb between their church and 
the rock upon which stands the Castle ; and it is from this 
grant to the canons, that the name of Canon Gate is de- 
rived. Down, under the high, steep rock on which stands 
the old castle, is the "Grass Market." Here, for a long, 
long time criminals were executed; and, I suspect, some 
who were not criminals. Many, for conscience sake, were 
tortured and killed, by those who "verily believed that 
they did God service." It has been the way of the 
world ; it is still the way of the world. 

The ruins, on Calton Hill, are a sight to behold. They 
remind one of the relics of some former Greek or Roman 
temple. It seems that, an effort was made, by a past 
generation of the good people of Edinburgh to build, on 
the summit of this high hill, a monument, at once great 
and ornamental; but, for some cause which I did not 
ascertain, the undertaking fell through; and there, the 
good beginnings still lie, in evidence. 

Arthurs Seat, another high rocky hill, in the very 
shadow of which Holy Rood Castle stands, is an object of 
curiosity; and many young tourists climb to the summit 
of it ; whence they can view, not "all the kingdoms of the 
earth," but, all of Edinburgh and much of the surround- 
ing country. This writer "mounted" it; and was well re- 
paid for the effort, by the beautiful and grand scenery 
which confronted him. 

Returning to the home of Mrs. Saleeby, my hostess, 
we were abundantly refreshed and entertained by gentle 
social functions; and the hours sped rapidly and pleas- 

One of the objects attracting my attention and greatly 


interesting me was a "Fish wife" which I will here speak 
of briefly. 

The fish wife is not attractive to the eye of the average 
male, tho, I suppose, in her settlement, she has those 
who admire, woo, and marry her. She is "short and stout" 
in appearance ; an effect which is not lessened by the fact 
that, she wears, from eight to ten heavy woolen skirts, as 
we are informed by the knowing ones. 

She carries fish in a basket or "creel," which, rests on 
her hips, behind; — the bundle of clothes, which she wears 
breaks the weight on her back and protects her kidneys. 
The weight of her load, at times, amounts to 100 and 150 
pounds. A strap attached to the sides of the creel, passes 
over her forehead; and, bending forward, she thus, sus- 
tains and carries the heavy load. 

These hard working women live together in hamlets ; 
and are very exclusive. They intermarry; which gives 
rise to physical defects and malformations, to their dis- 
advantage. We are told that, the weight of the loads 
carried by them, flattens the pelvis, and they are de- 
livered with difficulty. 

The retina of the eye is, to some extent, disorganized ; 
which is laid at the door of their marriages, often between 
blood relatives. The fishermen, in these settlements, seem 
to regard their duty as being fully performed, when the^ 
have landed the fish, and they will stand and lean against 
a post, while the women lug the heavy loads to the top of 
the bluff. After that, the women are obliged to peddle 
the fish about the town. 

Before taking leave of Edinburgh, it was suggested 
that I visit the great Forth Bridge; and, also, run up to 
the thrifty town of Kirkliston, the home of Rev. R. A. 
Lendrum and his talented and agreeable wife ; and, in ac- 
cordance with the suggestion, I accomplished both facts. 
The Forth Bridge is one of the engineering wonders of 
the world; and is well worth the small time and trouble 


required to visit and behold it. It is related, that, during- 
the time of its construction, a town was built and inhab- 
ited in the vicinage, where thousands of workmen, with 
their families, in some instances, resided, until the great 
work was completed. 

In order that my readers may have some conception 
of the size and nature of this great structure, the follow- 
ing figures are given: 

"It is a cantilever arch and truss bridge, containing 
two spans, each span is 1710 feet, in the clear, or 100 feet 
more than the clear span of the famous bridge, between 
New York and Brooklyn. The total length of the bridge 
is "8,091 feet, and the center is supported by Inch Garvie, 
a little island. The abutments, on Garvie, consist of four 
steel pillars, 60 feet in diameter, and sunk down to the 
solid rock. The floor of the bridge is 150 feet 
above the water, and there is a depth of 200 feet of 
water under the center of the great spans". This wonder- 
ful bridge connects North Queensferry with South 
Queensferry, and is about nine miles from Edinburgh. 

At Kirkliston, I was the guest of Rev. and Mrs. Len- 
drum, and was entertained at the Manse, which is the 
parish house of the Presbyterian Church, of which Mr. 
Lendrum was the pastor. 

Rev. Lendrum had served a church some where, in 
the United States, prior to my visit to Scotland ; and was 
quite familiar with conditions relating to us, colored peo- 
ple, in our native land. However, this fact did not pre- 
vent either him or his good wife from treating me, in 
every respect, like a gentleman. 

Mrs. Lendrum, in the course of our conversations, 
often refered to John Knox Bokwe; she played and sang 
one or more of his musical compositions, and gave re- 
miniscences of his conversation, when, on an occasion, 
he too, was a guest at the Manse. Finally I asked her, 


"of what nationality is Mr. Bokwe?" She informed me 
that he was a Kafir Negro! Secretary to the mission at 
Lovedale, Cape Colony, South Africa. Imagine my sur- 
prise! From the laudations and frequent mention made 
of him, I had concluded that, he was some white man of 
intellectual and social standing. So much for having spent 
my whole life in a different social sphere of action. 

The meeting at Kirkliston was a grand success. The 
audience was large and the display of interest was reas- 
suring. The pastor and his wife maintained two servants. 
and kept a beautiful cozy home. 

Rev. and Mrs. Lendrum, to my surprise, expressed a 
wish that I were black. He remarked, that, many of the 
Scotch and English young men and women were prepar- 
ing for the Mission fields of Africa, and that, they were 
led into the service by the love of Christ, having no 
further interest in the Negro. As to the numbers of can- 
didates, I had much information, for, when I visited 
different departments of the great University of Edin- 
burgh I conversed with a goodly number of the students, 
of both sexes ; and, to my agreeable surprise, I found that 
a large percentage of them were preparing for the Afri- 
can mission field. 

My duties being performed now, in Edinburgh and 
vicinity, I reluctantly, took my leave of the many dear 
friends, within her walls, who had done so much for my 
pleasure and instruction; especially, my very dear friend 
Mrs. Saleeby — and her two bright sons. Little did I sur- 
mise then, that later on — 15 years later on, she would 
be domiciled at Chaseside Villa, Winchmore Hill, near 
London, while this writer and his dear wife, now deceased, 
would be, temporarily, in London ; and that, the social re- 
lations between us would be renewed and continued, down 
to the present date — 27 years from our first acquaintance.. 



It was with a feeling akin to awe, that I entered the 
ancient city of Dundee, Scotland; for I had often heard 
a dear old hymn, called, "Old Dundee," sung in my child- 
hood; and, besides, a few years previous to my visit, I 
had read, in far away America, of the total collapse of a 
long railway bridge, which spanned the Firth of Tay, 
when a train, which was crossing it, disappeared from 
sight; and not one of its human freight was left to tell 
the sad, sad story. 

James Thomson, Esq., LL. B., Solicitor and Notary 
Public — a real Scotsman, — a "right good fellow," in the 
fullest acceptation of the term, and as humanitarian and 
patriotic as any man who walks God's green earth, met 
me at the station, and escorted me to his handsome resi- 
dence, carrying my satchel in his hand, a part of the time. 

I was quite fortunate ; and deemed myself highly hon- 
ored, in meeting Mrs. Thomson, the talented and versatile 
wife of Mr. Thomson, and the Mother of two beautiful 
children, James and a sister. 

The day following my arrival, Mrs. Thomson suggest- 
ed, that we take a stroll through the business portion of 
the city (in the center of which, I afterwards learned, by 
the way, her husband owned extensive holdings), so that 
she could point out to me the principal objects of interest, 
including the Museum and Art Gallery. I suspect, my en- 
thusiasm was not in evidence, to the extent that she an- 


ticipated, whereupon, she exclaimed, "Senator Green, I am 
afraid you do not appreciate my invitation!" Of course, 
I assured her, in most positive terms, that the contrary 
was true; arid we sallied forth on, what proved to be one 
of the most enjoyable urban rambles of my whole life. 
Here is an "aside," for my American readers. The social 
manners of Europe, and especially Scotland, were so at 
variance with what I had been accustomed to in my na- 
tive land, that, frequently, I hesitated for a moment, 
until I could make sure that I was not obtruding myself, 
in any respect, for, social intercourse is so absolutely 
predicated upon congeniality, that, to push or shove one's 
self into a circle where he is not wanted, is to my mind 
not only in bad taste, but, reprehensible. 

I found Dundee to be a large, populous and wealthy 
city, with substantial, ornamental buildings, for business 
purposes, as well as for residential uses. The home of my 
guests, Mr. and Mrs. Thomson, was no exception to the 
rule; and, while being entertained therein, I felt that all 
my efforts, during my life time, to rise above the sad 
condition in which the failure and death of our dear de- 
ceased father had plunged us, had been crowned with 
success; and that, the kindly attentions of my wealthy 
and refined entertainers, was the culmination of a full 
fruition, in that behalf. 

In referring to my memorandum book, which I 
carried with me at that time — twenty-seven years ago — 
I find this memorandum: "James Thomson, Esq., LL. B., 
Solicitor, etc. and his good wife of No. 1 Hyndford Ter- 
race, are of the elite of Dundee, and are elegantly domi- 
ciled, in an imposing stone masion, which contains all the 
modern improvements and many of the luxuries which 
wealth can afford. Mrs. Thomson is an earnest, con- 
scientious, Christian lady, the mother of two children, 
a boy and a girl. The former, named for his father, is 
about three years of age, while the latter is nine months 


only. James is quite "fleshy," and handsome, but at 
present, is "cabin'd and cribbed,", compelled to keep off 
his feet, until his bones harden, a little more. Everything 
that broad minds, big- hearts, great souls and good 
breeding can suggest, is being done for me, by these 
kind people. I can never repay them. 

I may mention here, that, my meeting in the evening 
was a marked success; since, it was presided over by 
the "provost" of the city, and had the matchless services 
of Mrs. Margaret M. A. Steele, of Shanghai, Victoria 
Place, West Ferry, Dundee, in its behalf, who went so far 
as to distribute dodgers, advertising the meeting in the 
streets of the city. Further comment would seem un- 

James Thompson, Junior, grew up to man's estate and 
was generously educated, having a diploma from one of 
the leading Universities of Scotland. His specialty was 
Journalism, in which sphere of action he was making 
commendable progress, as well as in that of public speak- 
ing, and, he bid fair to honor not only his profession but 
his family and country, also. 

Then came that howling tempest, the so-called, 
"World War." 

"Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds; 
At which the universal host up sent 
A shout that tore hell's concave; and, beyond, 
Frightened the reign of Chaos and old Night." 

— Paradise Lost, Line 540. 

"Oh dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon, 
Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse, 
Without all hope of day!" 

Sampson Agonistes, Line 80. 

This brave, talented son of Britain, "went to war," 
— for true Democracy. He gave all he had, after being 
commissioned for bravery — his life. He did his bit. 

"Greater love than this, hath no man." 

At this late day, it can be said of my dear, good 
friend, Mr. Thomson, and his family : 

Mrs. Thomson and the family, are all attending Uni- 
versity classes, the eldest boy (second son), at Glasgow, 
is studying for the ministry; the other two children are 
studying at the University College, at Dundee. All busily 
engaged in making life worth living. Long life and 
abundant prosperity to them, all, is my prayer. 

Perhaps, I should mention the fact, that, a few rods 
from the location of the piers on which rested the long 
bridge, which formerly spanned the Firth of Tay, is an- 
other more modern and stronger. Down to this writing, 
it has withsood all the storms and hurricanes which have 
assailed it ; nor have they been able to prevail against it. 

The au revoirs having been said, again I am enroute ; 
this time for the "granite city," — Aberdeen, well up to- 
wards the North of Scotland. It was a delightful ride, 
that, through that picturesque highland country, with 
its furze covered slopes and beloved thistles, for which 
the land is so noted; and there were in evidence, as we 
flew along, the uncanny, but comfortable "crofters" lodges 
with the "ben" in one end and the "butt," in the other) , the 
inmates of which can live anywhere else in the world as 
well as in Scotland, for, with the payment of five dollars 
per annum for an acre of land, which must be "stoned," 
just as peaches or cherries are "stoned," before a crop 
of turnips or oats can be produced on it, if they can pro- 
cure the necessities of life, to say nothing of the com- 
forts and luxuries, they can live and thrive anywhere. 

The turnip crop insures abundance of food for the 
fine sheep to nibble at, which foretells a good crop of wool 
for the world reputed Scotch tweeds and other valu- 
able cloths, guaranteed to be "all wool and a yard wide". 
Then, too, I am informed that, occasionally, the turnip 
is not to be despised as an article of food for the table, 
when properly cooked; and the marmalade factories 


which give remunerative employment to hosts of pretty 
lassies, in Aberdeen and elsewhere, claim a goodly por- 
tion of them. 

As for the oats, who, that knows Scotland, can be at 
a loss as to the use made of them! I know of but one 
other staple food in the world, that is served, as food, in 
as many different ways as oats are, in this happy, content- 
ed land. I refer to the maccaroni of the Italians, for, I 
have eaten and seen this delicious dish, not only served 
as stews and fries and what not, on the table, but also, 
wrapped in gilded and decorated paper, and exposed for 
sale as a delicacy, on the shelves and counters of the 

Ere long the train, which had lost no time, drew into 
the depot, and the pleasing call of "Aberdeen!" saluted 
our ears. In waiting, and expectant, was Dr. George Fer- 
dinands, an occulist by profession, and friend and adviser 
to the late Mrs. Isabella Fyvie Mayo; who, during her 
lifetime, under the nom de plume of "Edward Garrett," 
gave to the reading world a series of about thirty-five 
volumes of stories. 

At the home of Mrs. Mayo, whose guest I was, a 
hearty welcome was extended to me, and great good 
cheer was my portion. While my hostess did, in every 
consistent way, what she could to make my Aberdonian 
visit a success, it is to Doctor Ferdinands my gratitude 
is principally due, for many hours of his precious time, 
consecrated to my happiness and benefit. 

Introductions to the late John Leith, Esq., a heavy 
manufacturer of Scotch tweeds and other clothis, and 
who, by the way, out of his abundance, financed my trip 
to Aberdeen and promoted the successful meetings which 
I addressed, while in that beautifully quaint city, I say 
quaint ; yes, for not only were the warehouses and dwell- 
ings built of granite — closely resembling our "quincy" 
granite, but even the out-houses, for the use of the cattle 


and poultry, were constructed of the same, which gave to 
the city not only the appearance of solidity, but, of thrift 
both of which were in accordance with fact. 

Then there were Rev. Mr. Mackay, prominent in 
church and every helpful endeavor, and Rev. Mr. Duncan, 
an elderly, yet very eloquent speaker. Rev. Mr. Mackay 
in the course of his remarks, at the rDawing Room, which 
was given in my honor at the home of Mr. John Leith, 
where there were many invited guests, said — that, he 
had been informed, that, in the East, when a white wo- 
man marries a native or black man, she is socially ta- 
booed and pricked with bodkins, by her white sisters ; sent 
into "Coventry," so to speak.This occasioned apparently 
considerable surprise ; considering that, the Orientals are 
so thoroughly mixed with the African blood, and so many 
representatives of the race are still to be found in the 
harems of the sultans and others, in both Turkey and 
Arabia. But not one word reflecting on the colored race 
was uttered. 

Mrs. Mayo, proved herself to be quite a story-teller; 
which, by the way, I noticed to be one of the pleasing- 
characteristics of the Scotch people, wherever I went. 
Here is one which I regard as being full of humor as well 
as suggestive of the rugged life of the remote Highlander. 
A guest, tiaveling in the Highlands, was, suddenly taken 
seriously ill, and requested the services of a physician. 
Whereupon, she was informed that, the nearest doctor 
resided at a distance of seventeen miles. "Why, how in- 
convenient and dangerous that is," she answered. "What 
do you do in an emergency, when one's life is imperilled?" 

"Well," the maid replied, "we jest have ter dee a 
nacheral deeth!" 

Another of Mrs. Mayo's stories, which I subsequently 
found in Dean Ramsey's book of Scotch stories, is, in 
substance as follows : A Scottish lad experienced so much 
embarrassment in "popping the question," that, he took 


his sweetheart to the family lot in the ancient cemetery; 
and, while standing with her by the graves of his ances- 
tors, he significantly, said: "Jennie, how wad ye like ter 
hae the richt ter lie there?" 

Also, the following story seems quaint and full of 
quiet humor. A young man went with his "intended," to 
the minister, for the purpose of getting married, but, 
once there, he refused to permit the "knot" to be tied, 
"because, he said, he had taken a "scunner" to his "in- 
tended." Subsequently, they went again to the parson, 
for the same purpose; but no nuptials were celebrated, 
for the reason that, she had taken a "scunner" to the 
man. A third time they appeared before the man-of-God; 
but the marriage failed, because, he himself, had taken a 
"scunner to both of them!" 

Before leaving Aberdeen, Mr. John Leith invited me 
to speak, on Sunday, at the P. S. A. — Pleasant Sunday 
Afternoon, of which he w T as the Superintendent, and to 
a great extent the soul. This was one of the most pleasing 
functions of my entire visit to Aberdeen; for, not only 
large numbers of children and sweet-faced youths were 
in attendance, filling the big auditorium to repletion, but, 
also there was sweet music rendered, both vocal and 
instrumental, which carried one's mind Heavenward. I 
heard for the first time, the musical rendition of Tenny- 
son's beautiful verses, beginning, "Twilight and Evening 
Star," by a quartette, of which Mr. Leith's talented and 
useful daughter w r as one. Her deep, rich and resonant con- 
tralto was the chief feature of the rendition and I can 
never forget it. 

I am loth to conclude this brief notice of Mr. Leith 
and his family, without recording a beautiful legend of 
the Christ, which he related with telling effect; this leg- 
end is said to have been found amongst some ancient 
documents, in the year 1903. 

"It happened that the Lord went forth and walked 


with his disciples over the mountains. They came to a 
mountain, and the road which led to it was steep. There 
they found a man with a sumpter-mule. (That is a mule 
which carries necessaries for a journey). But the animal 
had fallen, for the burden was too heavy, and he beat it 
so that it bled. And Jesus came to him and said, "Man, 
why dost thou beat thy animal? Seest thou not that it is 
too weak for its burden, and knowest thou not that it 
suffers pain?" "What is that to you? I can beat it as much 
as I please, seeing that. I own it; and, I bought it for a 
good sum of money." * * * "Do you not notice how it 
bleeds, and hear you not how it laments and cries?" re- 
plied Jesus. "Nay, Lord," was the answer, "we hear not 
how it laments and cries." And the Lord was sad ; and, 
exclaimed, "Woe to you, that ye hear not how it complains 
to the Creator in Heaven, and cries for mercy; but three 
times woe to him of whom it complains and cries in dis- 
tress !" And he came forth and touched the animal, and 
it rose ; and it wounds were healed, and Jesus said to the 
man, "Now, go on, and beat it no more, that you, also, 
may find mercy". 

However, my appointment for Huntly, far north, in 
Scotland, demanded my departure; and, ere long, with 
my dear, new-macfe friend Dr. George Ferdinands, by my 
side, we were enroute to that ancient home of the Gor- 
dons, noted in history, story and song, for deeds com- 
mendable and the reverse. To attempt to recall any of the 
deeds of the earls and lords of Gordon, would be tiresome 
to the reader; and reference must be made by the 
reader, to — Hume, Micaulay, Froude, Lingard, Green or 
Dickens' histories of England, for full information. 
E nough to say that old Gordon Castle, imposing and 
strong, is still standing in the suburbs of Huntly; which 
probably, had its origin from the presence of the Castle 
and its titled inmates, dating from the year, 1603. 

In Huntley, we were the guests of Rev. and Mrs. 


Templeton, who were both of the social elite, educated 
and respected. My lecture was delivered in the Kirk, over 
which Mr. Templeton presided, with dignity and satis- 
faction. The attendance was large and the spirit of liberty 
manifested, was in keeping with the well- known Scotch 

Amongst those present, of especial note, were Mr. 
William Simpson and his good wife. Mr. Simpson was the 
proprietor of the book store of the town; which seem'd 
to be well stocked with modern and rare books. A typical 
Scotsman, really it is worth the price of the trip to the 
Highlands, if only to meet with representatives of this 
brave picturesque people. I can never forget, my first 
night spent in Edinburgh; when, I saw and heard, in 
the Market Place, almost under the shadow of the Scott 
Monument, a numerous band (?) or should I say "clan" 
of bag-pipers! This certainly was an experience which 
ought to have made the "canonized bones" of Sir Walter 
Scott," hearsed in death, * * burst their cerements," for 
joy; for, the like of it I never expect to hear again. 

On the day following my lecture, in Huntley, Doctor 
Ferdinands, chaperoned by Miss Annie Bennett, a pretty 
and lovable Scottish lassie, conducted me to the ruins (?) 
of Gordon Castle; which, as regards the exterior, cannot 
be called "ruins". As to the interior, the walls were cold 
and bare, "No light no fire." 

"Cold on the hearth the last faint spark had expired." 

Dean Ramsay tells a humorous and suggestive story, 
which carries us back to the last Duke of Gordon, and 
proves that conditions in the old castle were never com- 
fortable in accordance with our modern, civilized idea. 
David Tullach, tenant in Drumbenan, under the second 
and third Dukes of Gordon, had been "out" in the 45 or 
the 15th, or both, and was a great favorite of his respec- 
tive landlords. One day, David, having attended the young 
lady, Susan Gordon (afterwards Duchess of Manchester) 


to the "Chapel" at Huntly, David, perceiving that her 
ladyship had neither hassock or carpet to protect her 
garments from the earthen floor, respectfully spread his 
plaid, for the young lady to kneel upon, and the service 
proceeded; but when the prayer for the King and Royal 
Family was commenced, David, unceremoniously, drew, 
or rather "twitched" the plaid from under the knees of the 
astonished lady, exclaiming, "The diel a one shall pray 
for them on my plaid!" 

Down, by the foundation of the Castle, dashes and 
splashes a clear rippling brook, spanned by a stone arch, 
over which we passed, to the other side. Suddenly, I 
missed the Doctor's lively companion; but, only for a 
moment; for, quicker than I can write this story, she 
appeared again, bearing in her hands a bunch of pretty 
wild flowers, which were growing almost on the edge of 
the crystal stream. With all the grace of another Hebe of 
classic fame, she presented them to this writer, as a 
token of the good wishes of herself and the friends, for 
the cause which, I, in some sense, represented. For many 
years, I kept them; and, it may be, that, to this day, 
they are tucked in one of my packages, souvenirs of that 
eventful trip. 

But, "time and tide wait for no man!" we had to 
leave. I felt sure that the doctor was counting the min- 
utes, — aye — the hours. 

On the day following our return to Aberdeen, I bade 
a fond and loving adieu to the good friends, who had 
added so much of pleasure to my life, and turned my 
face in the direction that great hive of industry — Glas- 
gow, where the wonderful "steel leviathans" are built, 
which plow the seas, in all sections and climes of the 
habitable globe. 

Enroute, a repetition of mountain and vale and 
lake and rippling stream, and nibbling flocks and herds 
were inevidence; and old "Benachie," a veritable "storm- 


king," reared his snow-capped head to kiss the clouds. 
And much more of this. Finally, after hours of diversion 
the tallest spires, then the highest buildings, and after 
that, the dwelling houses of the great city could be dis- 
cerned, and, behold, we were in the midst of the great 
city on the River Clyde. 

At the station, in waiting .to receive me, was Mr. Wil- 
liam G. Smeal, of Monteith Row. A gentleman of culture 
and large means, who had as his business the wholesale 
importation of teas. Mr. Smeal and his interesting family 
were elegantly domiciled, and, in other respects, gave 
evidence of being one of the foremost social factors of 

Mrs. Smeal was somewhat deaf, and expressed some 
fear that, I would be unable to speak loud enough for 
her to hear me, at the meeting which was scheduled for 
the following evening. I am pleased to record here, that, 
after the meeting, she exclaimed with every appearance 
of pleasure, "Mr. Green, I heard every word you said!" My 
pleasure was reciprocal, for, they both exerted themselves 
to make my stay in the city pleasant and instructive. 

Mr. Smeal was thoroughly imbued with the anti- 
slavery spirit, and from his conversations, he was a man 
who had drunk deep at the same fountain where our im- 
mortal Jefferson had quenched his thirst, for the prin- 
ciples of liberty and manhood rights. Later on, after my 
return to the United States, he mailed to me a little 
book, ancient in appearance, which contained the Report 
of the House of Commons on the African Slave Trade. It 
is the only one I have ever seen; and since it was pub- 
lished in the latter part of the 18th Century, I suspect 
it is rarely met with. 

During the following day, Mr. Smeal, dedicated most 
of his valuable time to showing me the vast plants for 
the building of ocean ships and their furnishings, 
which I viewed with a degree of astonishment akin to 


awe, and afterwards, he escorted me to the ancient Cath- 
edral, and conducting me to the basement or crypt, he 
pointed out the identical pillar behind which, tradition 
informs us, Rob Roy, Sir Walter Scott's interesting bor- 
der highwayman, concealed himself when he found that, 
"discretion was the better part of valor." 

In passing through the humble parts of Glasgow, 
the inordinate use of spiritous liquors was easily appar- 
ent ; even the women, who, in some sections thronged the 
back streets, showed unmistakable signs of intoxication. 
These women, in many instances, carried babies on their 
back, secured by the close-drawn folds of their shawls. 
It was a sorry spectacle which made a lasting impres- 
sion on my mind, which the lapse of twenty-seven years 
has not obliterated. Some of the little ones who "toddled" 
by the side of their neglectful mothers, presented a spec- 
tacle which was, by no means, re-assuring, for, in numer- 
ous instances, they were malformed by the "rickets," 
or some other sign of physical degeneracy. 

After a pleasant visit of some forty-eight hours, I 
turned my face, once more in the direction of Liverpool, 
where I duly, arrived, and, without the loss of much time, 
returned to the great metropolis — London, the capital 
of the great British Empire, he greatest empire of which 
we have heard or read. Upon the whole of which, the sun 
never sets. Great in territory, great in population, won- 
derful in resources and wealth ; which rules on sea as well 
as on land; and whose fall, if it is ever ordained to be, 
will overwhelm many more than those now under the 
Aegis of her government. 




Elsewhere in this narrative, I have spoken of our 
great and good martyr — President William McKinley; 
and my manner of speaking of him is such as to suggest 
that I considered him a personal friend. Now, I would 
not have anyone infer from any or all of my statements, 
that, the relations between either Governor McKinley or 
President McKinley and me were other than what might 
reasonably be expected between two men closely allied in 
the political arena. As for instance, when McKinley was 
Governor of Ohio, I was a senator, consenting to and 
confirming all of his appointments; and when he was 
President, I was at the head of a bureau, under his ad- 
ministration, by his appointment ; so that, great, big man 
as he was, he never dodged me or turned his back to me ; 
but, on the contrary, seemed to admire my efforts to rise 
and lent me (as many another) his countenance and 

To know McKinley was to admire and love him. He 
was so courteous and kind, gentle, unassuming, sincere, 
earnest and able, withal, that, he won his way into the 
hearts of even those whom he, politically opposed. And 
it was said, during his life time, he could send a man, 
whom he had refused away from his presence, without 
malice towards him and cheerful. 


Here is a characteristic incident in his political career 
which tends to sustain my foregoing view of him. 

Walking around the north side of the Capitol building 
one morning, during my term in the Senate, I met Gov- 
ernor McKinley, "face to face." I raised my hat and ex- 
claimed: "Good morning! How is my Governor this 

With all the urbanity of George Washington, who sa- 
luted a poor Negro who bowed to him, (because, as he 
said, he would not allow a Negro slave to exceed him in 
politeness), the Governor answered: "Quite well; how 
is my Senator, this morning?" 

On another occasion, when he was reviewing a great 
torchlight procession, from the upper balcony of the old 
Tod House of Youngstown, which was a demonstration 
solely in his honor, he invited me to stand by his side, 
while the procession was passing ; and afterwards, sat on 
the stage in the old rink, in the same city, and listened to 
me speak in behalf of a protective tariff! What greater 
condescension could there be than that? William Mc- 
Kinley, chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, and 
author of the great McKinley Protective tariff law, listen- 
ing to an alleged argument, on the same subject, proceed- 
ing from the lips of a colored man — in the United States ! 
On another occasion, while I was employed in Wash- 
ington, the President was the invited guest of the late 
President J. E. Rankin of Howard University, of the same 
city, and the Faculty of the same, on the occasion of the 
graduating exercises of the class of the Law Depart- 

It happened that, this writer was also invited to ad- 
dress the graduating class, on the same memorable occa- 
sion; and, being upon the platform, was seated on one 
side of Doctor Rankin, while the President was seated on 
the other side of him. The President was very gracious and 
kindly in his entire demeanor, on this occasion; and, aft- 


er I finished my address to the graduating class, he 
reached his right arm around the back of Pres. Rankin, 
grasped my hand and congratulated me — in no uncertain 

I am sure that the President was a true disciple of 
that political school of philosophy, the underlying prin- 
ciple of which is, "Always stand by your friends!" 

During the contest for the presidency, the colored 
speakers were invited and sent out into the country at 
large, by a committee of colored men at Chicago. I was 
well known to the chairman of that committee, between 
whom and me existed, as I supposed, friendly relations; 
hence, I was greatly surprised as the contest waxed 
warm, to find that he had completely ignored me, while 
he had used his station to "pick and choose," many per- 
sons, scarcely known, and had sent them out to "spell- 
bind" the voters. 

These facts coming to the attention of Mr. McKinley, 
he immediately wired to Mr. William Hahn, at headquar- 
ters, commanding him to, "Send out Mr. Green; see that 
he is well cared for!" I had no trouble after that; the 
eyes of the colored committee were opened; and, under 
the wing of Colonel Kerens, at St. Louis, I not only 
stumped Missouri, from St. Charles and Moberly, on the 
East, to Kansas City, on the West, but, I also addressed 
one of the noon-day business men's meetings of St. Louis, 
and Chicago. A few stories, relative to my experiences 
in "stumping, may be of interest to some of the younger 
portion of my readers. 

The first, relates to my experiences in a town of Mis- 
souri, during the first McKinley campaign. 

The National Committee assigned me to speak in a 
large town or small city, located in Central Missouri. 
When I reached the place, I was informed that no notice 
of the meeting had been given to the local Republican 
Committee; but, that, the only large hall available had 


been engaged for a night meeting, to be addressed by a 
very distinguished gentleman, who was also stumping 
for the G. 0. P. 

In this contingency, I inquired of the local commit- 
tee, whether I might have the use of the hall during the 
afternoon of that day, provided I could secure the attend- 
ance of an audience; and receiving an affirmative an- 
swer, I immediately began to insure an audience. 

My first move was to have 500 "Dodgers" rushed, 
proclaiming the presence in the city of a "colored sena- 
tor, from Ohio, who would speak at 3 p. m." I paid two 
boys to leave one of these dodgers in the hands of every 
person except one; which, I may say, was done, in good 
faith. The next move was to have a man display a pla- 
card, to the same effect, through all the downtown streets,, 
ringing a bell, in the meantime. 

Needless to say, at my afternoon meeting I had an 
attentive audience, largely white, which tested the capac- 
ity of the hall. And, by general request, at the night 
meeting, I divided the time with the distinguished gentle- 
man, much to his satisfaction. 

Another experience, which I deem worthy of notice 
was incidental to my West Virginia stumping tour during 
the same campaign. 

I was enroute to the pretty town of Moorefield, West 
Virginia, the county seat of Hardy county, nestled 
amongst the foot-hills of the Allegheny Mountains, twenty 
miles distant from Romney, which was a town of some 

Green Springs, eight or ten miles distant from Rom- 
ney, was the nearest station on the B. & O. Railway, be- 
tween which and Romney ran occasionally a railway car 
for the accommodation of all. Sad to relate, I was com- 
pelled to wait five and a half (5 1-2) hours, at the station 
for the "train" for Romney! As I, at that time, wore a 


silk hat and Prince Albert coat, I was, at that place, easily 
the cynosure of the few eyes which beheld me. 

A hardy mountaineer approached me, when the fol- 
lowing colloquy ensued: 

Native: "Aint you the man who'se goin' ter Mo-fiel 
(meaning Moorefield) ter talk ter our N'g — s?" 

The writer: "I am on my way to Moorefield to deliver 
a political address, to all who wish to listen to it." 

Native : "Well, ain't you af eerd to go thar and talk ter 
our N'g — s? We ain't in the habit of havin' our N'g — s 
interfeered with, by strangers!" 

The writer: "No, I am not afraid. And I am going to 
speak there. If I am ill-treated the whole country will 
know about it; for I am a senator of the State of Ohio!" 

Native : "All right — stranger ; go er hed. You know yer 
biznis — perhaps, better'n I do!" 

So saying, we separated. He to go his way. I, for 
Romney and Moorefield, twenty miles distant, beyond a 
deep mountain gap. When we, with our "horse and bug- 
gy," which, with the driver, I had hired in Romney, drove 
into Moorefield, my silk "tile" was as yellow as the dust 
of the mountain road; and, as for the remainder of my 
apparel, it was difficult to tell what it was made of. 

Mr. John N. Judy, Postmaster and sole white repub- 
lican in the corporate limits, received me; and, after a 
short conversation, he turned me over to Mr. George W. 
Strauther, late deceased, the colored teacher of the col- 
ored school of the town, who escorted me to his cozy 
home; where he and his beautiful and intelligent wife, 
gave me a royal welcome, until I left the town, on the 
following morning. 

„ I was informed by my host and hostess, that, the 
native white politicians of the town had threatened to 
give me trouble if I attempted to speak in Moorefield; 
"but," said Mrs. Strauther, "Don't fear, Mr. Green. I will 
go to the Court house (where the meeting was held) with 


you; and, if they harm you they will have to harm me, 

We sallied forth, at the appointed time. The Court 
room was filled, packed, galleries and all. The whites and 
the colored occupying opposite sides of the large room. 

My address was largely on economic subjects and coun- 
selled friendly relations between the two races, which alt 
seemed to approve. But once in a while, notwithstanding, 
as if to punctuate the applause, which was frequent and 
hearty, "buckshot" were showered on the heads of my 
colored auditors, who sat on the first floor. It was sad 
and disgraceful to see my dear "hearers" rubbing their 
heads. Yet, despite my efforts (for a wonder) I did not 
cry; but smiled, almost audibly. 

In the month of May, 1893, when making a brief so- 
journ in the City of Venice, Italy, I visited the famous 
Piazza St. Marco, and, in addition, the great Cathedral 
of Saint Marc, The Doge's Palace and the original Cam- 
panile Tower, now replaced by another since its collapse. 

I became so greatly interested in the wonderful bric- 
a-brac establishment of the Testolini Bros., that I sought 
a meeting with, and was introduced to one of the firm. 
He was quite entertaining and gave me much informa- 
tion pertaining to their wonderful wares. 

Abruptly, somewhat, in the course of our conversa- 
tion (for he spoke English, fluently), he said to me 
"That countryman of yours, McKinley, what means he 
by 'America for Americans!' n Then I explained to him 
the difference between economic conditions in Europe and 
America, and endeavored to get him to subscribe to our 
Republican policy of giving to our wage-earners the "Full 
Dinner Pail," for which McKinley pleaded, and a chance in 
the sunlight. He regretted that his house had no display 
at the Columbian Exposition for the reason, he said that 
Italy had made no adequate appropriation to enable her 
great artisans to have a display. 


Again, during the month of August, 1895, when, for 
the third time, I was sojourning in London, I read an 
article in the Daily News, intimating that, McKinley, by 
reason of his protective tariff views, was becoming un- 
popular, with the Republican party. I immediately chal- 
lenged the statement, in a letter to the News, a brief 
summary of which was cabled to the United States, and 
published by the newspapers, generally, including the 
Cleveland Leader, and the Cleveland Plain Dealer, of 
August 16th, 1895. Under the caption— HE TELLS ALL 
ENGLAND — was the following in the Plain Dealer. 

"London, August 16: State Senator Green of Cleveland, 
writes to the Daily News, respecting the article it published yes- 
terday, an abstract of which was cabled to the Associated Press, 
in which it said, that 'the feeling against increasing the Tariff will 
probably induce the Eepublicans to drop McKinley.' 

"Senator Green says, n reply, that the Republican party has 
not modified, in the slightest degree the cardinal principles of the 
last convention, when it endorsed the McKinley bill. He is able to 
assert, he says, that four-fifths of the party still stand upon that 

"The prosperity of the country, he claims, is not due to the 
mutilation of the McKinley law; but to the fact that, the House of 
Representatives which performed the mutilation, has been retired, 
amid the anathemas of millions of injured business men." 

Certainly, the foregoing evidences of my friendship 
for the candidacy of McKinley, coming to the notice of 
both himself and his great coadjutor, the late Senator M. 
A. Hanna, did not lower me in their estimation, but had 
a contrary effect, which, together with my home efforts, 
along the same line, perhaps, accounts for much of the 
courtesy and kindness which the great men displayed for 

When President McKinley directed Postmaster Gen- 
eral Gary, to place me at the head of the bureau of 
United States Postage Stamp Agent, that august func- 
tionary hesitated ; for the reason, expressed by him to the 
President, that, nearly every employe in the office w?s a 


white lady! The President answered, "I know Mr. Green ; 
he is a friend of mine ; I will be responsible for his be- 

General John A. Merritt, third assistant Postmaster 
General, and subsequently postmaster of Washington, 
D. C, is my authority for this statement. 

Subsequently,when I had the honor to call on the 
President, smilingly, he said to me: "None of them left, 
did they!" I answered in the negative, and he smiled again. 

Before being appointed to the position referred to, I 
was promised by Mr. Hanna the place known as Recorder 
of Deeds of the District of Columbia ; but Senator Pritch- 
ard, of North Carolina, demanded that office for one of 
his political supporters, of color, in that state. Mr. John 
C. Dancey had been given the port of Wilmington; Hon. 
George H. White, had been elected to Congress, and Mr. 
Cheatam, the third, had to be cared for, "for the good of 
the Republican party of North Carolina." Cheatam got 
the place; and the President requested Senator Hanna 
to say to me: "As well as I like him, I think more of 
the Republican party." It is interesting to know, that, 
since then, 23 years, no one in North Carolina, has been 
elected to the electoral college, on the Republican ticket! 

There was a convention of colored men held in a 
Baptist church, in 12th Street, Washington, D. C, din- 
ing President McKinley's first term, of which I was a 
member — present. During the proceedings of the con- 
vention, a resolution of censure was suggested by some 
one, because the President, in his last annual message, 
had remained silent as to the lynchings of colored per- 
sons, without any trial, in the Southern States. I sug- 
gested, that, such action would be not only improper, but, 
unjust to the President, inasmuch as he adopted that 
course, after conferring with some of the leading col- 
ored men of the nation. 


Immediately, there was a great "hubub" — pandemo- 
nium had broken loose; and Mr. Timothy Thomas For- 
tune, the founder, and, at that time, editor of the New 
York Age, exclaimed, "Show us the Judases! Show us 
the Judases!!" I refused to give the names of the 
"Judases," and a committee was appointed to escort me 
to an ante-room, to persuade me to divulge the names 
required. As a matter of fact, I did not know the names 
of the men who had been in conference with the Presi- 
dent; but, in making my statement to the convention, I 
relied on the word of Honorable Elmer Dover, secretary 
of the Republican National Committee, from whom I had 
gotten the information. Subsequently, I learned the name 
of the most influential of the coterie, from the Hon. 
George A. Myers, of Cleveland, Ohio, a very able and in- 
fluential colored American, high in the esteem of both the 
President and Senator Hanna, who seemed to be well in- 
formed in the premises. 

At an early hour, on the following day, before the 
White House was opened to the general public, I was re- 
ceived, in audience, by the President of the United States, 
in his private chamber. I stated all the facts to him, as in 
the foregoing; and was asked by him my opinion, as to the 
better course to pursue, in the premises. I suggested 
that, to ignore the whole matter seemed proper to me; 
and that course was taken. I know that Fresident Mc- 
Kinley's heart was bleeding by reason of the barbarities 
then (and now) perpetrated on the poor friendless f reed- 
men of the South; but, as he said to me. so many re- 
monstrances had been made in vain, that, they had be- 
come to be "an old song," and he intended, with the as- 
sistance of others, to formulate a new plan for the elimi- 
nation of that evil, in the future; and I am sure that, if 
both he and his great adviser, Senator M. A. Hanna, had 
not both died, some valid repressive legislation would 
have been attempted, if not consummated. 


I am about to relate now an incident in my official 
life at Washington, relating to President McKinley, 
which I consider not only interesting, but unique. It has 
reference to the assassination of the postmaster of Lake 
City, South Carolina, and one or more of his family, dur- 
ing the President's first term. 

The whole North, East and West was shocked at the 
horrible deed ; and speedy and condign punishment of the 
murderers was, generally demanded. 

Being admitted into the executive offices of the 
White House, I said, "Mr. President, what are you going 
to do with reference to the murder of the postmaster at 
Lake City, South Carolina. Don't you think that the 
office should be closed?" He answered: "I have already 
issued that order." I then asked him, "What, if any- 
thing, will be done towards punishing the assassins?" 
Like a flash, he answered: "Mr. Green, I am going to do 
just what would be done if some fellow should come in 
here and kill me! — he would be arrested, tried and, if 
convicted — executed! "That whole section," he added, 
"is now bristling with secret service men ; and when they 
have made arrests of the guilty ones, they will be in- 
dicted and tried, in a court of competent jurisdiction; 
and, if they are convicted and sentenced, they will be duly 

I can bear witness to the fact, that, the President 
kept his word; nay, more — he sent an able lawyer to 
Charleston, S. C, at the expense of the government, to as- 
sist the District Attorney there, in the prosecution; but, 
as in all other lynching cases, the jury failed to agree, and 
the accused went unwhipt of justice. The President said 
to me: "I was surprised to see that five of the jurors in- 
sisted on a verdict of guilty!" 

During my nine years of service as United States 
Postage Stamp Agent, and Acting Superintendent of Fi- 
nance of the Post Office Department, I heard, occasion- 


ally caustic criticisms of President McKinley's policy, 
with reference to the colored people, by colored men. But, 
on such occasions, I always challeneged those hostile state- 
ments, and endeavored to prove, to the face of the critic, 
the falsity of his assertions; and I seldom failed in my 
efforts in that behalf. The following excerpt from the 
Washington Post, which appeared at the time of McKin- 
ley's tour of the Gulf States, goes far, in my opinion, to 
strengthen the good will of all colored Americans towards 
one of their best friends who ever filled the Presidential 

"Mr. McKinley, when introduced, said: 'My fellow 
citizens: I thank you for your hearty welcome. I have 
visited a number of institutions of learning provided for 
your race, notably, that great institution at Tuskegee, in 
Alabama; another in Savannah, Ga., and, recently, one in 
the city of New Orleans ; and it has given me great satis- 
faction to observe the advancement of your race, since 
the immortal proclamation of liberty was made. 

"The opportunity for learning is a great privilege. 
The possession of learning is an inestimable prize; and 
I have been glad to note that you are endeavoring, where- 
ever you live, to enlighten your minds and prepare your- 
selves for the responsibility of citizenship, under this 
free government of yours. What we want, more than 
anything else, whether we be white or whether we be 
black — what we want is to know how to do something 
well. If you will just learn to do one thing that is useful 
better than anybody else can do that one thing, you will 
never be out of a job; and all employment is honorable 
employment. The race is moving on and has a promising 
future. It has been faithful to the Government of the 
United States. It has been true and loyal and patriotic 
and law-abiding. 

"My fellow citizens, always observe the law." 

"In our recent war with Spain, your race displayed 
distinguished qualities of gallantry, on more than one 

"You were in the fight at ElCaney and San Juan 
Hill, the brave black boys helping to emancipate the op- 
pressed people of Cuba; and your race is in the Philip- 
pines carrying the flag, and they have carried it, stainless 
in its honor and in its glory. 

"It is a very great pleasure to me to meet you, all; 
and the last word I would leave with you is — to be true 
to right, to home, to family, to yourselves, to your coun- 
try, and, true to God." 

After the President's second election, in the course of 
a few weeks, I sought a brief interview with him. The 
congestion in the executive offices, in the White House 
was such that I almost despaired of even greeting him; 
but, seeing me, patiently awaiting my opportunity, he 
drew near to me and said, in a quick way: "Do you want 
to see me?" I answered in the affirmative, extending my 
congratulations to him, on his re-election, and added, 
"Mr. President, what are my chances, under your second 
administration?" In the twinkling of an eye, he replied: 
"Well, you shant be shocked!" These were the last words 
I ever heard him utter; before I could see him again, the 
assassin had done his work, which truly shocked me. 

My sojourn of nine and a half years in Washington 
was very pleasant, except that, my office, being, for the 
most part, a sinecure, I was compelled, during the last two 
years of my official life there, to go to Congress and lobby 
the appropriation for my bureau through ; when, finally, it 
was merged into the Third Assistant Postmaster's Bu- 
reau, I quit, for lack of funds to carry it on longer. 


The following letter speaks for itself: 

Office of the Chief Clerk, 
Mr. John P. Green, June 27, 1906. 

Postage Stamp Agent, 
Washington, D. C. 

Inasmuch as the Act of Congress making appropriation for 
the maintenance of the postal service transfers the clerical force 
of the Postage Stamp Agency to the office of the Third Assistant 
Postmaster General and makes no provision for the salary of the 
Postage Stamp Agent, it becomes necessary to terminate your con- 
nection with the Department on June 30, 1906. 
By direction of the Postmaster General. 


Chief Clerk, G. G. T. 

The following copy of a letter handed to me by 
Colonel (now General) Clarence R. Edwards, at a time 
when he was detailed to act as head of the Bureau of In- 
sular Affairs, at Washington, is one which I prize most 
highly; especially, since he won for himself, in France, 
during the unspeakable "World War" such a warm place 
of love and affection in the hearts of the soldiers and all 
true Americans: 

Bureau of Insular Affairs, 

February 2d, 1906. 
My dear Mr. Postmaster General: 

I wonder if you would pardon me if I ventured a little bit out 
of my sphere as government clerk and took the liberty of com- 
mending to your personal consideration Mr. John P. Green, United 
States Postage Stamp Agent, and Acting Superintendent of Postal 

You are probably much more familiar with Mr. Green's quali- 
fications, and any equitable claim he has upon your party than am 
I. Therefore, I will make no comment of them, but state that he 
has recalled my acquaintance with him, which dates back to my 
childhood when he was a strong supporter of Mr. Amos Townsend, 
my father's business partner, when Mr. Townsend represented my 
home district of Cleveland. I also know him to have been a loyal 
supporter of Senator John Sherman, and Mr. Hanna's right- 
handed man in Cleveland. 

I haven't seen him since I was a boy, but I know he has three 
hard-working boys in Cleveland, all the family have been earnest 
in the Republican cause and he, the only one of the family who is 


now holding office. He states that you are justly going to do 
away with the Postal Stamp Agency, which he admits is more or 
less unnecessary, but he is quite anxious to be continued in his 
present acting capacity, and believes that his work in the need3 
of the service would justify a compensating salary in that po- 

On account of my former knowledge of him, and from the 
fact that I know nothing but good of him, I would consider it a 
personal favor if he could gain your consideration. I am quite sure 
that I am only seconding Representative Burton's estimate and 
desire for this man's welfare. 

In haste, 

Sincerely yours, 
(Signed) C. R. EDWARDS. 

Hon. George B. Cortelyou, 

Postmaster General. 

Perhaps, I should add, before closing this chapter, 
that, after the advent of Theodore Roosevelt, as Presi- 
dent, subsequent to McKinley's assassination, being 
somewhat in doubt as to the tenure of my office, I called 
on him, at the White House; and while patiently wait- 
ing for an opportunity to be introduced to him, by the 
Honorable George B. Cortelyofl, private secretary to both, 
McKinley and Roosevelt, I saw my chance and intro- 
duced myself; for the President was very busy, and my 
time was almost exhausted. 

As, unoccupied, he came near me, I arose and said : 

"Mr. President, I am John P. Green, your Postage 
Stamp Agent ; and my duties are to supervise the manu- 
facture and distribution of all the postage stamps ; when 
McKinley was Governor of Ohio, I was Senator, from the 
Cleveland district." 

Like a flash, he exclaimed, "Bully, for you! Bully, 
for you ! !" — shook my hand, and passed to the next. This 
was the only time I ever met President Roosevelt. 

Four incidents of a very pleasing nature, and of more 
than ordinary interest to me, transpired, while I was a 
resident of Washington: 

The first was that of heading a delegation of most 
prominent colored men, and introducing them to the late 


Archbishop Ireland — a pronounced friend of the colored 
American, when, on one occasion, he was visiting, in 
Washington. The learned, pious and beloved prelate re- 
ceived us with that courtesy which is characteristic of all 
truly great men; and we left him with assurances of his 
continued friendship and influence in behalf of our op- 
pressed people; which, I am proud to say, did not abate, 
one jot or one title, until his Master called him to his re- 

The next incident was that of presiding at a select 
dinner tendered to the late Doctor Booker T. Washington, 
by Honorable R. R. Homer, ex-member of the Virginia 
Legislature and a member of the District of Columbia 

On this occasion, I was required to deliver a brief ad- 
dress, relative to the life and work of the distinguished 
guest, which he visibly appreciated. I had met Mr. Wash- 
ington several times before; and subsequent to this event, 
our group, attending a select, social dance, at Willough 
Beach Park in a suburb of Cleveland, was honored and 
pleased to count him as one of our number. Mr. Wash- 
ington appeared at his best, on this occasion; he chatted 
familiarly, with numbers of the guests, laughed heartily 
at the sallies of wit and mirth, and danced like a boy. 
"Look at Mr. Washington, dancing!" exclaimed one of 
his attendants, as if thoroughly astounded. It was the 
last time we were in his presence. 

The third incident I will call attention to, was when 
the late Samuel Coleridge Taylor was, for twenty days, 
our guest, on the occasion of his first visit to the United 
States, for the purpose of conducting a noted rendition of 
his great cantata, "Hiawatha," by the S. Coleridge Tay- 
lor Society, of Washington, D. C. 

We became so well acquainted with Mr. Coleridge 
Taylor, on that occasion, that, in after years, when en- 
route to Chicago, on professional business, he deigned to 


stop off at Cleveland, for a day or two, and be again 
our honored guest; and, years after that, when my late 
wife and I were visiting London, the home of this great 
composer and his talented family was a sort of Mecca 
towards which we turned our faces when in need of recre- 
ataion and first class musical entertainment. This young 
student of music, who was the favorite pupil of one of 
London's most efficient teachers, was thoroughly imbued 
with the divine afflatus, so to speak; music was in his 
head, heart and very soul; even his fingers seemed to 
tingle with it. At his suburban home — Hill Crest, Nor- 
bury, S. W., England; and afterwards, at Aldwych, St. 
Leonard's Road, Croydon, England (both suburbs of Lon- 
don), he had an orchestra organized for the rendition of 
approved classical music, every member of which would 
be regarded, by the general public, as a "star." To the 
public concerts of this orchestra, we received, from him, 
frequent invitations ; and we were generally accompanied 
to and from the town by Mr. Clarence Cameron White, a 
colored relative of ours, who was then being instructed 
in his studies on the violin, by some of the foremost ar- 
tists of London. 

At times, when we were visiting at the home of Mr. 
Taylor, both he and his amiable and talented wife 
would preside at the piano, and interpret for our enter- 
tainment and pleasure some of his own compositions, 
which had set wild with enthusiasm vast audiences of 
the populace, who overflowed the great Albert Hall, the 
pride of the world's capital. 

When that dread disease, pneumonia, brought low the 
head of Samuel Coleridge Taylor, in the morning of his 
life, before he had reached his thirtieth year, it deprived 
society of the most brilliant and promising star, in the 
musical firmament, of his day. Peace be to his ashes! 
His memory is consecrated by his works and will live. 


The fourth and last event which I shall mention, has 
reference to this writer, and would, perhaps, be omitted, 
were it not meet and just to mention the name of the 
talented and friendly gentleman to whom I am still in- 
debted for the significant courtesy tendered to me, in this 

I refer to Doctor George H. Richardson, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, doctor, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and all 
around good fellow, who originated and carried to suc- 
cessful consummation a banquet, tendered by residents of 
the North, East and West, in honor of this narrator. 

It was a notable event, by reason of the large num- 
ber of prominent colored men of the section north of the 
Mason and Dixon line, who were in attendance; and the 
additional fact, that, the united sentiment was laudatory 
of the great and good McKinley. If this writer shone at 
all, it was as the moon shines — in a light borrowed from 
the sun; to be quite definite — McKinley was the sun. 

There were numerous "brainy" — able, meritorious 
colored men in Washington, at that time, a mere mention 
of whose names is all that space will afford, at present. 
These were: Ex-Senator Blanch K. Bruce, Register of 
the Treasury; Judson W. Lyons, subsequently, Register 
of the Treasury; John C. Dancey, Recorder of Deeds; 
Milton M. Holland, Chief of Division (decorated by Con- 
gress for signal bravery in the "crater" at Petersburgh, 
Va.) ; George H. White, M. C, from North Carolina; 
Captain W. Bruce Evans, Principal of the Armstrong In- 
dustrial School ; Daniel Murray, Librarian of a branch of 
the Congressional Library, noted by all congressmen for 
his wide and deep learning in his official sphere of action ; 
the two sons, Lewis and Charles, of the late Frederick 
Douglass; Paul Lawrence Dunbar, author; James A. 
Cobb, lawyer; W. Calvin Chase, lawyer and editor of 
the "Bee"; Professor Kelley Miller, scholar and author; 
Rev. Owen Meredith Waller, Rector of St. Luke's P. E. 


Church; W. A. Joiner, now superintendent of the Agri- 
culture and Mechanical Department of Wilberforce Uni- 
versity; Judge R. H. Terrell, of the Municipal Court; Dr. 
Daniel Hale Williams, Surgeon in Chief of the Freed- 
man's Hospital; Dr. Purvis; Dr. Firmin Shadd; J. Finley 
Wilson, the able and successful editor of "The Eagle," 
founded by him ; and a host of others of great merit and 
high standing, whose names are not at my "tongue's 
end," at this writing. 

I held my official station during nine consecutive 
years, about five years longer than I should have held it ; 
for, on my return to Cleveland, after an absence extend- 
ing over an entire decade, lacking a few months, I was 
unknown, professionally, to litigants, generally; and, al- 
though I joined my two sons, William R. Green, Esq., and 
Theodore B. Green, Esq., without delay, in the practice 
of the law, yet, it was many months, before my old clients 
and friends could be persuaded, that I was not in jest, 
when I made known to them the fact, that, I was back 
again, and in the "legal harness ;" and although, at sixty- 
one, I had not yet begun to realize that, I was an "old 
man," (nor did I bend my knee or slacken my pace, in 
the presence of "Old Father Time," who with his 
whetted scythe now grimly awaits his opportunity to 
gather me in. 

It might be of interest to some of my readers, who 
are religiously inclined, to know that, in the beginning of 
the year 1900, my late wife, my daughter and myself 
were confirmed, by Bishop Henry Y. Satterlee, in Saint 
Luke's Episcopal Church of Washington, D. C. I had 
been, through baptism, a member of the Episcopal church 
from the age of one month; and during my whole boy- 
hood, had been a constant attendant on divine services, 
in Christ Episcopal Church of Newberne, N. C. and Trin- 
ity Church, of Cleveland, Ohio ; in fact, in the latter fif- 
ties, I assisted the aged colored sexton of the latter 


church, Mr. Rigdon Green, in the performance of his 
functions there; but, later on, the lure of youthful asso- 
ciation, and the demands of practical politics, estranged 
me from it; and I found myself, with my family, oscil- 
lating, or gyrating around and amongst all the varied 
orthodox churches, until I reached the fifty-fifth year of 
my life; then, as I have stated, we three cast in our lot, 
definitely and for all time, with our ancestral-apostolic 

During the remainder of my term in Washington, I 
served as one of the vestrymen, and when we were ready 
to return to our Cleveland home, with many regrets, on 
our part, as well as on the part of the very efficient 
Rector, Rev. T. J. Brown (who is still in charge) and 
our brethren of the church, generally, I handed in my 

On our return to Cleveland, we immediately took 
our place in Saint Andrew's Church, where, for many 
years, now, I have been serving as one of the wardens 
of the church, and, ex-officio vestry-man; on many occa- 
sions, I have acted as lay-reader, especially, during our 
inter-regnum, when the church has been without a rec- 
tor. The present Rector, Rev. B. W. Suthern, who by 
his extraordinary efficiency and spiritual graces, has 
very greatly endeared himself to us, is a young man, and 
gives promise of being with us for many years to come. 



It was with great pleasure that I once again found 
myself a "bona fide" resident of my own dear city of 
Cleveland. True it is that, during our residence in 
Washington, I lost no opportunity of visiting our home, 
and of remaining as long as I consistently could ; but that 
fell far short of a regular, permanent abode. 

Our old friends and associates flocked around us and 
gave us just the hearty welcome which we expected and 
needed ; and it did not take me longer than a few days on 
my return to Cleveland, to settle down at my desk and 
take up the study of that "jealous mistress," the Law, 
where I had laid it down, ten years before. In fact, I had 
kept in touch with her, even while we resided in Wash- 
ington, by aiding, to some extent, my son, Theodore B, 
Green, in his studies, while he was a student in the How- 
ard Law School, which made my return to the practice 
comparatively easy. 

That my recitals may not become monotonous or 
wearysome, I shall make reference in this chapter to 
only two cases, out of hundreds, which engaged my at" 
tention during the early years, after my return. 

The first was that of Ohio vs. Wade Leigh, a man 
who was indicted for murder in the first degree; it was 
a difficult case, in which I was ably assisted by Horace 


Neff, Esq., a son of Judge William B. Neff, whose name 
appears in a previous chapter of this story. 

Wade Leigh and the deceased, had engaged in a 
wordy-war, at an early hour, the day before Christmas, 
and separated breathing out mutual threats. Later in 
the day, "Wade," after having made some Christmas pur- 
chases, entered a saloon, laid his parcels down on the bar, 
and bought and began to drink a glass of beer. While 
he was so engaged, in drinking the beer, the deceased 
entered the bar room, presumably, for the purpose of 
buying a drink ; but, seeing "Wade," standing at the bar, 
he turned and left the room, through the swinging doors 
which were within the outer door. He was, immediately 
followed by "Wade," who shot arid killed him almost on 
the threshold of the door, as he stepped out upon the 
sidewalk. "Wade," thereupon, returned to the bar room, 
picked up his packages which he had left lying on the 
bar, and left the place through the back door, his glass, 
not yet being emptied. 

By the side of the body of the deceased, which was 
still lying on the sidewalk, was found a dangerous look- 
ing knife, opened, by a close friend of "Wade." The 
ready inference was, of course, that the knife was the 
property of the deceased man ; and that, he had assaulted 
"Wade" with it, between the doors (outer and inner) 
before "Wade" shot him, in "self defense!" 

The foregoing was the backbone of the defense, at 
any rate; and it succeeded — the defendant, "Wade," be- 
ing found guilty of assault and battery only. So anxious 
was the State's attorney that the jury should not rec- 
ommend mercy, in finding defendant guilty of murder 
in the first degree, and thus, fix his punishment at life 
imprisonment — and so strenuously and earnestly did he 
argue in that behalf, that, he evidently forgot that the 
defendant, left his packages, and returned for them, 
after he had committed the murder; that, he had not 


finished drinking his beer, when he followed deceased 
out of the bar room ; and that, he left, finally, through a 
back door. 

I pointed out to the honorable judge, after the trial 
was ended and the jury had been excoriated and sum- 
marily dismissed, and the defendant fined and sentenced 
to the house of correction, that the defence, that "Wade" 
was assaulted by the deceased, with the big knife, as he 
("Wade") was leaving the premises; and that, he shot 
him to protect his life and limbs, would have "fallen to 
the ground," and the defendant would have been con- 
victed of murder in the first degree, instead of assault 
and battery, if the prosecuting attorney had not, inad- 
vertently, forgotten, failed to call the attention of the 
jury to those facts which would have left no doubt in 
the minds of the jury-men that "Wade" left that room 
for the sole purpose of killing his victim. 

With a look of blank amazement, and disappoint- 
ment, they both turned away from me; and the farce (?) 
of that prosecution was ended. 

The daily papers carried glowing accounts of our 
success in that case, and it added much to our profes- 
sional popularity. 

The other case, which I shall refer to, was of more 
than local interest; inasmuch as many newspapers, in 
remote sections of the country, noticed it; and the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State of Ohio, subsequently, cured 
what seemed to be a legal defect, by appropriate legis- 

Doctor John L. Hoyer, an aged and venerable look- 
ing white man, who had been tried, convicted, fined and 
committed to the House of Correction of the City of 
Cleveland, sent for me, while incarcerated, to visit him 
in the prison, and give him such legal advice, in the 
premises, as was needful for his welfare ; and, especially, 
for the fact that, a piece of jewelry of his personal be- 


longings, taken from him "for safe-keeping" on his en- 
tering the prison, was lost or stolen ; and he could obtain 
no satisfactory explanation as to its whereabouts. 

Having been personally acquainted with the patriar- 
chal-bewhiskered old gentleman, for many years, I hast- 
ened to his side, for the purpose above mentioned; he 
was brought out, into the audience room, accompanied by 
one of the prison guards, who steadfastly refused to 
leave his side for a moment, in order that I might con- 
fer with his prisoner, professionally. I appealed to the 
superintendent; with the result that he told me, point- 
blank, that, the rule under which the guard was acting 
was one of long standing, and he would continue to en- 
force it. 

This left me no alternative, except to have recourse 
to the Director of Charities and Corrections — the Hon- 
orable Harris R. Cooley, a big-hearted, kindly disposed, 
Christian gentleman; who, I may here, digress to say, 
is a true and valuable friend of all colored people. 

Mr. Cooley, after conferring with the superintendent, 
and getting the same answer, in effect, that he had given 
to me, gave me the information which I had already 
received. So, finding, according to the slang phraseology, 
of the time, that I was "up against it," with no prospect 
of having a private conference with my client, I deter- 
mined to carry my complaint to the Mayor of Cleveland, 
the Honorable Newton D. Baker, now, and for a long 
time, Secretary of War, at Washington. 

After a reasonable delay, I was ushered into the 
presence of that august, but kindly, functionary; and, at 
once, made known to him my case, as I have stated it in 
the foregoing. 

Mr. Baker, lawyer and statesman, as he was and is, 
seemed surprised to learn the status of this affair, and, 
immediately, called up one of the attorneys for the city, 
and placed it in his hands, for a brief and opinion, in the 


premises. After that, we had a short conversation, which 
seemed mutually agreeable to us; and I took my depart- 

After the lapse of several days, I received, by mail, 
from the distinguished gentleman, a document, of which 
the following is a true copy : 

Oct. 8, 1914. 
Hon. Newton D. Baker, 

Mayor of Cleveland. 
My dear Mr. Baker: 

I beg leave to reply as follows to your inquiry of yesterday 
with reference to the right of the superintendent of the work- 
house to refuse the request of a person sentenced for a misde- 
meanor for an opportunity to have a private conversation with his 

I have examined the matter carefully and find that the law ap- 
plicable to this case lays down in substance this fundamental propo- 
sition: A jailer charged with the duty of protecting and preserv- 
ing the jail and of keeping the prisoners safely until he is relieved 
by legal authority of their custody has a large discretion in de- 
termining at what time, under what circumstances and what per- 
sons he will permit to enter the jail or to have access to the pris- 
oners, a discretion which he must exercise according to his own 
conscience and judgment uncontrolled by the conscience and judg- 
ment of others. 

Thus it has been held that a sheriff, for instance, may require 
whoever may seek admission into the jail, to submit their persons 
to a proper, orderly examination or search. If they do not con- 
sent, admission to the jail or access to the prisoners may be re-- 
fused. If they persist in remaining they may be treated as tres- 
passers and ejected. (104 Ala. 35.) 

Likewise in England it was held that where a matei'ial wit- 
ness for a person accused was confined in prison the jailer should 
allow the attorney for the accused to see the witness in his pres- 
ence, but properly refused to allow the attornev to see the witness 
apart. (7 C. & P. 176). 

The Constitution and Statutes of Ohio are silent upon this sub- 
ject. As to the workhouses the statutes simply vest the manage- 
ment in the proper city official and •clothe the superintendent of 
the workhouse with police powers. We are therefore relegated to-. 
common law and the decision in this and other states, which, 
read as follows: 

"It is a power inherent in a workhouse superintendent 
to prescribe reasonable rules for the government of the 
prison and to enforce obedience to them by the infliction 
of proper punishment * * * * " 
The court's opinion, so far as applicable, was as follows: 

"The superintendent of a workhouse is a public offi- 
cer — an executive officer perhaps — charged with the gov-- 


ernment in a great measure and the maintenance of good 
order in the city prison; and in the discharge of these du- 
ties he is given and must be given a wide discretion * * . 
It is necessary that good order be preserved in these in- 
stitutions. Reasonable rules and regulations must be made 
for the government of the inmates. The statutes provide 
for reasonable rules and regulations in the government of 
and the punishment administered in county jails which are 
to be submitted to the common pleas judges; and the ne- 
cessity for such rules and regulations applies with still 
greater force to workhouses such as this, where a large 
number of prisoners are confined, many of them for long 
periods of time where they are compelled to work under 
the superintendence of officers of the workhouse as a pun- 
ishment for criminal offenses. With such a large body of 
men gathered together in such a prison reasonable rules 
and regulations are necessary, and it is necessary that 
these rules and regulations should be enforced and that 
the superintendent of such an institution should have the 
power to punish within limitations and restrictions." 
It must be remembered that this is the case of a man con- 
victed of a crime who has lost thereby his rights as a citizen. 

The superintendent is absolutely responsible for the custody 
of the accused. If it were not inherent in the official to make all 
reasonable rules for the government of the prisoners it is quite 
obvious that he might be frequently held liable for dire conse- 
quences which his best efforts and judgment could not control. He 
must therefore be permitted to exercise his discretion to deter- 
mine in each particular case what the extent of the restriction 
upon the prisoner should be. That an attorney is concerned in 
this case I conceive can give no greater rights. 

It is therefore my judgment that the superintendent of the 
workhouse was perfectly within his rights in refusing the request 
in this case. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) ARTHUR F. YOUNG, 
AFY-J Assistant City Solicitor. 

My disappointment and dissatisfaction was rapidly 
increasing; my faith in my original contention was in- 
creasing, rather than diminishing; and I determined to 
see what redress, if any, I could obtain at law. A manda- 
mus was applied for; the writ issued; all parties were 
in court, and the defendant's demand was adjudged to be 
reasonable and lawful, by the Honorable Charles J. Es- 
tep, one of the judges of our Court of Common Pleas; 
thereupon, I took my client aside; talked with him, and 
advised him as to his legal rights, in the premises; and, 


afterwards, wrote a check for the amount of my fee, 
which he readily signed; and the famous case was ended. 

I desire to record here, an incident of my life which 
has brought to me much satisfaction, and, I trust, bene- 
fit to the cause of all the colored Americans. I refer to 
the time when I was "elected to Congress" (as I de- 
nominate the transaction) , by the colored people of Cleve- 
land, in mass meeting assembled. It came about in this 
way : 

Senate Bill, 6060, of the 63d Congress, 3d Session, 
had passed the Senate and was in the hands of the Im- 
migration Committee of the House of which Judge Bur- 
nett a»d^:labama, was chairman. 

On page 8 of said bill, beginning with line 8, were 
the following words : "That after four months from the 
approval of this act, in addition to the aliens who are 
hereby excluded from admission into the United States, 
the following persons shall also be excluded from admis- 
sion thereto, to wit: All members of the African or 
black race." 

Some very able lawyers were of opinion, that, the 
phraseology of that provision would even exclude col- 
ored citizens of the United States, out of the country, 
from re-entering the same. 

Quite reasonably, the colored people of Cleveland, 
who were informed, became alarmed; especially for the 
reason that, it had gone through the Senate without op- 
position. A mass-meeting of colored citizens was imme- 
diately called to meet in Saint John's A. M. E. Church, 
at a time specified ; they crowded — packed all parts of the 
large structure, the number being estimated at 2,500. 
Speeches were made; a committee on resolutions ap- 
pointed, of which this writer was made chairman ; a pre- 
amble and set of resolutions, which this writer had in 
his pocket, was unanimously adopted, without the chang- 
ing of a syllable; and I was unanimously elected to go 


to Congress, at Washington, and use my best endeavors, 
with our own and other delegates, to have that obnoxious 
proviso eliminated from the bill; also, a collection was 
then and there taken, to defray all expenses, and compen- 
sate me for services to be rendered. 

It goes without saying, that, (to paraphrase the lan- 
guage of Julius Caesar, on a momentous occasion), "I 
went, I saw, I conquered!" and returning home, my re- 
port was received with acclamations of unalloyed enthu- 
siasm and approval. 

Judge Burnett of Albania, chairman of the Immi- 
gration Committee, although a Southerner, received me 
courteously, heard my argument against the proviso, and 
promised me that he would oppose the measure, when 
the bill came before the House for consideration. He 
kept his word, "in spirit and in truth;" for, when the 
speaking commenced, he divided his time amongst sev- 
eral of the members, known to be opposed to that fea- 
ture of it, and thereby, greatly augmented the sentiment 
against it. Needless to say, the whole bill was defeated ; 
nor have the enemies of the colored American, to this 
day, been able to resurrect it. 

Judge Burnett, since then, has gone to "that bourne 
from which no traveler returns," but, let it be here re- 
corded, that, while his obsequies were being conducted in 
far-away Alabama, there was, at least, one colored man, 
in the bleak north, on the shore washed by blue Lake Erie, 
who deeply, sighed and mourned his untimely end, be- 
cause of that humane-patriotic deed, in behalf of those 
of "the African or black race." 

Time sped rapidly by; so fast, indeed, that it was 
scarcely appreciated; and ere long, we found ourselves at 
the beginning of the year 1909. Speaking of the flight 
of Time, I am tempted to insert here a few lines quoted 
from "The Improvement of the Mind," by Isaac Watts, 
mentioned in another part of this story. I reproduce 


these lines because they are well calculated to inspire 
and energize the minds of the young, one of the princi- 
pal reasons I have in view, in writing this book. The 
lines follow: 

"Nor let soft slumber close your eyes, 
Before you've recollected thrice 
The train of actions thro the day. 
Where have my feet chose out the way? 
What have I learnt, where'er I've been, 
From all I've heard, from all I've seen? 
What know I more, that's worth the knowing? 
What have I done, that's worth the doing? 
What have I sought, that I should shun? 
What duty have I left undone? 
Or into what new follies, run ? 
These self-inquiries are the road, 
That leads to virtue and to God." 

My professional labours, during the four preceding 
years, having been extra exacting, Mrs. Green and I de- 
cided to spend a short vacation in England and on the 
"Continent;" so, "grip" in hand, and frugal luggage in 
the hold of the good ship Carmania, Ave bade adieu to our 
good friends, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel R. Scottron, and fam- 
ily, of Brooklyn, New York, and set sail for "far distant 

After a pleasant voyage of about three days, we 
"hove to" and attempted to make a landing on one of 
the Azore Islands; but the condition of the sea was such 
as to make it extra hazardous ; so, we tarried in the offing 
for only a brief space, while one or two of the most 
daring boatmen, rowed out to us and exchanged greetings 
— to say nothing of a few bananas and oranges. 

Our next step was at Funchal, the capital city of the 
Madeira Islands — a province of Portugal. We were in- 
formed, that, we were then distant about six hundred 
miles from the west coast of Africa; a fact which we 
could easily believe; for, the mercury, even then, in the 
month of January, was at about 100 degrees Fahrenheit, 


in the sun ; and luscious strawberries were being hawked 
around, for sale — fresh from the vines.. After writing 
and mailing pictorial postal cards to our friends, at home, 
riding in the "bob-sleds," over the damp-smooth cobble- 
stones, drinking of the rich Madeira wine, to the health 
of Portugal and her colony, inspecting the ancient Castle, 
well up on the top of a high hill, overlooking the ocean, 
and scanning the old cathedral and the pretty, little, 
green cemetery with its sacred dead, we were ready to 
embark again; and, ere long, we had weighed anchor and 
were en-route to Gibraltar; but not before a swarm of 
amphibious boys had earned numerous dimes and quar- 
ters, by diving for them, from the very high upper decK 
of the big ship Carmania, and recovering t&em under the 
surface of the water. 

At day-break, the next morning we were entering the 
bay or harbor of Gibraltar. I, of all the passengers, was 
on the deck — alone. I beheld, with awe, for the first time, 
the towering — majestic mass of the Rock of Gibraltar!" 
and, enthused as I was, there came trooping into my 
mind, some lines of Virgil, relating to the storm-beaten 
companions of Aeneas, as they entered a bay, where, "an 
island forms a harbour by its jutting sides, whereby each 
wave coming from the main, is broken and divides as it 
enters the deep creeks. On either side are huge rocks 
and twin cliffs, which tower, frowning, towards the sky; 
beneath whose peaks the water's surface, far and wide, 
lies safe and still." 

I also saw in the offing (happy thought), the huge 
gray hulks of our touring fleet which, oa its world en- 
circling voyage, during the administration of President 
Roosevelt, had just anchored in that bay. I saluted 
"Old Glory," at the mast heads, as the "envious streaks 
(of the rising sun) did lace the severing clouds in the 
east," and, almost forgetting the famous Rock, gazed 
with filial pride upon them. 


We spent Sunday there; and attended divine serv- 
ices, in the Episcopal Cathedral. The sermon by the 
learned divine was apropos to the occasion; the destruc 
tive earthquake, which demolished a goodly portion of 
Sicily and Calabria, having scarcely ceased its ravages. 
The majesty of the great British Empire, was easily evi- 
dent, in the erect forms and sterr demeano?. of the local 
troops — that look and bearing which is equally observ- 
able, in the appearance of the Horse Guards, in White- 
hall, the Lions Couchant, on the pedestal of the Nelson 
Monument or the "Queen's Own," in the shadow of 
Arthur's Seat. At night, we were once more riding the 
"Bounding Billows ;" and, for the first time, since our de- 
parture from the port of New York, Old Neptune as- 
serted himself, and the ladies, of our "set," seriously com- 
plained of sea-sickness. It occurred just after mid- 
night, when, awaking from a sound sleep, we became con- 
scious of the fact that, our huge ship was rolling in 
troublulous seas. Our captain called it a "fresh gale," 
which was no stranger to the G\Cl of Lyons, off the south 
coast of France, through which we were then passing. 
Quite a bit of patience and some care, on the part of the 
ship's "surgeon," were necessary before we were all, 
again, in normal condition ; but, in the course of a day or 
so, landing in the safe port of Genoa, where Christopher 
Columbus, many a year before, had feasted his eyes, our 
nausea was quickly dissipated, and, like most of our trans- 
ient ills, forgotten. 

The great Cathedral, the Campo Santo, with its un- 
approachable sculptures, sacred to the dead, the birth- 
place of Christopher Columbus and the many quaint and 
interesting objects which met our eager gaze, made our 
short stay there, long to be remembered. 

Our destination, however, "earthquake or no earth- 
quake, was Naples (Nar-po-lie, as the natives euphonious- 
ly called it), and when, on the following day, our ship 


anchored at a dock, and we stood upon the pier, to my 
unutterable astonishment, a voice rang out, in very good 
English: "Hello, Senator Green!" I exclaimed, "For 
God's sake, who are you!" "Why, don't you know me!" 
he replied; "I am 'Nick,' who used to peddle fish, in 
Cleveland!' Sure enough. It was not sufficient to be 
saluted, by name in Vienna, Paris, and on Ludgate Hill, 
even here, on the shores of the Bay of Naples, I could 
not escape them. Fortunate for us all, however, that 
"Nick" discovered us; for, his knowledge of all things 
pertaining to Naples, added two-fold to our amusement 
and instruction, while we remained there. 

If I were writing a "book of travels," I could finish 
it by plunging into the details of this visit; but, such is 
not the case, and I must hasten on. However, I must 
state that, the museum of curios, from the exhumed city 
of Pompei, the Acquarium, with wonders of the sea which 
we had never dreamed of, the great cathedral, the ruins 
of Pompei and the volcano of Vesuvius, are a few of the 
sights which every one must search out and see. I will 
transcribe here an account of my g^cent of Mount Ve- 
suvius, which I wrote immediately after, while the facts 
were fresh in my mind and the inspiration still actuated 
me. The description follows: 

Especially interesting, at the present time, are my 
brief notes on my visit to and ascension of Mount Vesu- 
vius. In view of the delightful, but, I must confess, 
somewhat arduous ascent of this wonderful volcano, 
which I made, in company with a linguistic German vade 
me cum, who was to me a source not more of convenience 
than of diversion and amusement. 

I regret, now, that I did not note the name of the 
town or village, at which we hired our carriage, for the 
first part of our trip. I note, however, that we paid, each, 
11 s for room in the carriage and a saddle horse and 


guides; then we began to "Mount Vesuve" as our experi- 
ment was euphoniously called. 

A drive of from three to five miles, brought us to our 
first station, or halting place; here we discarded our car- 
riage, laid aside all unnecessary clothing and appendages, 
and stimulated ourselves with a potation of some mild but 
invigorating wine — wine which our guides denominated, 
"Nica Vesuve wine!" — wine which, in very fact, was 
pressed from grapes which had grown, in the language 
of Macaulay, "on the soil which had been fertilized by 
the fiery deluge of a volcano." 

The foregoing preliminaries having been arranged, 
we, each, mounted his saddle horse, and, with bated 
breath, proceeded "onward and upward." 

To properly appreciate the romantic novelty of our 
position, one must not forget that neither of us had rid- 
den horse-back for many years; at least, this writer can 
aver that, it was the first time in some twenty-five years 
that he had bestridden a horse, or any other quadruped; 
and his awkwardness on this occasion is more easily 
imagined than described. 

To add to the embarrassment and discomfort of our 
condition, the guides who clung, each to the tail of the 
horse ridden by his respective traveler, had a way of 
cudgeling the horse into a brisk trot, followed by a wild 
gallop, at intervals of every half mile, when we would be 
borne, as by the wind, through space, at the imminent 
risk of being thrown over the horse's head and injured. 

As it was, we each rode, during those spurts, more 
on the neck than on the back of our horse, clinging, with 
might and main, (like another John Gilpin) to the neck 
and mane of the horse, for safety ! We shall never forget 
those spurts! 

Strange to relate, when the horses "slowed up," and 
we summoned courage to look (sheepishly) behind, ex- 
pecting to discover the guides in the "dim distance," 


there they were, at the very heels of our "fiery steeds," 
still clinging to the tails, cudgel in hand; but no longer 
shouting their "auch! auch! auch!" which had served to 
spur the horses to that velocity, well night fatal to us. 

Upon the whole, I am not sure that I would not as 
willingly take my chances with the present eruption as 
with the hardy mountaineers and their horses, under 
similar conditions. 

From time to time during our ascent, through ashes 
ankle deep and fine cinders, we would come to little iso- 
lated circular enclosures, constructed of the slag which 
was omni-present, and tenanted by a lonely "Dago," who 
offered us still more and more of the "nica Vesuve wine." 

The mein of the wine merchants, met under these 
circumstances, was such, and their bearing was at once 
so imperious and persuasive, that, we never refused to 
patronize them, with the result that, our spirits never 
once flagged, and we felt that, we were, all "jolly good 
fellows" as we climbed higher and higher. 

There came a time, however, when our horses re- 
fused to go another inch; they would not budge! What 
was done, what to do, a glance told us both. There 
confronted us as if genii of the lava beds, four other stal- 
wart guides, two carrying a leather strap looped at both 
ends, which, being thrown over one of their shoulders, 
they clung to it in front, while we, tenaciously hung on, 
behind. The two other guides, each grasped his traveler 
near his hips, and "boosted" him upwards, while we all 

Although we were climbing ?nountain heights, yet, it 
seemed to me as though I were in a veritable hell, where 
all the fires had gone out. O, it was dismal \ Seried rows 
of excoriae, piled like Ossa on Pelion — little mountains 
on the mountain side. If all the cinders raked out of all 
the blast furnaces in the whole world, from that time 
whereof the memory of man runneth not to the con- 


trary, had been dumped on the sides of that mountain, 
they would have been as nothing compared to the vast 
accumulation of "slag," which that terrible volcano had 
vomited forth in even our own Christian era. 

But, now we come to the region of the clouds ? Yes, we 
are actually enveloped in a cloud ! and we are in danger of 
being drenched. Strange to say, we encomter another 
group, which contains, in the midst — a lady ! "Nica Ital- 
ian lady," says my guide. Yes, and a very brave lady too. 
if she is not literally carried. 

We leave them behind. 'Good bye!" I shall al- 
ways recall with romantic interest, the lady I met within 
the cloud. 

Now we are nearing the summit; already, somewhat 
of grumbling and sputtering are audible to us. Up here 
on the shoulder or summit of this volcano are to be seen, 
here and there, small fissures, out of which issues, slowly 
small quantities of lava! 

My guide demands a copper coin of me, which I hand 
to him ; he fuses it into some of the lava, making for me 
a cup or nest-like souvenir of this arduous if not peril- 
ous trip. I have a feeling that, where fissures abound, 
the crust upon which we tread must be thin if not friable. 
"Tread lightly, Pat!" Nevertheless, I approach the edge 
of the great smoky-steamy crater. I lie upon my stom- 
ach ! and peer, cautiously into the bowels of this mysteri- 
ous mountain — 

"Into the jaws of death 
Into the mouth of hell!" 

Nothing to be seen, save blackness, steam, condensed 
gloom — an Inferno, sure enough! "Be careful, sir," 
shouts my intelligent, thoughtful guide. "An English 
gentleman, did that, a year or two ago ; the crust at the 
edge crumbled, and he went head-first down into the 
crater! "Ye Gods! I pray thee let me go hence!" 


This writer wriggled backwards (afraid even to 
stand up) , and speedily, put space between him and that 
entrance to the worse than Stygian darkness and gloom. 

Now comes the descent! Farewell crater, farewell 
white humid, fleecy clouds — farewell Vesuvius — "And, 
oh, you mortal engine whose rude throat th' immortal 
Jove's dread clamours counterfeit farewell!" 

Down, down, on another side, we go — by leaps and 
bounds, through fine pea-like cinders, striking, in our 
descent, at times, almost up to our hips, in this harmless 
debris. Down, down, until, finally, we reach vegetation — 
reach our horses, which have been brought to this point 
for us ; and soon, again, we are mounted in our carriage ; 
and, ere long, we reach our first station, where we don 
our discarded apparel and finish our descent, followed by 
as hungry-looking, clamorous a rabble as ever one could 
wish to escape, who pleaded for, aye — in some instances, 
even demanded such small coins as we could give them. 

One little fellow, not to be out-done, followed our car- 
riage, on a run, for at least a mile; nor would he desist, 
until he received some small token of our admiration of 
his courage and persistency. The village next; then the 
train ; after that, the lovely Bay of Naples and "Nar-po-li" 
(Naples) then in mourning, herself. 

The remains of Pompeii, which the ashes of Vesu- 
vius completely buried and hermetically sealed up, stand a 
"stone's throw" from the volcano ; and, of course, we vis- 
ited them, and rambled through them, accompanied by 
our guide. Mrs. Green, Mrs. Graham and this writer 
stood amidst the ruins of an ancient temple of Isis, while 
Doctor Graham took a "snap-shot" of us. It still exists 
— somewhere, I know not in whose possession. 

The strange and wierd scenes which confront one, 
while strolling amidst these ruins — which carry us back 
or bring down to us the dwellings, the commercial trans- 
actions, the frescoes and even the petrified bodies of some, 

294 . 

of the inhabitants of this old town, as they existed in the 
year 79 A. D. are well worthy of our consideration; and 
at times the writer feels like exclaiming, with the Psalm- 
ist, "What is man, that thou are mindful of him, or the 
son of man, that thou visitest him!" 

No brief description, en passant, can do justice to 
this subject one must either visit the place or read ac- 
counts of it in books of travel and cyclopaedias. 

The following morning, we were enroute for the 
Eternal City — Rome ; and as we were whirled through 
the beautiful scenery and inhaled the odoriferous atmos- 
phere — redolent of the sweet fragrance of orange blos- 
soms and flowers of varied hues, we felt that we were, 
indeed, fortunate, under the circumstances, and enjoyed 
it beyond description. 




Ere long, however, the cross and dome of far-famed 
Saint Peter's Church loomed before us, and, the next mo- 
ment, the musical "Roma," greeted our ears, from the 
"guard." I knew it was Rome, before the announcement 
was made ; for, chiseled on the end of the great depot, on 
either side of the main entrance, in bold relief, were two 
groups, one representing the fabled she wolf, discover- 
ering the abandoned babies — Romulus and Remus, who, 
afterwards, founded the city ; and the other, showing how 
the wolf gave nurse to them ; and, thus, saved their lives. 

From my infancy, I had had a penchant to visit and 
view ancient ruins; to gaze upon an old relic, whether it 
were a deserted mansion, an old book or my "Grandfath- 
er's Hat;" it was all the same, provided, they were old; 
and now being in ancient Rome, with its treasures antique 
and historical, no time was to be lost before beholding 

Imagine with what mingled feelings, of pleasure and 
awe, I traversed the "Corso" and other streets, more or 
less known to the historian ; until, at length, there loomed 
up before me, in all its magnificent proportions, that fa- 
mous ruin — the Coliseum! 0, noble edifice! wonderful 
structure! This then, is what remains of the huge pile, 
in the construction of which, Titus, that victorious Ro- 


man, on his return from the conquest and destruction of 
Jerusalem, sacrificed so many of the seventy thousand 
young Jews whom he brought captive to Rome! 

No wonder they sank beneath their burdens, and were 
beaten by cruel task-masters, until their backs were livid 
with horrid stripes, and they gave up the ghost ! Within 
those tripple massive walls is where the gladiators, unfor- 
tunate in war, made rude sport of human life, to please 
the whims of a populace gone mad with a morbid thirst 
for blood; but for whom the "handwriting on the wall" 
was, even then, visible! And you, O, Coliseum! could 
you but speak, what sighs, and groans and shrieks, 
wrung from that "noble army of martyrs," would you not 
tell of! They who were laying deep the foundation of 
our Christian religion, while the maddened throng, not 
yet content, were howling — "Christianos ad leones!" — the 
Christians to the lions ! 

I enter into the inner circles — there, in the center 
of the great arena stood the well-trained, powerful gladia- 
tor, sword in hand, awaiting the on-rush of the savage 
beasts from the cells surrounding him. Here are the 
passages leading to the vaults beneath, whence issued 
the wild-beasts and the human victims; and over there, 
the passages through which the dead bodies were bome, 
to be entombed, perchance, in the Catacombes near by. 
Would you have a description of this most wonderful 
ruin, turn to some cyclopedia or guide book. It is not 
mine to give any adequate account of it. The learned 
and famous French lady, Madame DeStael, whom even 
Napoleon feared and detested, in her great work of fic- 
tion Corinne, has given such vivid and instructive word- 
pictures of Rome and Venice, that, it would richly repay 
the interested to read the story, if, indeed, there be at 
hand, any English translation of it. 

We clamber up into the galleries, where, once, the 
beauty and fashion of Rome could be seen, and from 


which the pitiless mockeries and gibes and raileries an- 
swered back the sobs of anguish and the cnes of agony. 
The heart sickens; let us go and look upon some object 
less suggestive of human misfortune. 

Now, we tread the Appian-way, along which victor- 
ious generals trod, returned from scenes of conquest in 
foreign lands — glutted with blood, rich with booty and 
captives. Yes, there stands, to this day, in a state of 
almost, perfect preservation, the Arch of Constantine, 
erected by the emperor to commemorate his victory over 
Maxentius, A. D. 312, spanning this historic road. Near 
by, and in front of the Coliseum, are the ruins of the 
Meta Sudans, where, it is said, the gladiators were ac- 
customed to bathe, after the bloody contests of the 

But what is the name of this narrow way along 
which we now tread, hedged on either side by the 
crumbled ruins of once majestic structures. Why, this 
is the Via Sacra, the principal street of ancient Rome, 
which ran from the valley between the Caelian and Es- 
quiline hills, through the arch of Titus and past the Ro- 
man Forum, to the Capitol. Here, on the right, were the 
palaces of the Caesars; nought now remains but a mass 
of indistinguishable ruins. These, in the rear, were the 
Royal Stables, presenting, somewhat, of their former ap- 

Think of this; here is the identical arch which Titus 
erected during the first century of our Christian era, to 
commemorate the victories of his father and himself, at 
Jerusalem; on the inner face, may still plainly be seen, 
representations of the "golden candlesticks" and other 
sacred articles; taken from the Temple. However, let 
me quote: "Where the Via Sacra crosses the Forum, 
close to the temple of Antonius, a mound of earth may 
be seen, evidently, the remains of the Temple Tomb of 
Julius Caesar, built by Augustus, in 29 B. C. Here, also, 


stood the arches of Fabius and Augustus; and between 
this part of the Forum and the Temple of Castor and 
Pollux was the quagmire into which Metius Curtius is 
said to have been plunged." 

The Temple of Pan, or Pantheon, further along, is 
almost perfect ; although it was built A. D. 27, by Agrip- 
pa, son-in-law of Caesar Augustus. The portico of this 
temple is 110 feet in length, and forty-four in width; 
and contains sixteen granite columns. The height from 
the pavement to the summit is 143 feet. 

The Pantheon, tho, not at first, intended for religious 
rites, yet, it was used for such purposes, down to A. D. 
392, when the last sacrifice was offered on its altar. Un- 
der the Cupola, in a bronze sarcophagus, the mortal re- 
mains of Victor Emmanuel lie in state, for whom a grand 
commemoration is celebrated in the church, with military 
pomp, once a year, during the month of January." 

I might add that, the Government has constructed, 
near by, a monument to the honor and memory of Vic- 
tor Emmanuel, which is, perhaps the most costly and 
august of any in that city of costly monuments. 

I visited and inspected, also, the Catacombs of Saint 
Calixtus ; within which, we were told, fourteen popes and 
170,000 Christians, were, at one time, entombed; the re- 
mains of Saint Theresa, it is said, were discovered in 
these catacombs. In 609 when Pope Boniface IV conse- 
crated the Pantheon to Christian worship, he hauled 
away twenty-eight wagon-loads of bones, and deposited 
them under the high altar in that building; and in 817, 
Pascal I removed two thousand three hundred bodies, 
and placed the relics in the church of Saint Prasoede. 

This practice of carrying away bones, continued un- 
til all the bones, except a few fragmentary pieces, were 
gone. These catacombs are supposed to be connected 
with the great system of catacombs to be seen under 


Rome and in its vicinity, in which the early Christians 
sought refuge, and worshipped. 

It is estimated, by those who have made the subject 
a study, that, the length of the united passages of all 
these catacombs, would equal five hundred and fifty Eng- 
lish miles. 

I searched out the old Ghetto, of unhallowed repute, 
the district of Rome within which the persecuted Jews 
were restricted, before our present humane era; but the 
progress of civilization has swept the Ghetto out of 
existence ; it has gone, like gladiatorial contests and burn- 
ing at the stake (except in some of our old slave-holding 
states), and human slavery. 

Saint Peter's Church, with its miraculous Dome and 
the great Cross which surmounts it, was, to me, easily, 
the object of foremost importance in Rome. I "mounted" 
the Dome and climbed up into the transept of the Cross, 
whence I look'd out upon the entire enclosure of the 
Eternal City. It was a proud day for us; one which we 
can never forget. 

The dimensions, the High Altar, the wonderful 
Mosaics, the separate, lateral chapels, and the grandeur 
of the sacred music which, at almost any hour of the 
day, can be heard floating in the air, like sweet incense, 
from some direction, furnish e*w environment the like 
of which cannot be duplicated elsewhere on this earth. 
I loved it, I rejoiced to behold it and drink deep the in- 
spiration which flowed from it. Albeit, I was not a Ro- 
man Catholic — being a Protestant-Episcopalian, which 
we contend, is, historically, also Catholic ; but, for the love 
and honor of God and his son Jesus' Christ, everything 
I saw, seemed "meet and proper." 

The Church of Saint John Lateran, not for distant 
from St. Peter's, while it is very much inferior in size to 
the former, is yet, much older; in fact, it is regarded as 
the first church in Rome, for two reasons — because it 


stands on the site of the original church, in which St. 
Peter celebrated Mass (the little table used by him still 
being shown), and again, because it is the parochial- 
Cathedral Church of the Pope — not Saint Peter's, as 
many suppose. If the decorations of Saint Peter's 
Church can possibly be surpassed, then, they are sur- 
passed by those of St. John Lateran ; but, in this matter, 
"seeing is believing." 

On Mount Pincio, in the suburbs of Rome, I found 
the fashionable park of Rome. Here were throngs of the 
people, and a grand procession of beautiful — rich 
equipages. As I was employing "shank's mares," after 
resting from my climb and silently observing the novel 
sight, I retraced my steps ; and, in my hotel room, wrote 
a letter to the Cleveland Leader, which was duly, pub- 


Going to the office of the American Express Company 
on the day of our anticipated departure for Florence, in- 
deed, after our trunks had been checked, I was handed 
a letter; and, upon opening it, I discovered that it was 
a letter of introduction from Rev. Father William Mc- 
Mahon, editor of the Catholic Universe, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, to Rev. John P. Farrelly, who was then at the 
head of the American College, in Rome, requesting him 
to use his influence to secure for me and my wife, 
a meeting with the "Pope of Rome," — His Holiness Pius 
X, now deceased. The courtesy of this letter of introduc- 
tion was secured for me through the kindly offices of my 
daughter-in-law, Mrs. Agnes Geraldine Green, the be- 
loved wife of Captain William Roscoe Green, my eldest 
living son, who was then (and still is) a devoted com- 
municant of the Catholic Church. 

Immediately going to the great palace of the Vatican, 
I easily came in touch with the private secretary of Rev- 


erend Farrelly, now Rt. Rev. John P. Farrelly, Bishop of 
the Diocese of Ohio. After delivering my letter to the 
distinguished prelate and taking his instructions, in the 
premises, the secretary delivered to me a note addressed 
to Monseignor Bisleti, Maggiodomo of the Pontifical 
household (Major Domo, we call it, in English). 

On presenting the note to this august official, he 
looked straight at me, smiled, blandly, and extended his 
hand, in a friendly way. I, in our raw western way, seized 
the hand, pressed it, slightly, and gave it a hearty shake. 
"Ah," exclaimed his highness — the Major Domo, "you 
are from America!" "Yes, your highness," I replied, "I 
am from the United States of America." "And you are 
not a Catholic?" he added; "and you wish to meet His 
Holiness — The Pope?" I said, it was true, that, I was 
not a Catholic ; but, that, my son, mentioned, and his wife 
were faithful Catholics. How long do you remain in 
Rome?" he queried. "Our trunks are checked for Flor- 
ence," I suggested; "but, in order to meet The Pope, we 
will await your good pleasure." 

After this colloquy, he presented me to his own sec- 
retary, who gave me a card of instructions — partly in 
the Italian language, for our guidance, in dressing our- 
selves; and bade me to be present in the Cortile St. Da- 
masco, a large hall, at the head of the "Scala Pia" — a 
grand stair-way, at 12 o'clock, on the following day. 
Needless to say, we obeyed our instructions, literally ; and 
were there at the appointed time. 

The instructions called for a black costume with a 
short black veil, for Mrs.Green; while this writer was 
required to don an "evening costume," — the conventional 
"dress suit" with the immaculate white shirt front and 

Since all save our traveling attire were packed in our 
absent trunks, we had recourse to a costumer, near by, 
who, for a reasonable consideration, furnished us nicely. 


However — I say it with regret — I forgot, when disrob- 
ing (after the reception) , to transfer back again, to my 
own vest pocket, a beautiful fountain pen, a Christmas 
present, from my wife and children— which, out of an 
abundance of precaution, I had put into the pocket of 
my hired vest. Whether or not that polite costumer is 
still holding that regretted pen for me — after eleven 
years — who can tell ! 

Promptly, as the hour of twelve o'clock rang out, we 
reached the landing of the Scala Pia, were courteously re- 
ceived and shown to seats ; there were several others who 
were there on a similar mission; and, together, we ex- 
pectantly, awaited the summons. 

In the meantime, however, we were not, in the least, 
afflicted with ennui ; for there was much going on which, 
being novel and interesting, enchained our attention. 
Here and. there flitted the richly attired house messen- 
gers, in their beautiful brocaded, crimson costumes and 
faithful, at their posts, were the far-famed Swiss guards, 
wearing their parti-colored uniforms, and in pike-men's 
armour, and much besides. 

Soon the signal came to us ; and, following the 
usher ( ?) , we slowly passed through a series of richly 
furnished rooms — some of them "throne-rooms," hung 
with rare and costly Gobelin tapestries, the like of which 
we had never before beheld. I think we passed through 
ten different rooms, counting the large reception room, in 
which we were, at first detained; finally, we entered a 
room which adjoined the one in which Pius X. Pontifix 
Maximus — The Pope of Rome, was awaiting our arrival. 
In this ante-chamber of honor, stood several officers-in- 
waiting, wearing with becoming dignity, as part of their 
uniform, "gold crested helmets, and gold cross-belts, 
which focused the sun's rays." Their gold epauletts gave 
them a grand military appearance. 

After the lapse of a minute or two a noble cardinal, 


clad in his violet colored vestments and wearing his scar- 
let cap, appeared, followed by Pius X. We kneel on a low, 
velvet covered bench, as we behold the benign, paternal 
form and features of this Man of God. Every feature, 
every lineament of his kindly face bespeaks a benedic- 

Noiselessly, he approaches us, extending to each one of 
us his hand, bearing the ring with the papal seal of au- 
thority. Each one of us kissed the ring, and he passed 
on; however, last, but not least, he approached a darkly 
bronzed little man, who, from his apparel and demeanor, 
convinced me that he was a humble Priest of the Church, 
one who, perchance, had just returned from some far 
distant sphere of service, where, in sunshine and in shad- 
ow, he had been, for long years, toiling for God and his 

One kiss of the ring did not satisfy this faithful child 
of the Church — he would see more of the "Holy Father," 
— and he imprinted kiss after kiss, not only on the ring, 
but on the hand that wore it. The Pope said kindly words 
to him; and then — we all separated — for aye. 

My late deceased wife, Mrs. Annie L. Green, during 
this ceremony, held in one of her hands three rosaries 
which she had bought, for loved ones at home ; and when, 
after the reception, His Holiness, standing under the 
canopy which is above the throne, pronounced a benedic- 
tion, in the Latin tongue, we felt that they would be 
doubly precious to our Catholic children and "Mother" 
Bolden, on our return to Cleveland. In due time, she pre- 
sented them; and, quite naturally, they were gratefully 
accepted. My present wife and I, were solemnly im- 
pressed, when, a few years later, we heard Rev. Fr. Mal- 
loy, in pronouncing a funeral discourse over the remains 
of "Mother" Bolden, characterize her as "a saint;" and 
we rejoiced to know that, at least, we had contributed 
our mite towards her happiness, as stated above. 


From that reception room, we wended our way bach 
again, through the richly decorated, gilded, tapestried 
rooms — back again into the great Royal Court of the 
Vatican — the Vatican, grandest and richest in treasures 
of all palaces in the world. Down the grand stairway we 
descend again; and now, once more, we are under the 
dome of heaven — the blue Italian skies look down upon 
us, and golden vernal sun shines upon us, while we in- 
hale the balmy atmosphere, which bewitches the birds to 
assert themselves in rhapsodies of song. 

We have met the Pope! His great big fatherly 
heart could not endure the horrors of that damnable 
''World War." He could not endure to see the throats of 
his faithful priests and children cut, while, precious treas- 
ures of sacred worth, cathedrals and altars, were beaten 
down and desecrated; and so, he gave up the ghost; and 
was gathered with those worthies who had gone before 
him, into the Heavenly Fold. 

Early the next morning, having been provided with 
a list of "pensions" — the accepted designation of the 
large, semi-hotels, which accommodate many thousands 
of tourists, in Italy and other Mediterranean states, we 
followed our baggage to Florence — the beautiful, famous 
city, at the foot of the Appennines— on both sides of the 
river Arno, named for her profusion of lovely flowers. 

On our way, in the taxi — still accompanied by Doctor* 
and Mrs. Graham — our enthusiastic "jehu" cracked his 
resounding whip and urged forward his steeds with well 
nigh electrical rapidity; suddenly a halt! So forceful and 
pronounced, that, it almost piled us in a heap, warned 
us of our danger. Investigation proved to us that, we 
were right up against the forward wheels of a tram-car ; 
and our lives had been saved as by a miracle. Verily, 
"in the midst of life, we are in death!" We crossed the 
famous Arno river, over one of several long bridges, and 
in a few minutes, we were, snugly ensconced in a com- 


fortable suite of a pension. May I remark here, that, 
never, in any instance, since we parted from our great 
ship, had we experienced any trouble or even inconven- 
ience, by reason of the fact that, we were colored people ; 
and even our friends, the Grahams, who were "well-to- 
do" white people, expressed deep regret when, at Flor- 
ence, we had reached the "dividing of the road," — and 
they were from Missouri, too. •" ' 

After remaining, for a few days, in this ancient city, 
wandering around, scanning hurriedly many great 
"master-pieces" in miles of picture galleries, in the Uffizi 
and Pitti Palaces ; strolling through great cathedrals, and 
climbing to the top of the great Campanile tower; we 
began to weary of the excitement, and long for a change ; 
so, we gave our traveling companions our blessing — bowed 
our heads to receive theirs, and turned our faces in an- 
other direction — they for Cologne; we, for Paris, and 
back to London. Right here, it must be stated, that, the 
following references made to Venice and Vienna, relate 
to a prior trip made by me, m 1893, when I toured all 
alone. In Paris, I was given the address of Bamfido, by 
the associate of young James Gordon Bennett, who had 
succeeded his illustrious father, in the ownership of the 
New York Herald, and the enjoyment of the paternal 
legacies bequeathed to him. 

Mr. Bennett was, just then, spending a good deal of 
his time at Monte Carlo, on his yacht and in the boule- 
vards and places of Parisian amusements ; so, I frequent- 
ly saw his alter ego, and made the most of him. 

We arrived in Venice by moonlight; and it was, to 
me, a wierd, spectral scene— that of being "sculled" 
through the labarynthine canals, in the night season, 
housed up in the plush lined little cabin of the gondola. 
When the boafean would get to the turning of the ca- 
nal, he would signal, by saying Auch ! which sound was 
echoed and re-echoed. I had, before leaving home, just 


finished reading Dickens' Little Dorritt, and the experi- 
ences in Venice, of Mrs. General and the General family, 
were still in my mind. I could almost hear and see them, 
in their pleasures and perplexities ; and that same Corinne, 
the heroinne of Mme. DeStael's story, of which mention 
has been made, was, ever and anon — in my mind. The 
Cathedral of St. Marc, very ancient; the Doges Palace, 
equally so ; the Bridge of Sighs ; the Execution Chamber, 
down in the deep dungeon, with the grooves leading to 
the three small holes, through which the blood of the 
executed victim escaped, after decapitation; the Grand 
Canal, lined, on both sides with the palaces of ancient 
days; the palace in which Othello wooed, won and mur- 
dered Desdemona; the palace in which Lord Byron lived 
and drank down inspiration for his Don Juan and other 
love poems ; the palace of Caesar Borgia and others of the 
notorious, famous Borgia family; the Rialto, which was 
old when Shakespeare wrote of it. These and many 
other wonderful and suggestive objects, to say nothing 
of some of the greatest canvases, by many of the most 
illustrious painters who have ever lived, kept me busy 
several days, and parts of nights to my "heart's con- 

It was jolly and picturesque on the Piazza (pro- 
nounced Pe-at-za) St. Marco; at night. A large well- 
trained "brass-band," discoursed sweet and classical mu- 
sic, and the beautiful Venetian ladies with their stylish 
escorts promenaded — not "to the lascivious pleasing of a 
lute," as Shakespeare puts it, but rather, to the dulcet 
cadences of the band, bathed in the silvery sheen of that 
Itlaian Moon-light. It was a queer, poetic experience, 
which I enjoyed, when I had to board a gondola and sail 
to the bank ! 

Here, again, I must warn the dear reader, that, for 
a more lucid and comprehensive description of Venice as 
well as others of which I briefly speak, he must turn to 


well known and easily accessible books of travel; I am 
only a viator, illustrating, in a humble way, the depths 
from which a colored-American has climbed and the 
heights to which he has attained, in a short life. 

Lo, we will sail back to the rail-way station, in the 
morning; and, hence, we will betake us to Vienna, the 
"most beautiful city in Europe," according to Mr. Chas. 
F. Brush. 


When I arrived in beautiful Vienna, on the seventh 
day of May, 1893, a fleecy snow about six inches deep, 
was covering the ground; to say, I was surprised, puts it 
mildly, so far advanced was the spring season; but, be- 
fore night, it had all disappeared, before the mid-day sun. 

After registering, at a reputable hotel, I sallied forth 
and found "Cook's office," for "Cook," as all travelers on 
the Continent know, is of very great advantage to the 
tourist, in many respects. Going into the main reception 
room, where were collected numerous persons, I ex- 
claimed, in a tone of voice loud enough to be heard all 
over the room : "Is there any gentleman here who speaks 
English?" A voice, almost familiar, answered, "Yes, 
Senator Green; I speak English!" Drawing mutually, 
near to each other, I inquired of him as to his identity. 
"Why," said he, "I represent The William Edwards Com- 
pany of Cleveland; and, I rode in the same car with you 
from Columbus to Cleveland, a few weeks ago." 

Of course, we had an interesting conversation, to- 
gether, after that; and I look back to that incident as 
being one of the most enjoyable of my trip. 

In concluding the last chapter, I remarked the ad- 
miration of Mr. Chas. F. Brush, for Vienna, and, indeed, 
my visit to that capital city was due almost entirely to 
his wise suggestion. I have never regretted it. 

Here, I felt myself more "at home," than in any other 
city visited by me, London, only, excepted. This feeling 


I attribute, in great part, to three circumstances, which 
are familiar to my home life : 

First, the German population of Cleveland is so nu- 
merous, that, the people of the same race, in the streets 
of Vienna reminded me forcibly of them; 

Secondly, the German language, spoken by every 
one, there, reminded me of the same tongue which is 
heard in the streets and marts of trade, so frequently, in 
my home town; and, 

Thirdly, the weather, on May 7th, and 8th, was just 
such cold, wet and disagreeable weather as one frequent- 
ly experiences near Lake Erie in the months of March 
and April. 

I shall spend a little more of time and space in re- 
ferring to my sojourn in this city, than I have with ref- 
erence to some other great cities, in my route ; especially 
because, she is now the forlorn victim of her own folly — 
the folly of her old Emperor, deceased — and some of his 
unfortunate advisers, who "still live and breathe." That 
once noble, rich and influential city, today, cut off from 
her former associates, cast down from her high pedestal, 
her currency depreciated, her resources almost exhausted ; 
the women and children, in many instances, starving ic 
her streets ; she sits, metaphorically, like another "Rachel, 
weeping for her children; refusing to be comforted, for, 
her children are not" — doing a bitter penance, for the 
sins of others. 

Now, here is a brief description of my Vienna, as I 
found her, twenty-seven years ago: — "set on a hill" — 
plateau; built not more for stability and business, than 
for beauty; bountifully watered by a tributary stream 
of "the beautiful blue Danube;" ornamented by shade 
trees and shrubbery, statuary, squares, parks and Gothic 
cathedrals; and peopled by as rosy-cheeked and health- 
ful a population as ever one could wish to behold. 


The streets which were all smoothly and substan- 
tially paved, with cubes of granite, asphaltum and "Ni- 
cholson" blocks, upon a concrete foundation, a foot thick, 
were not allowed to become filthy; but, a small army of 
men and boys, with brooms and pans, were ever alert, 
to prevent accumulations. The equipages with their "out- 
riders" and "foot-men", were both numerous and bril- 
liant, being drawn by some of the best looking and most 
spirited horses in the world. 

In scanning the names of the streets, I found some 
most suggestive of historical events, some of them, sad 
events. There, for instance, was the street, Grand Duke 
Maximilian. This name recalled the fact that, I was in 
the home of that sadly unfortunate young nobleman, who, 
at the behest of his superior lords and Napoleon III, 
invaded Mexico, at a time when the fate of our glorious 
Union and the freedom of four millions of human beings 
hung in the balance; and attempted, in defiance of our 
Monroe Doctrine, to obtain a lodgment on these western 
shores for European despotism. 

As I traveled through some of those countries and 
noted their streets, restaurants, parks and boulevards, 
were sprayed with Military ; when I considered the great 
wealth and aggregate resources of these monarchies, I 
felt like congratulating my own fellow citizens on the fact 
that, early in our national existence, we drew the line; 
and that, to this day, we have enforced our doctrine — 
"America for Americans,"— hands off! 

The K. K| Hofburg theatre is grand in its propor- 
tions, massive in its structure and elaborate in its interior 
decorations. Looking at it from a distance, one is forcibly 
reminded of the Grand Opera House in Paris; tho, of 
course, the Paris structure is sui generis — unique — in- 

The Parliament House is an imposing pile, semicir- 
cular, concave, in front, and has wings on either side of 


the central body. Groups of large Corinthian pillars give 
this building a truly classical appearance. At each cor- 
ner, on top of the structure, looking towards each of the 
cardinal points, are collosal groups of bronze statuary 
representing Peace and Victory, drawn in chariots by 
three great horses, rampant. Peace is extending the olive 
branch, and Victoiy, the laurel wreath. 

Then, there is that grand monument of pure Gothic 
architecture. St. Stephen's cathedral, very old and quite 
unique. Its central spire almost kisses the clouds, in a 
sense ; while clustered around it is a group of small ones ; 
and these combined, produce the effect intended by the 
originators of Gothic architecture, that of their forest 

The Goths (from whom this style of architecture 
takes its name) — and the Vandals, came trooping down 
from their mountain fastnesses and bleak houses, into 
the fertile plains and flower gardens of Italy and France. 
They took possession of what they found; but, never 
could efface from their memories the scenes of their 
former environment. 

So, when they began to worship our God and build 
huge temples, within which to perform their devotional 
duties, they endeavored by means of this Gothic style 
to imitate nature, as seen in the forest. Hence, the trunks 
of trees, imitated in the formation of the columns; and 
the limbs, twigs and buds, spreading out and sustaining 
the roof ; the pointed arches, combining to make the nave 
and transept resemble an arbor; to say nothing of the 
niches, here and there, like clefts in rocks, holding 
statuary; the horrid gargoyles, imitating fierce animals 
of the forest, peering over the eaves, discharging the 
waste water from the roof; the stained glass windows 
giving that twilight-cathedral effect within, imitating 
the beauties of the illumined heavens; and the spires, 
ornamented with swelling-bursting buds, pointing like 


tall pines, straight heavenward. Such is Gothic Archi- 
tecture, as seen in some parts of Europe. 

Two government buildings, located, respectively, on 
opposite sides of a lovely garden or platz — one containing 
the Museum of Fine Arts, and the other, the Museum of 
Natural History. In the Platz are to be seen groups of 
stauary, and a heroic monument, with a statue of Maria 
Therese, late Empress of Austria. 

I spent the greater part of one day, rambling 
through the long galleries of the Museum of Fine Arts; 
and, if you would like to know something of a very few 
of its famous masterpieces, I will tell you. 

There were two, by Michael Coxie, who flourished be- 
tween 1499 and 1592, representing the Garden of Eden, 
before and after the Fall. The difference between in- 
nocence and guilt, as pictured in the countenances of 
Adam and Eve, before and after they had sinned, stamps 
the picture as one worthy of great note. Some of Franz 
Snyder's paintings come next, representing, almost to 
perfection, all the various fishes, amphibiae and curiosi- 
ties of the sea. 

One hangs around them a long time and reflects on 
the marvelous skill and patience of this great painter. 

In another corner, I came upon a neat painting by 
De Crayes, 1584-1669, representing the removal of the 
Saviour from the cross. 

It is the most realistic picture I have ever seen. 
There, you see the pierced side, with blood and water is- 
suing from it, just as if one stood in the very presence; 
the gaping wounds in the hands, feet and side, move to . 
pity and beget in one, feelings of awe. Around the 
wounds, in the hands and feet, the flesh is discolered and 
swolen, telling the story of his agony and death, 0! — so 
vividly. The pose, the features, the tints and all the char- 
acteristics of this wonderful painting are such as to sug- 
gest a better life, to the one who beholds and reflects. 


Another picture which enchains one to the spot, is 
entitled, "Saint Ignats Casting Out Devils." In this 
painting Saint Ignats stands upon an elevation, in front of 
a great Cathedral or other consecrated pile; around him 
crowd a multitude of people who have come or been 
brought to him, to have devils cast out of them. The 
skill of the great painter seems to have been mainly ex- 
ercised in depicting the miseries of those possessed of 

With features and limbs distorted in every possible 
shape, they present a horrible sight. One, in particular, 
is a woman who occupies a position in the foreground. 
She is prostrated; her countenance is livid; her eyeballs, 
with a stony glare, protrude from their sockets; her 
tongue lolls out; her hair is disheveled; altogether, she 
presents an appearance which, once seen, can never be 

At a distance from St. Ignats, making their escape, 
is a group of horned-spike tailed devils, glaring back- 
wards, as they flee. 

In another gallery of this museum, Tintoretto gives, 
as a nude study, Beauty in the Bath. There are those 
who take exception to this style of picture, as being too 
suggestive, for the young, if not, indeed, downright, vul- 
gar; but, as interpreted by this great master, the pose 
is so graceful, the execution so artistic and free from any 
impure suggestion, that, I failed to note any improper ef- 
fect produced. Only feelings of admiration for the 
noblest, best and most beautiful of God's creatures — the 
"human form divine." 

One piece of statuary, and I will have finished. It is 
a group of three personages, chiseled out of one solid 
block of marble. A Roman soldier, clutched in his left 
hand, holds aloft an "innocent," aged about 18 months; 
his right hand rests on the hilt of his sword; while the 
babe, conscious of its danger, extends its little hands, 


with supplicating cries, towards his frantic mother, who, 
struggling, half prostrate at the soldier's feet, strives, in 
vain, to stay the blow. 

This group alone, is sufficient to immortalize any 
artist ; it is by Incenzo Francaroli. 

I have many times since that visit to Vienna, longed 
to visit her once again, and make a stay more or less 
protracted; but, age coming on apace, and the unspeak- 
able ravages of the "World War," have put it beyond my 
power; however, possessing that God-given faculty — 
memory, I can still live over those happy days, and learn 
to be content with them. 




The enormous expense of constructing- railroads in 
southern and central Europe, dawns upon one as he passes 
through those regions the mountain ranges of the Alps 
and Appennines, give a succession of heights and valleys 
to be negotiated, which, at times, almost startle one. The 
deep cuts through rocky regions; the spanning of yawn- 
ing chasms and tunneling for miles and miles, through the 
bowels of the earth, pile up the expense to fabulous pro- 
portions; and did not governments, at times, come M the 
fore and assist in the consummation of these works, so 
necessary and convenient for all the people, it is ques- 
tionable, whether they would be accomplishr-ci 

As being apropos to the subject under consideration, 
I recall some reflections made by a learned commentator 
on that passage of the Holy Scriptures, wherein the 
Apostle Paul says, to the Corinthians, * * "and though 
I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains;" the 
writer referred to, maintains that faith has removed 
mountains in the only sense practicable; for, that, when 
faith, which begets and stimulates works, bores a pas- 
sage-way through the mountain, and gives both ingress 
and egress — the mountain being no longer an obstacle, is 
practically removed. 

One noticeable peculiarity in the construction of lo- 
comotives used on the railroads, lies in the fact that, they 


have no "cow-catchers" attached to them; not for the 
reason, however, that Artemas Ward gave when he was 
traveling in the west, long ago; "Conductor!" Ward ex- 
claimed, "I can't see of what use these cow-catchers are 
to anyone. The trains move so slowly that, there is no 
possibility of running over a cow; but, if they were 
taken off the front of the engine and fastened to the rear 
of the train, they might prevent some ill-mannered cow 
from intruding on the passengers." 

Speaking of tunnels; the Mount Cenis tunnel, be- 
tween France and Italy, has them all beaten, so to speak ; 
it took the train twenty-seven minutes to pass through 
it, going at what seemed a high rate of speed. 

So much has been written by tourists concerning the 
grandeur and beauties of Alpine scenery, that, it seems 
well nigh presumptious for me to attempt to enlarge 
upon the same subject; but, with becoming modesty, I 
trust, I will venture a few suggestions. The Appennine 
Mountains covered in the month of May with the first 
offerings of spring, and bathed in an atmosphere laden 
with the odors of the sweet acacia blossoms, seem to be 
clothed in Nature's "most beautiful garment;" but, when 
in the midst of the snow-covered Alps, in that portion of 
Switzerland, watered by the beautiful river Inn and the 
sources of the Rhine, I found that the half had not been 

Remembering the old saying — "poeta nascitur, non 
fit," a poet is born, not made, I hesitate to attempt even 
rhyme, not to mention poetry ; but, who that possesses a 
soul, can be whirled through that section of Switzerland, 
between Insbruck and Zurich , in the spring-time, and 
restrain his muse, if he has one ; such an one must be dull, 

Imagine yourself passing over a bridge which leaps 
across a chasm, "full fifty fathoms deep!" In the fore- 
ground, you see, in the form of an ellipse, a peaceful val- 


ley, watered by a pretty rippling- stream, as pure as nec- 
tar and as blue as the cerulean sky above it, ever and 
anon, dashing over its rocky bed, which imparts to it 
that unspeakable beauty which no canvas has yet por- 
trayed ; while, nestling within the shadow of some tower- 
ing height, a little village bides its time, until the return 
of those who till the fruitful fields or guard the fleecy 

Over all, some distance removed, like sentinels, grim 
and gray, Olympus heads, crowned with perennial snow, 
look down upon the clouds. 

Small wonder then, that the writer, influenced by 
such surroundings, should mount and give loose rein to 
his impetuous Pegasus, and for once, at least, sing of — 

Those dreamy heights, 

Where Nature's cradle ever rocks; 

And verdant vales, where shepherds watch their feeding flocks 

Where waters blue with murmuring cadence never still, 

Prolong the sound 
Of humming spindles, in the mill; 
And flowers so sweet, 
Where busy bees, with ceaseless move, 

Inspire our faith 
And whisper in our soul, that, 

God is love! 

It is no wonder that these Swiss people are brave and 
honorable, for, reared, amongst these crags and cliffs and 
indurated to hardships and perils, from infancy, it is nat- 
ural for them to be as rugged, brave and free, as their 
mountain homes and the pure atmosphere which they 
breathe; and, in the march of time, they have not only 
achieved their own religious and political liberties, but 
have rendered valuable assistance to others, along the 
same lines. 

Here, we learn of William Tell and Winkehied. The 
one defied the tyrant Gesler, while the other, at the su- 
preme moment of his country's peril, converged the 


bristling spears of the enemy towards his own breast, 
and thus, "made way for liberty." 

The shores of the beautiful lake on which the city of 
Zurich is built present a scene which will some day in 
the future, be rivaled by the south shore of our Lake 
Erie, in places. Along the whole distance pretty towns 
and villas have sprung into existence, with flower-gar- 
dens, green lawns, trellised vines and the like, which give 
one the impression as the train passed from one to an- 
other, that he is, indeed, in fairy land, at last. 

There are numerous little docks, for the convenience 
of canoes and yachtsmen; and as our train sped by, we 
could see the numerous white-winged craft gliding over 
the bosom of the blue lake, for the pleasure and health 
of their occupants. Snug bath-houses too, were dotting 
the shores, at convenient distances, which proved that, 
the people in that vicinity, at least, were taking advan- 
tage of this precious and oft-neglected privilege. I 
would like to become ecstatic over the golden sun sinking 
behind the snow-capped mountains, etc., etc., but space 
forbids. Vale, Zurich! Au revoir. 


Since making my first visit to Paris, in 1893, so many 
changes have taken place, in the appearance of the big — 
gay city, and so numerous have been the persons, from 
the United States, who have visited this mecca of the gay 
and fashionable, that, what I shall say in the following, 
may be read more as contrasting the metropolis of the 
present with that of the past, than as a correct descrip- 
tion of the city as it now appears ; nevertheless, even the 
contrast, may appeal to those who are prone to seeking — 
"something different." 

When I was leaving my home for an outing, on the 
other side of the "big pond," the story entitled, Trilby — 
by Dumourier, predicated on conditions and transactions, 


amongst the art students who have their habitat in the 
famous Latin Quarter of Paris, was "the rage;" everyone 
who cared for the novel and spicy recitals, pertaining to 
the grisette and even the demimonde of the joyful city 
was, devouring it with avidity ; hence, many of my genial 
friends said to me, by way of jest, I suppose, "Be sure 
and write us a letter from Trilby-land!" In giving my 
promise to do so, I little dreamed that I had undertaken 
a contract most difficult to perform. The difficulty arose 
not so much from a scarcity of materials out of which to 
write such a letter, as out of a superabundance of data 
from which I dared select. 

What most astonishes the average wayfarer, in 
Paris, with reference to social vices, is not so much that 
they abound as the fact that they are patent to the casual 
observer, and flaunt themselves almost in the faces of 
passers-by, on the public thoroughfares. 

I have no doubt that these conditions exist, to the 
last degree of baseness, in other great centers of popula- 
tion; but, the police restrictions and repressions are such 
that, the veil is drawn — the screen is placed, and doors 
are bolted; while in Paris (at that time, bear in mind), 
a man could run and see the carryings on, in some parts 
of the great city. 

However, I well knew that, I could write no Trilby 
letter, unless I visited the Quartier Latin, or Latin Quart- 
ier as we call it. I, in my ignorance of the French pronun- 
ciation went along inquiring for the Quartier Latin just as 
tho I were in the streets of London; but I received a 
blank stare and a negative nod of the head, instead of 
the desired information. Finally, when my patience had 
been worn thread-bare, I wrote the name on my memor- 
andum book, and presented it to a passer-by ; he scanned 
it, and exclaimed "Ah, ze Cash-er Lat-an!" and gave me 
all needed information for finding it. The Latin Quarter 
is not remote from the heart of the city; it is just across 


the river Seine, a mere ''stone's throw" from the ancient 
cathedral; Notre Dame, a few minutes walk from the 
Palace of Justice and in easy communication with the 
public buildings of the nation and city. 

In this Quarter, there are many stately buildings, 
having in the center of them, or at one end, large, tall 
entrances, arched at the top ; and one invariably, reads on 
a placard near by, the inscription, "a louer, appartements 
or ateliers;" that is to say, rooms for rent — in brief. It 
was in one of these buildings, Du Maurier informs us in 
his readable book, the Taffy, Little Billee, Trilby, Sven- 
gali and others of the coterie held their social gatherings ; 
and beyond doubt, it was in some of the numerous bras- 
series, in the immediate vicinity, where they were accus- 
tomed to resort, for the purpose of securing their re- 
freshments — both liquid and solid. 

These brasseries are a species of cafe and saloon 
blended, having large awnings in front of them, covering 
the side-walk, and sheltering guests from the sun and in- 
clement weather. Upon the side-walk, in front of the 
brasserie, were numerous small tables, with chairs, for 
the accommodation of the convivial guests — a motly 
group of art students from the four corners of the earth ; 
and their cheerful-frivolous grisettes, young girls, who, 
after the end of their day's work, spend the remainder 
of the evening in the manner which DuMaurier has so 
vividly depicted. 

The time to behold them in their glory was between 
the hours of 8 and 12, at night; when the students, re- 
laxed from their studies, and the Trilbies go out for a 
promenade and refreshments. I would not have the 
reader infer that these grisettes are all or even princi- 
pally, persons of unchaste character; for, on the contrary, 
many of them are girls, poor but honest ; who, sometimes, 
adopt this method of securing recreation, evenings, after 
the day's work is ended. 


Not far from the Quarter, were the Barracks, where 
many soldiers were quartered; and one could frequently 
see, mingled with the gay and lively throng, which is al- 
ways to be found there, many zouzous and Dodos in their 
bright, catchy uniforms, as in the days of Little Billee 
and Trilby. 

There too, were students, conspicuous in long flow- 
ing gowns, parti-coloured cloaks and mantles, and pecu- 
liar shaped head-gear, "a smokin' of their pipes." 

In one of these large buildings, I found many con- 
veniences, pertaining to a club room, such as small tables, 
chairs, desks and writing materials ; also, cards, chess and 
checker boards, and reading miscellany ; while, in the hall 
overhead, the wierd and seductive sounds of stringed in- 
struments, the shuffling of feet and the boisterous peals 
of laughter, were easily, suggestive of the same old 
"can-can" which we read about, in the famous novel. 

Well might Durien sing of the 

"Plaisir cl'amour ne dure qu'n moment: 
Chagrin d 'amour dure tout le vie." 

That is to say; the pleasures of passion (love) endure 
only for the flitting moment; the vexations of love last 
all our life. 

Hard by, as I have said, the towers of old Notre 
Dame, black and gray with age, loom up towards heaven, 
hundreds of feet; chiseled deep in the broad buttresses 
of this cathedral, on the facade of the same, one reads 
the words "Liberte,' Egalite,' Fraternite,' " as if those he- 
roes of the French Revolution, who struggled for recog- 
nition, in the long ago, distrusted even heaven, itself, and 
were determined to cut the sentiment so deep in the stone, 
that it could not be effaced. Yet, I have seen words 
carved equally deep in the stone obliterated; as, witness 
the effacement of the name of the original architect of 
the "Old Court House," on our Public Square, which was 


done after he expressed joy at the assassination of the 
immortal Lincoln, on the day, on which he died. There- 
fore, I infer, from the fact that the French inscription, 
still remains intact, that the French people still endorse 
that grand sentiment, and proclaim, to all the world— 
Liberte', Egalite', Fraternite'. 

Also, closely allied with the Latin Quarter is the 
Hotel Dieu, which stands diagonally opposite to the old 
cathedral. This hospital is a large, solid structure, the 
capacity of which must be often tried, if one would judge 
by the large crowds which stand in waiting, at its doors, 
every morning; men, women and children, of all ages, a 
motly crowd of the blind, halt and afflicted ; such a crowd 
as crowded around our Savior, when he ministered to the 
needs of all who, in Faith, came to him. 

Perhaps it was this Hotel Dieu, in the vicinity of the 
Quartier Latin, which suggested to Du Mauriei' those 
lines which he put into the mouth of "Trilby," when, un- 
der the hypnotic influence of Svengali, she sang, at the 
Parisian Cirque, so mournfully, 

"Ma chandelle est morte. 
Je n'ai plus feu! 
Ouvre moi ta porte 
Pour l'amour de Dieu!" 

"My candle is out, I have no fire (light) ; Open to me your 
door, for the love of God." 

Almost directly in the rear of the old cathedral, is 
the Morgue, on the bank of the Seine, which cuts so con- 
spicuous a figure in the story of poor Trilby. 0, what a 
sombre, suggestive place it is (or was) ! Listen to that 
arch-fiend Svengali's description of it. "There is a little 
ugly gray building there; and, inside, are eight slanting 
slabs of brass, all in a row, like beds in a school dormi- 
tory; and, one fine day, you shall lie asleep on one of 
those slabs — you Trilby, who would not listen to Sven- 
gali, and therefore, lost him! and over the middle of 

you will be a leather apron, and over your head a little 
brass tap ; and all day long and all night, the cold water 
shall trickle, trickle, trickle — all the way down your 
beautiful white body to your beautiful white feet, til they 
turn green; and your poor, damp, muddy draggled rags 
will hang above you, from the ceiling, for your friends to 
know you by; drip, drip, drip! But you will have no 
friends; and people, of all sorts — strangers, will come 
and stare at you, through the big plate-glass windows — 
Englanders, chiffoniers, painters and sculptors — work- 
men, plon-plons, old hags of women; and they will say: 
"Ah! what a beautiful woman was that!" 

Ugh! It makes one shudder to read it in the book; 
and here I stood, all alone, silently gazing upon the sad 
remains of just such a creature, fished out of the Seine, 
the night before — perhaps! 

On the occasion of my visit to that same Morgue, I 
found three bodies reclining on those brass slabs — "all 
of a row" — one was that of a woman of middle age ; there 
could still be traced, in the even, comely features, su- 
per-abundance of lustrous brown hair which lay in rich 
profusion around the bare shoulders, long eye lashes, 
heavy eye-brows, even, white teeth — which were appar- 
ent through the slightly parted lips, some of that beauty 
which, in former days, perchance, made her the belle of 
some social circle. The two others were men — one, far 
advanced in life, the other, past its meridian — both gray, 
one bald. The features of one were placid, calm, as if in 
sleep ; while those of the other were distorted, the whole 
countenance reminding one of Sir Walter Scott's lines : 

"Nor can old age a wrinkle trace 
More deeply than despair." 

There was a large bruise on the forehead, indicating 
that, he had met death, perchance, through violence. 


Those were the bodies of unknown dead, exposed 
there to the public gaze for identification. 

It cannot now, be truthfully said, in the language of 
Svengali, that the water, "all day long and all night, shall 
trickle, trickle, trickle, etc.; for, on the contrary, there 
is now, no leather apron put on the middle of the corpse, 
nor any "little brass tap," over the head ; but the bodies, 
though somewhat exposed about the neck and shoulders, 
are quite covered, as to the remainder of the form; and 
their "damp clothing" is cleansed and laid on top of 
them. The glass case, within which the bodies recline, 
on the "slanting slabs," is now kept cold by a refriger- 
ating process, such as is used in commercial affairs. 

On the front wall of the Morgue, hung photographs 
of those who had been buried before identification; so 
that, a final means remains of identification, long after 
hope has been resigned, of tracing them. 

As I turned to leave this sad place, the bells in the 
ancient belfry of Notre Dame, chimed out the morning 
hour, in sad, sweet cadences; while in a small, green 
park, hard by — just within the shadow of the church, 
numerous "boozy" men and women courted that rest 
which the past night had denied them. 

"0, it was pitiful! 

In that great city full, 

Home they had none." , 

The fact that those three public institutions were, so 
to speak, in one group, is quite significant — 

— The Cathedral — a shelter for the soul, 
— The Hotel Dieu, to heal the body; and 
— The Morgue, for the Last Remains! 

The book stalls on the banks of the Seine were ob- 
jects of much interest to many, with literary inclina- 
tions: The palace of the Luxembourg where, annually, 
the masterpieces of the students of the Latin Quarter, 


and others, are placed on exhibition; the great, durable 
bridges which span the river; the Eifel Tower, kissing 
the clouds, almost; the Trocadero, remnant of a great 
World's Fair; the Invalides, sacred to the memory of 
France's great dead; the Louvre, mecca of those who 
love art, where can be seen canvases and statuary that 
cannot be duplicated; the Place de la Concorde, with its 
Egyptian Obelisk, statuary and memories of the guillo- 
tine, of the Revolution; the Arc de Triumph, sacred to 
the memory of the great Napoleon ; the Bois de Boulogne ; 
the Place de la Bastile, and last, but not least— for the 
ladies, the Bon Marche', where they buy the beautiful 
and the useful, at a reasonable price. 

The great Opera House, would, alone, make any city 
possessing it, note-worthy; and deserves too extensive a 
notice to attempt it here; so I will refer the reader to 
some book of travels, for information in this behalf. 

From Paris, we pass over, once more, into the great 
city of London; and while sojourning there, during the 
following three months, I embrace the opportunity to 
study that great town, more thoroughly, before returning 
again to my native land. However, a description of a 
hurried trip which I took, previous to this time, to Ire- 
land — 


may be of interest to my readers. "Old Ireland, the 
mother of an unfortunate race of men and women, whose 
deeds are embalmed in story and song — the cradle in 
which have rocked poets, statesmen, soldiers and martyrs. 
Of poets, one may mention Moore, who wrote Lalla 
Rookh; of statesmen and orators, Henry Grattan, Daniel 
O'Connell, Sheridan, Burke, Curran and Parnell; of sol- 
diers, the "Iron Duke," Wellington, McMahon, "Joe" 
Shields, Thomas Francis Meagher, Mulligan, and Corco- 
ran, of the "Bloody 69th," which went into the Battle of 
Bull Run, stripped to the waist, and "fought like brave 


men, long and well," for our glorious Union; and last, but 
not least, of gallant "Phil" Sheridan, who saved the day 
at "Winchester, twenty miles away!" 

As for scientists, we can mention Sir Humphrey 
Davey, who invented the little safety lamp, which miners 
wear to protect them from explosions, when they are at 
work — 

"Down in the coal mines 
Underneath the ground;" 

thereby, saving the lives of many miners, every year; 
and as for martyrs to the cause of Irish liberty, the list 
may be headed by the name of that immortal Robert 
Emmett, who died, in his youth and fair promise for the 
freedom of his native land. 

I left the great ship Campania at Queenstown, 
steamed up the beautiful bay to Cork, a large and popu- 
lous city; the principal business street of which — Pat- 
rick street, containing a monument and statue of Father 
Mathew, in the center of it, reminded me that at last, 
I was treading the "Auld Sod." 

On our way up the bay, we saw a fleet of five German 
men of war — no submarines, at that time. They had 
been anchored off the^jiort of Cork for several days, re- 
plenishing their larders, and exchanging friendly greet- 
ings with the English soldiers, stationed at the various 
barracks in and near that city ; from there, they went to 
Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, to be present and aid in hon- 
oring the festivities incident to the visit of the German 
Emperor, to his grandma, Queen Victoria. In view of 
conditions which have prevailed between England and 
Germany, since the year of which I write, it seems 
strange to note the bonds of consanguinity which exist 
between the ex-emperor and the royal family of Great 


After visiting various places of interest in Cork, in- 
cluding the cathedral in which Father Mathew preached 
and the church, the belfry of which contains the "Sweet 
Bells of Shannon," which sound so bewitching on the 
river Lee, I hired an Irish-jaunting car, and started, 
post-haste for the village of Blarney, and "Blarney 
Castle," my object being, of course, to kiss the Blarney 

"There is a stone that whoe'er kisses, 
Sure he ne'er misses 
To become iloquent." 

The route to Blarney, covering some seven miles, 
carried me through some of the most lovely landscape 
scenery which I had ever seen. I was prepared for it; 
for, it was "one day in May," and my expectation had 
been quickened, years and years before that time. Going 
out by an ancient road, known as Sunday's- well-road, 
named for an ancient well which was noted for the heal- 
ing qualities of its waters, we passed several chateaus or 
country residences, which might well be compared to 
Eden. Over our heads, at times, the interlacing boughs 
and foliage formed a veritable arbour; and when we 
emerged from it, near the end of our route, we experi- 
enced the sensation of coming from a leafy, flowery tun- 
nel ; and the River Lee, winding its tortuous way through 
the beautiful green valley, at the foot of the hill, gave 
to the whole scene a freshness and delight, which, once 
experienced, can never be forgotten. 

But, here we are, at Blarney, a little village, a very 
old town, nestled amongst the hills, and hard by, is the re- 
nowned, old and gray — Blarney Castle, telling of party 
strife and conflicts, numerous and severe, in the "long 
ago" — an anachronism on the face of the fruitful earth. 

As I was entering the grounds upon which the 
Castle stands, I met Sir George Colthurst, the present 


(then) owner of the Castle, a youthful, good-looking man; 
and I wondered whether he had won his "Spurs," or had 
the title by inheritance or favor; for, we all know, that, 
in Ireland, conditions are "not always what they seem." 
However, we enter the ancient castle, and begin climb- 
ing up, up — up, a space of at least 100 feet, to the para- 
pet, suspended under which and held in position by two 
strong iron braces, is the famous stone. 

Just here, in passing, it may not be amiss to mention 
three other famous, little old stones which I had encoun- 
tered in my peregrinations, in Great Britain. There is, 
in West Minster Abbey, a very old stone, known as the 
stone brought from Scone, in Scotland, on which the Scot- 
tish kings, from time immemorial, had been crowned; 
then, in the British Museum, is to be seen a little — old 
stone, known as the Rosetta Stone ; which was discovered 
near Cairo, in Egypt, during Napoleon's expedition in 
that land ; and is called "Rosetta Stone," for the town of 
Rosetta, near which it was found; it is polished on one 
side, and contains an inscription in three different lan- 
guages—Egyptian hieroglyphics, Greek and Latin. It 
furnished the key for deciphering Egyptian hieroglyph- 
ics ; and, in that way, has been of priceless value in the 
difficult work of unraveling Egyptian history. 

I found another on the top of Ross Castle, on the 
banks of the Lakes of Killarney, which, for the want of 
a better name, I will term, the Kissing Stone. It is said, 
that, whoever kisses this stone, can, thereafter, kiss any 
girl he wishes to kiss; as I did not kiss that stone, I have 
110 means of verifying the old tradition. 

Going back to the Blarney Stone ; it is no small task 
to kiss the Blarney stone; for, in order to perform the 
osculatory feat, one must be held head downward over 
the parapet, with a yawning chasm of not less than one 
hundred feet beneath him, at the imminent risk of his 
life. This writer, however, who was suspended by his 


ankles, by two accommodating tourists, performed the 
feat out of consideration for a group of true and tried 
Irish friends, in far away America ; and if, in the future, 
he should indulge in more or less "blarney," the reason 
therefor can be easily explained. 

Here is the traditionary origin of the Blarney Stone, 
as given to me "on the spot," by an Irishman. Once upon 
a time, "The McCarthy," who founded the castle, on re- 
turning from the chase, with a friend, heard cries of dis- 
tress from the direction of the River Lee, near by. On 
investigation, they found two sisters in the extremity of 
drowning; and, thereupon, they, right manfully, rescued 
them. In return for this act, one of the sisters told "The 
McCarthy," to go and look under the parapet, on the front 
side of his castle, and he would discover a stone, about 
three feet in length and two in width, which, if he had 
the courage to lean over and kiss, would make him 
thenceforward, invincible against all enemies, in battle. 
"The McCarthy" did as he was directed; and from that 
time forward, no one of his neighboring foes could pre- 
vail against him. Hence the "Blarney stone." 

From Blarney, I went, next, to Killarney, a pretty 
village, sustained, largely by the generosity of tourists, 
who flock here, during the summer season, to enjoy the 
wonderfully beautiful scenery of the Lakes of Killarney. 

"O, did you e'er hear of Kate Kearney; 
She lived on the banks of Killarney; 
Believe it from me, no heart could be free 
If it heard the sweet sound of her blarney." 

I have paraphrased the foregoing lines, somewhat, 
as I do not remember the exact words of the winsome 
song. I was informed by my guide (who, by the way, had 
resided for years, in our State of New Hampshire), that 
Kate Kearney had such beautiful, long hair, that, once, 
when following the big game, she pursued a roe to the 


top of the Toro Mountain, her hair flowed down to its 

But, these refreshing lakes and their surrounding- 
scenery! 0, the beauty of Nature, as God made her! 
She, verily, has no rival. While the lakes are pure and 
limpid, with an atmosphere full of vitality, yet the scen- 
ery on their banks surpasses all. 

Here you find, mingled in rich luxuriance, the oak, 
the elm and the beech tree fully matured; then we see, 
in all their perfected beauty the holly, the arbutus, the 
yew, the rhododendron, the bay, the Mountain ash, silver 
fir, and great beds of roses of Sharon and ferns, such as 
this writer had never seen before. There, too, is ancient 
"Ross Castle" with some of the identical old bronze guns, 
still mounted, which fired upon Ludlow and his follow- 
ers, whom Oliver Cromwell had sent to reduce the castle, 
in 1640. 

On the top of the ancient stronghold, which was 
founded in the 14th century, is the "kissing stone," re- 
ferred to, in the foregoing. 

I found, over in Ireland, that "foine ould Irish gin- 
tleman," of whom I had read so much. He is a verity; 
bubbling over with wit and humor, and abounding in that 
"sweet Irish brogue," of which the late General Scott 
spoke, from the balcony of our American House, 'way 
back in the fifties, when he was a Presidential candidate, 
and was courting the Irish vote. 

My guide, already referred to, was full of wit and 
humor. Pointing to a high mountain, near the lakes, 
with an indentation on the top of it, he said: "Do you 
see that gap in the ridge of the mountain?" I nodded, 
affirmatively. "Well, thin," he said, "that little gap is 
called "the divil's bite!' Whin the O'Donoghue held Ross 
Castle, over there, which was the last in Ireland to sur- 
render to the forces of Cromwell, the divil, one day, did 
give him some of his impertinence ; and O'Donoghue give 


'im sich er whack on his divilish back, wid his blackthorn 
sthick, that, the divil run roaring to yon mountain an' 
bit a piece out of the hump av it, an sphit it out in the 
lake, jesht where ye see that little island; an' (lowering 
his voice) its the only spheck o' land that the divil owns 
around these lakes; Glory be tc God!" 

Pointing to another high mountain, not far removed, 
he said: "There's a lake upon the top o' that mountain, 
an' its the deepest in the wurrold. "One day, there was a 
Yankee hero, an' he sed, they had deeper lakes in 
Amerika than that one ; he said, they had 'em three miles 
deep, in the Rocky Mountains. I told 'im shure, that was 
nothin'; fer, one day, an Amerikin gentleman thried to 
schwim across it, but, whin he got in the middle of the 
lake, the cramps took him, an' he begun ter sink; an' he 
didn't shtop intil he reached Austraily, whin his feet hit 
the head uv a young lady who v/as passing by an' hurted 
her. She sued 'im fer damages; but he wus a pore man 
in the kentry, havin' left even his close behind 'im! So, 
they settled by marryin' av each other; fer good lookin' 
men was 'mazingly sceerce in Austraily, thin." 

On my route from Killarney to Dublin, we passed 
through sections where a great many "shanties," in a 
tumbled down-foresaken condition could be seen. I in- 
quired the cause of this forlorn condition, and was in- 
formed that the former tenants of them, had left Ireland 
— had emigrated to the United States, owing to the se- 
verities of the "land-lord" system in Ireland. Some, they 
said had also gone to Australia and Canada ; but, by far, 
the larger number to the great Republic. At one station 
in Tipperary, I bought of an elderly Irish woman a black- 
thorn cane — a shillelah ; as I received it from her, she re- 
marked, with a twinkle in her eye, "We calls 'em Tipper- 
ary rifles, over here!" 

When the train stopped at another station, a scene 
occurred which filled my eyes with some of those tears 


for the shedding of which, more or less of merriment was 
called forth, at home : Two pretty Irish girls, bound for 
the United States, were in the act of taking leave of the 
"Auld Sod." The older and stronger one was using all 
her influence and authority to prevent a "scene," but was 
unequal to the task; for, as the train slowly pulled away 
from the platform, the younger one began to scream and 
hysterically sob out, "0, Mother! Mother! Let me go to 
my poor old mother!" "Arrah, hush, now!" exclaimed 
the other. "None o' that! Didn't I tell ye that oid hev 
none o' that," and she caught her by the arm, and pulled 
her, by main force, from the window. "Mother! O, 
Mother!" persisted the younger one, "Let me go! Let 
me go to my dear mother! Let me wave a handkerchief 
at her once more !" She sobbed ; and tearing herself from 
her sister's grasp, she thrust her head through the win- 
dow, and, frantically, waved a last adieu, which, one" 
could plainly see, carried her whole heart with it, to the 
dearest and best friend that she had on earth. Then, 
resuming her seat, she wept as tho her heart was break- 
ing, until the train was far removed from the sad scene ! 
Since that sad parting, in Ireland, I have never met 
a group of Irish emigrants, on land or sea, without recur- 
ring to it; and say what we may of the Irish in Ireland, 
I shall ever believe that the ties of kinship are veritably, 
true and binding. 

Ere long, with a companion of the trip, we were 
walking the streets of Dublin and viewing the beauties 
of Phoenix Park and other lovely spots ; it was then that 
the foundation was laid in my mind which has enabled 
me to follow, with increased interest, the frightful scenes 
which have since transpired there, incidental to the "Sin 
Fein" and other uprisings. Long live the beautiful green 
Isle ! and may God hasten the day when peace and pros- 
perity and good will shall prevail, throughout her do- 


"HOME * * * * AGAIN." 

I have a confession to make : It is that, for fear of 
being discriminated against, on account of being a colored 
man, I had shipped, both when alone and when with my 
family, on a Cunarder, where I felt sure, no proscription 
would be made ; and, I am free to state, that, my antici- 
pations, in this behalf, were fully realized. 

However, there came a time, when being a little anx- 
ious to return to our home without unnecessary delay, we 
shipped on the good United States ship. New York — 
with more or less of "fear and trembling," I must admit ; 
yet, boldly, and with the "face and front" of an Ameri- 
can citizen. 

During the entire trip, fiom Southampton (?) to 
New York, our treatment, by every one, was kindly and 
considerate; and when it became generally known, that, 
the good people of our dear Cleveland had so often and so 
lavishly honored me in public ways, the committee ap- 
pointed to arrange the details of the customary enter- 
tainment, on the homeward voyage, invited me to preside 
as chairman of the function; which I did, with pleasure 
and apparent satisfaction. 

Returning from Liverpool, on the Campania, in 1895, 
I was one of a thousand who listened with much interest, 
to the animated — eloquent presentation of the socialist 
cause by J. Kier Hardie, M. P., who was enroute to the 

United States, for the purpose of laying the cause of 
British workmen before the American public. 

The meeting was held amidship where all classes of 
passengers from the steerage to the first cabin could col- 
lect and listen. The learned gentleman (the sea being- 
calm) spoke for nearly an hour; and was attentively 
listened to, without interruption. 

Following the speech of Kier Hardie, a disposition 
became manifest to have him answered; and, during the 
same day, a delegation of the passengers requested me to 
undertake that delicate and difficult task, at the same 
place, on the following day: "I'll say," I was not at all 
averse to attempting the task; tho I fully realized that, 
in Kier Hardie, I had found a foeman more than "worthy 
of my steel." 

On the occasion of my reply, the weather and sea 
were again auspicious and the audience larger, perhaps, 
than on the day before; that I did "my possible," as the 
French sometimes express it, goes without saying; and 
many compliments came to me, from that portion of the 
audience, who believed in the perpetuity of the estab- 
lished order of things, social, in England and the United 

That honored and regretted, late citizen, Judge Stev- 
enson Burke, when in conversation with the writer, on 
one occasion, exclaimed, in substance as follows: "My 
father went into the woods and cut down the trees, and 
pulled up the stumps, and grubbed up the roots, and 
ploughed up the soil! Now, if any man wants to get the 
land from me, let him pay its full value, or keep silent." 

In my address on the Campaina, I considered my most 
telling point (if I may so characterize it) , that one where 
I differentiate between the status of the middle classes 
in a monarchy, and those in our great Republic; where 
every man is in theory and law, at least, the equal of 
every other man ; and may, if he will, aspire to any posi- 


tion within the gift of the people. I strove to maintain 
by my arguments, that, socialism, anarchism and all 
other doctrines of a kindred nature, are exotics which 
should be shunned as being hostile to our well being. I 
still am actuated by those and kindred feelings ; and have 
put forth every reasonable effort to instil those ideas into 
the minds and hearts of my colored fellow-citizens. 

Since our last sojourn in foreign lands, I have been 
plodding along in the humble sphere of a private citizen; 
busy in the practice of the Law of the land, and cultivat- 
ing, as best I could, the friendly relations of all good 
people ; but, there is one episode of my life, extending over 
a period of at least, twenty years, of which I must make 
mention. I might say, in truth, forty-four years, for, the 
mutual acquaintance of Mr. Theodore Bliss, of Philadel- 
phia, and myself, came down from 1868, to the year of. 
his death, 1910 ; but, during the first period mentioned — 
20 years — we were mutual correspondents; a relationship 
which only death terminated. When I say "mutual" cor- 
respondents, I would be understood to mean that I wrote 
to him, perhaps, fifty letters, where he favored me with 
one ; and then, only a few lines which were painfully exe- 
cuted, by spelling the words, one letter at a time, and 
conjoining them. His talented daughter, Miss Anna 
Catherine Bliss, occasionally, acted as an amanuensis for 
him, and wrote to me for him. 

Mr. Theodore Bliss was of old New England stock; 
was born in 1822, and died in 1910, when he was in his 
S9th year of age. 

In the forepart of this narrative, I have made men- 
tion of this same gentleman ; but, this story is added, as 
a special token of my love of his memory, and my grati- 
tude for tokens of friendly consideration shown me, by 

For fifty-one years Mr. Bliss was afflicted with a dis- 
ease which I have learned, physicians can not cure ; they 


name it, "rheumatoidarthritis," a disease which he first 
noticed in his right shoulder, in 1859 ; but, which contin- 
ued to develop until his death — 51 years afterwards. 
Some idea of his sad plight may be formed by his brief 
description of it; hear him: "One joint after another 
has been distorted and the limbs bound, until I could no 
longer move about on cane or crutches ; and was forced to 
the continuous use of a wheel chair." 

Again, he says, in a little biographical sketch of him- 
self, "I can honestly say, that, I would not wish my worst 
enemy to suffer as I have ; to have had the fate of being 
bound hand and foot and imprisoned within an invalid's 
chamber while the mind remained clear and active and 
still alert to the affairs of every day life." * * * * 

"Yet," he says, a little farther down, "in my ex- 
treme old age, I can say, with perfect sincerity, that I 
would live this life of mine all over again, gladly — even 
including this long period of illness ; for, in this eighty- 
eighth year of my age, life seems to me a very little and 
short experience. Hours for sleep, for rest and for re- 
freshment, shorten these years greatly, when measured 
by activity, by the accomplishment of results." 

The late, George Bliss, of New York, was a brother 
of this Theodore Bliss ; and, as every one of mature years 
will bear witness, was a great financial power in that 
great city; and, for many years prior to the year 1868, 
when he united with Levi P. Morton, George Bliss was 
the head of the renowned importing dry goods house of 
George Bliss and Company, which is of "historic note," 
amongst the dry goods houses of America. 

During the time which elapsed between the death of 
Mr. Theodore Bliss' elder daughter, who was in the haliit 
of writing a letter to him every week (as he informed 
me), and his death — more than 20 years — I did not fail 
in a single instance, to write and mail to Mr. Bliss, on 
the same day of the week, a letter containing 1,000 words, 


more or less, but, generally more; and even when I was 
on the high seas or doing political "stumping," I took 
time to write and mail that letter — on the ship or in a 


Every Christmas, he mailed me his check for fifty 
dollars, coupling with it a request that, I give $5.00 of it 
to my late beloved and regretted son, Theodore Bliss 
Green, named for him; and when he died, by the terms 
of his will, I received the sum of $500.00. 

Nearly all of my most readable books are testimon- 
ials of his bounty ; and in that sense, he was largely in- 
strumental in enriching my mind with English classic 
lore ; for, it is quite doubtful, whether I had the talent to 
select my necessary reading matter as he skilfully did. 

When I visited Philadelphia, his residence, in the 
fashionable part of the city, was my home ; and, although 
he could not even put on his eye-glasses or feed himself, 
yet, when I visited him, for a few hours, I was con- 
strained to dine with him and his good family; when he 
would be brought down from his room, and placed at the 
table ; a circumstance, I was informed, which very seldom 
took place. 

When he died, I was duly notified of the fact, by his 
daughter, by telegram ; and, at the funeral, I rode in one 
of the carriages, with members of his and George Bliss' 
family; at the home, I was treated, in all respects, as a 
gentleman and social equal. 

To my mind, the foregoing is a most remarkable in- 
stance, going to prove that, even in the face of race 
prejudice and caste, which, in some instances, is so dense 
that it can almost be felt, a colored person in the United 
States, can make a place for himself, in the hearts and 
homes of the foremost white citizens, by modest, respect- 
ful and honorable conduct, in his daily walk in life. The 


foregoing is not written boastfully, but, encouragingly, 
for the benefit of such of my class as have the ambition 
and persistency to make the test. 

I have, at my home, the copy of the Holy Bible, which 
Mr. Bliss kept near him, for his personal use, as long as 
he could turn the leaves of it. It was sent to me, by his 
children, after his death ; and, I treasure it more than I 
can tell. He was a good, benevolent man, with a mind 
clear and vigorous, even in his eighty-eighth year of age 
— when he was utterly helpless as to all his limbs, even 
down to his fingers ; by the assistance of others, he could 
read all the current literature ; and reflection was always 
with him. He died hating shams and dishonesty. 

I consider that I am honoring my class of colored 
Americans, in referring to The Rt. Reverend W. A. Leon- 
ard as our friend in need and indeed. 

We almost "crossed" each other, en route — he to 
Cleveland, to undertake his new and strenuous duties — 
I to Washington, where for years he had labored in the 
Vineyard and made his name, from the White House and 
Capitol down to the humblest Negro, a "household word." 
In my offices, where, as United States Postage Stamp 
Agent, I was in official touch with a number of most es- 
timable ladies, his good works were frequently mentioned, 
and his name was revered; so that, it is not to be won- 
dered at, that, on my return to Cleveland, after an ab- 
sence of nearly a decade, I lost no time in finding him and 
placing myself, as well as my family, under his spiritual 

Our good Bishop, who is known and esteemed all over 
the civilized portion of the globe, is regarded by those 
near him, as a man of great executive ability, a born 
leader of men, a true American, yet, cosmopolitan to the 
"backbone." He is possessed of a heart so large and a 


spirit so expanded, that, his sympathies for the needy 
are redundant, and his generosity, in behalf of the poor, 
is unbounded; and, these views are not restricted to the 
members and friends of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church 
(colored), of Cleveland, and St. Mary's Mission (colored), 
of Washington, D. C; but, by all colored people, who 
know him, without regard to their religious affiliations. 

I repeat the language of the late Mrs. John D. Rocke- 
feller, when speaking of her husband's relations to Spell- 
man Institute, of Atlanta, Ga. ; Bishop Leonard, for many 
years, literally, carried both of those colored churches 
"under his arm ;" and even today, since St. Andrew's has 
become, under the masterful guidance of Rev. B. Welling- 
ton Paxton and Rev. Fr. B. W. Suthern, her Rector, a 
self-sustaining church, our good Bishop relaxes not one 
whit of his paternal, loving, affectionate watchfulness. 

When it comes to a consideration of individuals, our 
Bishop is no respecter of persons; and has never been 
known, as I am informed, to call any man whom "God hath 
cleansed," common or unclean; and iri stating this fact, 
I speak entirely within my own personal observation and 

The readers of this narrative will bear in mind the 
letter of introduction given to me by our Bishop for pre- 
sentation to the Lord Bishop of London, an august and 
potential personage, in the personnel of the great Brit- 
ish Empire, how respectfully it referred to me, and what 
beautiful language it was couched in, so much so, indeed, 
that, the great prelate returned it to me, after reading 
and admiring it, to be kept as a souvenir of the memor- 
able conference which it procured for me with him. If 
any further proof were needed of the disinterested and 
loving personality of our dear Bishop, the following, I am 
sure, would satisfy everyone. 



3054 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland. 
Hon. J. P. Green, 

London, England. 
Dear Sir: — 

Many thanks for your kind note of March 9th, just received. 
I trust that, by this time, you have met the Lord Bishop of 
London; you will find him certainly, a very agreeable and inter- 
esting personality. 

You will be sorry to know that, dear Mrs. Mather has de- 
parted this life; and that, we buried her, six weeks ago. She 
was a saint, and universally beloved in the town which her pres- 
ence has graced and her benedictions have enriched. 

Faithfully yours, 


Can the writer conceive of any sentiments purer and 
more abounding in that divine love and friendship which 
flows only from the inspired service of our blessed 
Father in Heaven ? 

Now here is the last one, which I select from several 
communications with which our Bishop has kindly fa- 
vored me; and I include this only that I may follow it 
with the beautiful lines to which he refers : 


3054 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, O. 
Hon. John P. Green, 

Cleveland, 0. 
My Dear Friend: — 

It is very kind of you to send me this beautiful poem, which 
I herewith return; because, I know you will want to keep it. 

Surely, the gift of music is in the soul of the writer. What a 
privilege to have such friends and associates in life. 

As you are aware, the Rev. Mr. Suthern has agreed to come 
by the 15th of May, which I think is absolutely essential as far 
as our work is concerned. 

With all good wishes, I am, 

Faithfully yours, 
The poem referred to follows: 



For all who watch tonight, 

Whate'er the dread may be, 
We ask for them the perfect peace 

Of hearts that rest in Thee. 

For all who weep tonight — 

The hearts that cannot rest — 
Reveal thy love — that wondrous love 

Which gave for us Thy Best. 

For all who wake tonight, 

Love's tender watch to keep, 
Watcher Divine, Thyself draw nigh, 

Thou who dost never sleep. 

For all who fear tonight, 

Whate'er the dread may be, 
We ask for them thy perfect peace 

Of hearts that rest in Thee. 

Our own belov'd tonight — 

Father, keep, and where 
Our love and succor cannot reach, 

Now bless them through our prayer. 

And all who pray tonight — 

Thy wrestling hosts. O Lord, 
Make weakness strong, let them prevail, 

According to Thy Word. 

It may not be amiss to state, in this connection, that, 
inspired, by the guardian care and the spiritual example 
of Bishop Leonard and the faithful pastors whom he has 
placed over us, I have added to the six years of unfail- 
ing attendance at St. Luke's Church, in Washington, D. 
C, fourteen other years, since our return to Cleveland; 
making twenty years, in all, since I have missed a morn- 
ing service, when in Cleveland ; and that during the same 
period of time, I have not been one minute late. By the 
courtesy of our Rectors, I officiate as Lay Reader, dur- 
ing their absence or sickness; and during one "interreg- 
num," or spring and summer, I discharged the duties of 
a Lay Reader, until a Rector was obtained. It is unnecs- 
sary, perhaps to say, "I Love Thy Church Lord!" 


During my long residence, of sixty-three years, in 
the city of Cleveland, excepting several periods of time, 
when absent on business or pleasure bent, it has been my 
good fortune to become acquainted, to a greater or less 
degree, with a large number of very prominent gentle- 
men and ladies, of both races, some of whom I have al- 
ready referred to in a casual way ; and since some of these 
have, in many ways, contributed largely, towards such 
success as I have attained to, it would seem that, in this, 
my life's story, I should, at least, mention a few of them 
by name ; nor am I quite certain that, were I to acquaint 
them with this intention on my part, they would yield 
their consent ; since, in only a few instances, have I been 
received by them in their homes or as personal domestic 

However, since I have only good to speak of them, I 
will "draw my bow at a venture." In every instance 
where, in the following, I shall submit the copy of a let- 
ter, I shall retain, in my possession, the original, for the 
inspection of anyone who may desire to read it. The 
first one, is from the late President James A. Garfield, to 
whose residence in Mentor, I conducted a delegation of 
three hundred colored voters, at a time in his presidential 
campaign, when it was easily apparent that, he needed 
votes. The book to which he refers in the letter is one 
which I hurriedly wrote, to be used, to some extent, in 
that same campaign; and, while I secured a "copy-right," 
in the Congressional Library, yet, it was anonymously 
issued. The title of the book is, "Recollections of the 

Mr. J. P. Green, Mentor, Ohio, Aug. 22, 1880. 

My dear Sir: — 

Mr. Sherwin kindly loaned me a copy of your book, a few 
days ago, and though I did not have the time to read it in full, 
I looked it over carefully and was much pleased to see a subject of 
such importance so well handled. 

Congratulating you upon your success, I am, 

Very truly yours, 


The next letter which I shall submit is from the late 
Senator, Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of 
State, John Sherman. The last time this great states- 
man was elected to the United States Senate, I, as a mem- 
ber of the Ohio Senate, had the honor of voting for him. 
I have hanging near me now, a portrait of him, presented 
by him to me, with his autograph subscribed. 


Dec. 18. 1893. 
To whom it may concern: 

I take pleasure in commending Hon. John P. Green, now a 
member of the Senate of Ohio, from the City of Cleveland, to the 
kindly favor of Americans abroad, with whom he may come in 
contact. He is a man of literary attainments — a good speaker, of 
excellent character and standing, and influential among the col- 
ored people of Ohio. 

Very respectfully, 


The third letter is one recently received from ex-Gov- 
ernor Myron T. Herrick, more recently, Ambassador to 
France, whose signal and very valuable services not more 
to France and the Allies than to the United States, have 
gained for him not only universal approbation, but also, 
the respect and love of many. 


July 22d, 1919. 
Dear Mr. Green: — 

I was deeply touched by your most kind letter of reminisces. 

I well remember you when you came to Col's nasty old law 

offices, long, long ago. You were a young, earnest man; and you 

have fulfilled the promise of those years of your adolescence, To 

be a valuable man, for your city and your country. 

I congratulate you upon your anniversary; for, you have 
been an honor to the city of your choice for sixty-two years, as 
you will be until the end of your days. "Long and late may be 
the day. Thank you for your letter, I appreciated it deeply. 


The following letter is from the pen of the late Book- 
er T. Washington, who needs no introduction, anywhere 
in the civilized world. 



June 15, 1914. 
To whom it may concern: 

This is to state that, I have known, for a number of years, 
The Hon. John P. Green of Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Green has held several important public positions, both 
in the State and National government. Besides, in his profes- 
sion as a lawyer, he stands eminently higb, and, as a public speaker, 
he is a man who commands the highest respect and who makes an 
address which is instructive, inspiring and interesting. 

He knows the condition of the Negro race, in this country, 
and can be depended upon to give interesting information concern- 
ing the progress of our race. 

I commend him to all into whose hands this letter may fall. 

The next letter is from Mr. Daniel Murray (colored) , 
Assistant Librarian of the Congressional Library, who is 
stationed in the Capitol, during the sessions of Congress, 
where his position is absolutely unique; for the reason 
that, he can furnish precedents and other information to 
senators and representatives when in the act of speaking, 
on any reasonable subject of past legislation: 


Sept. 20th, 1915. 
My dear Friend Green: 

I am very glad to receive your communication and will avail 
myself of the data, in perfecting my sketch of you. I had already 
gathered much concerning your wonderful career, but, am no less 
grateful to receive this supplementary data. 

I hope our friend Geo. A. (referring to Mr. George A. Myers, 
ef Cleveland, Ohio), is all right. I note what you say of the 
Labor Day matter. I have already given you credit for introduc- 
ing and having passed the Ohio le^iolaton, making the day a legal 
holiday. * * * * The "Eagle," a local, published here, has an edi- 
torial on a visit made to you, in Cleveland. 
It is well written and fully deserved. 

Wishing you every blessing and long life to enjoy the same, 
I beg to remain, 

Very sincerely yours, 
To Hon. John Patterson Green, Cleveland, O. 

The following letter is from Rev. Charles F. Thwing, 
D. D.,' President of Western Reserve University, Adel- 
bert College, Cleveland, Ohio, and speaks for itself: 


May 6, 1916. 
My dear Mr. Green: 

It is kind in you to write me as you do, and to let me share 
•with you in the pleasure of these letters, of Mr. Bliss and Mr. 

At the present moment, there is no opportunity. In fact also 
the larger share of our special lectures, for the next college year, 
have been arranged. But, at some time, I am sure a fitting op- 
portunity will open for you to come to us. When this opportunity 
does open, I shall give myself the pleasure of inviting you. 

I wish that we might meet oftener. We have so many great 
subjects, in common, to talk about. 

Believe me, 

Ever yours, 

John P. Green, Esquire. 

Here is another: 


Cleveland, O., Dec. 19th, 1893. 
This is to certify that Hon. John P. Green, member of the 
Ohio Senate, has been, for many years, a resident of Cleveland, 
of good standing in the community. 

He is a lawyer, by profession, a contributor to journals and 
magazines, aad enjoys an excellent reputation, as a public 

He is also, deservedly entitled to praise for his intelligent 
industry, and credit for his ability I cheerfully commend Mr. 
Green to the courtesies of those whom he may meet. 


I have the honor to submit the following, from one 
of the judges of our Court of Common Pleas: 

Thomas M. Kennedy, Judge. 

Cleveland, Ohio, June 22, 1914. 
To Whom It May Concern: 

I have known Mr. John P. Green, for thirty years, and can 
certify that he has borne an excellent character as a lawyer and 
a citizen, both in private and public life, during all of that time. 

He has been signally honored by his state and nation, and 
has rendered distinguished services to the public, for many years. 
He is an eloquent and graceful speaker, at the bar and on 
the public platform, and a man cf high character and unques- 
tioned integrity. 

Very respectfully, 


In addition to the foregoing, I have letters, highly 
complimentary, from judges, governors, United States 
senators and very prominent business men; but, I feel 
sure, my readers will have been quite surfeited with what 
I have already given. I shall include two others, how- 
ever, as they are from men of universal note, and, I think, 
will be appreciated. 

The first is from the late Frederick Douglas, a man 
born and raised (I cannot say reared, of a person who by 
the law of the land and by his treatment was a mere 
chattel), in slavery; who carried on his back the scars 
of the "driver's" whip ; who had one of his eyes blinded ; 
who never attended school a day, in his whole life; and, 
yet, was the associate of eminent scholars and officials, 
and was noted, the world over, as an orator, statesman 
and philosopher. The letter follows : 

Anacostia, D. C, March 6, 1893. 
My dear Mr. Green: 

I am pleased to know that you are about to treat yourself to 
a tour abroad. 

There was a time when I could have assisted you in the man- 
ner you suggest, but that was nearly fifty years ago. I went to 
England in 1845; then I knew John Bright, Richard Cobden, George 
Thompson, Joseph Sturge, George W. Alexander and many other 
influential men; but, now, all are gone; and I alone am left to 
tell this. 

You will take with you my high regards and best wishes for 
your safety and happiness while on sea and land, and a warm wel- 
come home, when you shall return. 

Though I know but few in England now, there are many who 
know of me; and you may, perhaps, use my name to some with 
whom you may meet. 

Your friend, 

The following letter, from Dr. John Clifford, D. D., 
LL. D., is in answer to an invitation mailed to him by 
me, in the summer of 1911, when he made his last visit 
to this country, asking him to spend a few days, at least, 
in our great City of Cleveland: 



Philadelphia, Pa., June 24, 1011. 
Many thanks, my dear friend, for your letter. 
It is refreshing to hear from you in your own land. I wish 
I could come and see you. It would be a great joy to me to come 
to Cleveland; but, I have not a spare day; nor can I make one. 

It was a real pleasure to meet Mr. Rockefeller; and the short 
chat I had with him was most pleasant. Please remember us to 
Mrs. Green, and accept the assurance of my keen regret that I 
cannot see you. We are having a grand time here, thanks to 
the over-flowing generosity of our American friends. 

I am truly yours, 


In closing the foregoing letter, may I not add, that, 
prior to the World War, Dr. Clifford was reputed to be 
the most influential man in Great Britain — the Prime Min- 
ister, alone, being excepted. 

In view of the fact that the writer of the following 
letter has, recently, been nominated by the great Repub- 
lican party as its standard bearer, for the high office of 
President of the United States, and the omens for his 
election all seem auspicious, I am of opinion it will be 
read with a very great degree of interest. 

The circumstances which caused Senator Harding to 
write me this letter as far back as the latter part of De- 
cember, 1918, a year and a half before his nomination, 
are as follows: 

I wrote a letter to Mr. Dan R. Hanna, protesting 
against the apparent efforts of himself and other great 
men of the country looking towards the nomination of 
the late, lamented ex-President Theodore Roosevelt for 
the presidency, in 1920. A copy of which I mailed to 
Senator Harding, at Washington, enclosing with the same 
a letter to the Senator, in which I suggested that he, and 
not the distinguished ex-President, was the logical and 
probable nominee for president, in 1920. 

To this communication, I received the following let- 
ter, from Senator Harding : 


Committee on Commerce. 

December 27th, 1918. 
Mr. John P. Green, 

510 Blackstone Bldg., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
My dear Mr. Green: 

Thank you very much for your note and the copy of the 
letter which you wrote to Mr. Hanna, under recent date. 

This is all very interesting to me. I know Mr. Hanna is a 
very great and enthusiastic supporter of Colonel Roosevelt; and 
I happen to know that Roosevelt's candidacy for the Republican 
nomination in 1920 is being very vigorously pushed along. I do 
not pretend to say who will be the best standard bearer for 1920. 
Many things may happen before that time arrives. It will not 
surprise me if we choose our standard bearer with some very 
serious consideration of the conditions which obtain at that time. 
I think I ought to say to you that, I have no ambition of my 
own to serve in this matter. I do hope the Republican party will 
be wise enough to pursue the only course which will insure to ws 
the recovery of federal control. 

I thank you for your interest and your friendly attitude. 
Wishing you a very happy New Year, I am 

Very truly yours, 

An incident of a political nature, in which the late 
Tom L. Johnson was the central figure, may be of inter- 
est to some of the readers of this narrative. 

Considerable interest centered around the congres- 
sional contest between this distinguished Clevelander and 
Theodore E. Burton, Esq., (now ex-Senator Burton), 
when they were opposed to each other for election, some 
thirty years ago. The late H. T. Eubanks, then head 
waiter at the Weddell House, and subsequently, a mem- 
ber of the lower house of the General Assembly, found 
much favor in the sight of Mr. Johnson ,and even vol- 
unteered his services in assisting him in gaining the 
good will of the colored voters of Cleveland; and, as a 
means to that end, prevailed upon Mr. Johnson to invite 
this writer and The Honorable Harry C. Smith, the author 
of the Ohio Civil Rights Law, to debate with him all 
matters of interest to the colored voters, involved in the 
pending congressional election. As a matter of course, 


we accepted the invitation; and, on the appointed evening, 
in Mr. Johnson's big tent, pitched within our Public 
Square, we "locked horns" (I say "locked horns" advised- 
ly), for, it was some contest, and we fought it out to a 
finish. Where the victory and honor lay, is not for me 
to say ; but, this much I will affirm ; Mr. Johnson was de- 
feated, at the polls; and the late W. J. Akers, for many 
years, proprietor of the Forest City House, (one of the 
leading hotels of Cleveland), was accustomed to say, that. 
prior to that debate, Mr. Johnson's prospects for election 
were good; but, that, from that night, those of Mr. Bur- 
ton were in the ascendant. 

Mr. Akers contended that, in that meeting, Mr. John- 
son became the butt and jeer of the crowd in attendance ; 
that, the humor spread throughout the district, to the 
discomfiture of the noted gentleman. 

However, Tom L. Johnson was too big a man to com- 
plain; he accepted his defeat philosophically and sought. 
like another Alexander, some new world (rail-way) to 

In the year 1897, before answering the call of Presi- 
dent McKinley, to take office at Washington, I, for the 
first time since 1857, visited my childhood's home. Few 
of those whom we had left there, were still living; but. 
the Neuse and Trent rivers were there, some of the more 
substantial buildings were there and quite a number of 
the humbler homes. The old court house, market house 
and Christ Episcopal Church, had been destroyed by fire : 
but, upon the whole, the general appearance of the town 
denoted progress. 

In Rock Cemetery, I found our lot intact, and the in- 
scriptions on the family "tombstones" and others, were 
still legible. 

I had the great pleasure of delivering an address, in 
one of the A. M. E. churches there, to a large audience 


of colored people ; and many reminiscences of the past in- 
terested and instructed me. 

In referring to my visit to my old Newberne home, 
in 1897, I am moved to make reference to a "grand old 
man" — "to the manor born," as the saying goes, who 
received me into his home, for an interesting and (to me) 
instructive conversation, full of reminiscences of my 
childhood days ; and who gave me the greater part of the 
data concerning the Stanley family, which I have related 
in the beginning of the first chapter. I refer to the late 
Colonel John D. Whitford, who during a long, long life 
of usefulness had contributed towards the growth and 
prosperity of his native town and state. 

Col. Whitford, if I mistake not, was the first presi- 
dent of the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, which 
extended from Goldsboro to Elizabeth City, and did 
much towards putting Newberne "on the map." 

Speaking of social politeness and courtesy, Colonel 
Whitford said to me: "A young man called on me, re- 
cently; and, in conversation with me, in answer to one, 
of my questions, he said 'uh huh!' I said there's my 
door: I'll have no one in my house who 'uh huh's me!" 
Such was the "old time gentleman." His kindhearted 
brother, the late William Whitford, during mother's he- 
roic struggle for a livelihood, used to credit her for a 
cord of fire-wood, and then give her sewing to pay for it. 

I have written this narrative of my life, down to the 
present date in the Blackstone Building, during the 
months of December, 1919, and January and February, 
1920, inclusive, during such vacant spaces of time as I 
have been able to snatch from the hours of my profes- 
sional employment. The building in which my son, Cap- 
tain William R. Green and I have our offices, is the first 
modern building in which we have been enabled to rent 
a suite of offices, without the intervention of a white 
man, since we have been in the profession ; which fact in- 


spires me with a desire to, here and now, express deep 
gratitude to Mr. Jacob B. Perkins, the owner of the 
group of great buildings, of which this is one, and also 
his noble son, Captain Ralph Perkins, his father's alter 
ego, for their liberal, manly- American treatment of us. 

During my long and eventful life in Cleveland, it has 
been my pleasure — and profit, more or less, to meet, in a 
business and political way, five members of the illustri- 
ous family — Perkins; who, leaving their New England 
homes, in the infancy of our great Republic, came to this 
Connecticut Western Reserve, and have done their 
"bit" towards making it one of the most liberal, intelli- 
gent, patriotic and wealthy sections in the United States. 

I first came in contact with the late Edwin R. Per- 
kins, when, in the year 1858, he was principal of the his- 
toric Mayflower School. I am sure that the juxtaposition 
of his ferrule and my body, had as much to do with my 
future development as any and all the instruction which I 
received from him in the class room. This Mr. Perkins, 
who is distantly related to the gentleman whose name, I 
have mentioned, was, subsequently, President of our 
Board of Education for a decade; and, ultimately devel- 
oped into the president of one of our great banks and 
a railway. 

My next acquaintance was that of the late Joseph 
Perkins; a gentleman of refinement, large means and ex- 
tended business connections; he was one of the foremost 
minds of the City of Cleveland, during his life-time; and 
died regretted by the whole business community. 

Third, in order, of my acquaintance, was the late 
Senator Henry B. Perkins, whom I met in the Senate of 
the State of Ohio, when he was an honored and very effi- 
cient member of that body; this was at a time when I 
was a member of the lower branch of the General As- 
sembly of Ohio. The senator was held in high esteem by 
everyone in the State House, from the Governor down to 


the pages ; and was greatly missed when his business af- 
fairs would no longer admit of his attendance there. The 
large and substantial business block, on the southeastern 
corner of Frankfort Ave. and West 3d Street, built and 
owned by him, and now occupied by the Forman Bassett 
Company, attests how near and valuable he was to the 
business interests of Cleveland. 

Last, but by no means least, I mention my present 
benefactor — Mr. Jacob B. Perkins; not forgetting 
that "chip off the old block," his worthy son, Captain 
Ralph Perkins. 

I have only that mutual acquaintance with Mr. Per- 
kins which exists between a landlord and a tenant, if I 
except the frequent complimentary mention of him, which 
I have read in the newspapers, from time to time. 

When, under the administration of President Mc- 
Kinley, I went to take office, in Washington, D. C, my 
exterior wearing apparel consisted of a "broadcloth" 
"Prince Albert" coat, with trousers and vest to match — 
a„ shirt front of immaculate white, containing a conspicu- 
ous diamond stud, and a silk hat. I had not been there 
long before I noticed that I was dressed finer and was 
far more conspicuous than most of the senators and cabi- 
net officers. It took little time for me to change my 
costume, for one more in keeping with the prevailing 

I mention this fact because of the surprise which I 
experienced when Mr. Jacob B. Perkins was first pointed 
out to me; from the works which he had done and the 
great liberality he had shown, in providing the City of 
Cleveland its first modern office and other buildings, with 
elevators, and its great and beautiful Edgewater Park, 
located on the "West Side," but, really and practically, 
used and enjoyed by the whole city, I had expected to 
see a gentleman conspicuous for his elegant and attrac- 
tive attire, but what was my surprise when I beheld just 


a plain gentleman, reproducing- in his personal appear- 
ance what I had beheld in the capital of our nation and 
amongst the business men of some of the commercial 
centers which I had visited — plain, practical, easily ap- 
proached, and, apparently, oblivious of the fact that, he 
is one of the great builders of this mart of commerce and 
trade, known as the City of Cleveland — rightly, the fifth 
in this great nation. 

Mr. Perkins, whether actuated by modesty, I cannot 
say, will not admit that he donated Edgewater Park to 
the City of Cleveland; but, this I know (for it all was 
accomplished while I was politically in the public eye), 
if Mr. Jacob B. Perkins did not actually present to the 
City of Cleveland the land and beautiful lake front which 
constitutes the Edgewater Park — he did present a portion 
of it, and made it possible for our city to obtain the re- 
mainder on terms which necessitated a great financial 
sacrifice on his part. And it ought, in my own estimation, 
to be named for him, just as Wade Park, Gordon Park 
and Rockefeller Park are, respectively named for their 

However, Mr. Perkins harks back to that old Simon 
Perkins, who, when everything here and here-abouts was 
young and "raw," came like Moses Cleveland as a sur- 
veyor, and by buying spacious tracts of land, laid the 
foundation for the future welfare and fame of his poster- 
ity. May the name Perkins continue illustrious, and their 
shadows, never grow less! 

Seventy years have elapsed since my dear father 
died, in 1850, leaving Sarah, 11 years of age; John, 5, 
and Kittie, nine months of age. Today we are all living 
and able to help ourselves; nor have we, during the sev- 
enty years, last past, been afflicted with any serious com- 
plaint — a record, I think for which we should be praising- 
God, "all the day long." 


My first dear wife, Annie Walker Green, the mother 
of all my children, with whom I lived happily and suc- 
cessfully, for forty-three years, and whose memory will 
ever be sacredly cherished in my heart and memory, died 
on the 15th day of January, 1911, deeply mourned by a 
large circle of friends, of both races. She will be re- 
membered by many for her unselffish generosity and her 
cheerful disposition. 

When she died, my whole family was dissolved; and 
I was left entirely alone and— lonesome ; in this exigency, 
remembering the declaration of the Almighty Father of 
all, that, "It is not good that man should be left alone," 
1 wooed and won a most estimable and talented lady of 
Oberlin, Ohio, in the person of Mrs. Lottie Mitchell 
Richardson, with whom I am passing the evening of my 
life, in a most happy and satisfactoiy manner; she was 
the relict of the late Albert Richardson, an educated and 
highly respected gentleman, who, cut off in the noon day 
of his usefulness, left under the care, education and con- 
trol of his widow, three infant children, aged 11 and 6 
years and 4 months. Two of these children are still liv- 
ing; the boy, Fred, a bright and promising lad, when in 
his 17th year of age, and a member of the Glenville High 
School, was run down by an automobile, in charge of a 
careless, reckless driver, and killed, when in the act of 
alighting from a street-car. The elder of the girls, after 
being graduated from the Cleveland High, and normal 
school systems, taught school in Cleveland for three 
years and is now engaged in Social Welfare work in New 
York City; while the youngest child, Helen, is at this 
writing, well advanced in the Junior High School system ; 
and, by her punctuality and love of letters, gives promise 
of a bright and useful future. 

Helen has adopted the family name. Green, and the 
love between her and me, is mutual. 


Of my children by my first wife, three are still living. 
The oldest, Captain William R. Green, is still engaged in 
the practice of law, being recognized as an upright, suc- 
cessful practitioner, earnest and faithful, while he and 
his beloved wife, Mrs. Agnes Geraldine Green, of whom I 
have spoken, in the XVI Chapter of this narrative, are 
greatly beloved by a large circle of friends of both races, 
in the City of Cleveland. They are both, devout Catholics. 

Mrs. Clara Annie Johnson, the wife of Dr. C. C. 
Johnson, a pharmacist, who is most loving and devoted 
to his wif e and children, is my only daughter. Three little 
children bless this union — Phillis, aged 11 years; Wen- 
dell C, aged 6 years, and Theodore Green Johnson, aged, 
at this writing, 14 days. Little Phillis is fond of her 
school and studies, and gives great promise of a literary 
eareer; while the little boy, also loves his school and is a 
thorough boy; as for the latest little arrival, let us say 
with Wadsworth — 

"Heaven lies about us in our infancy; 
At length, the man perceives it die away, 
And fade into the light of common day." 

Clara, my daughter, is endued with all those womanly 
graces, which go to enhance the usefulness and value of 
true womanhood. 

Jesse Bishop Green is a chef — and a good one, whose 
culinary art has brought pleasure to some of the most 
exacting of the land. He is fond of his profession — or 
art — and may the future crown him with success. 

Of those who died in infancy, little Johnnie was 
loving and hopeful; but death claimed him when he was 
8 years and seven months of age. 

In this connection, perhaps, the following reminis- 
cence, concerning one of our local artists will be of in- 
terest to a large circle of his friends and admirers: I 
refer to A. M. Willard, Esq., the painter of "Pluck Num- 


ber One," and "Pluck Number Two." Two famous 
sketches, which, a generation ago, furnished much amuse- 
ment to the people of this country; and also the inspira- 
tion and painter of the great canvas, known the world 
over, entitled, "Yankee Doodle," first exhibited at the 
Centennial, which was held in Philadelphia, in 1876, to 
celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the Indepen- 
dence of the United States. 

When our son Johnnie died, we had no likeness of 
him, later than the second year of his age, and we were 
at a loss to know how to obtain one, as he was then, eight 
years and seven months of age; in that contingency, it 
occurred to me that, if I could persuade Mr. Willard to 
enter the vault and sketch his features as he lay in the 
casket, it would supply the deficit. 

The great artist yielded to my suggestion, and got a 
good likeness of the little deceased boy. 

Then, we were in a quandary, as to how to reproduce 
his eyes, for they were closed and could not be seen by 
the artist. In that extremity, I had recourse to a photo 
of the child, taken when he was two years of age; and 
with this before him, Mr. Willard, added the eyes to the 
sketch ; and, to this day, we have in our possession a true 
likeness of Johnnie, at the time of his death. 

Truman Handy Green, a dear sweet little boy, lived 
only about seven months. 

Last, but, not least, I name my son, the late Theodore 
Bliss Green, Esq., an attorney at law of the Ohio Bar, a 
married man, a loving husband and affectionate son and 
brother. "Dode," as his very large circle of friends and 
admirers termed him, was jovial, good natured, faithful 
and industrious, to a fault; he loved his chosen profes- 
sion; and courted it as Lord Coke's "jealous mistress." 
A year or two before his death he came within about 
one hundred votes of being elected to a six-year term as 
a judge of our municipal court. 



"Dode" was so extremely militant in behalf of the 
rights and wrongs of the colored people, that some re- 
garded him as being super-sensitive, and did not like 
him; but that did not worry him; when he believed that 
his cause was just, he fought for it — manfully and per- 
sistently, to the end. 

Theodore died at the age of 40 years, young in years, 
but old in labours and experience. He left behind him 
only friends, no enemies. His disconsolate widow, Mrs. 
Edna Jenkins Green, still a young woman, a teacher in 
our public schools, continues to mourn his loss ; while his 
father, brothers and sister, pray for the repose of his 

In closing this narrative, I will state that, the re- 
ports, which, from time to time have been current as to 
my acquaintance with the classical languages and litera- 
ture have been much exaggerated; the fact is, that, I 
cannot even boast of Shakespeare's "little Latin and less 
Greek;" the best I can say for myself is, that, I have 
a mere "smattering" of the two languages. I tried to 
study Latin without a teacher, and thereby omitted some 
of the fundamental instruction, at the beginning, which 
has handicapped me all the way through. As for Greek, 
I did not give enough time to the study of it to get it 
thoroughly within my grasp. I have tried to make up for 
my loss by studying during my later years ; but, without 
much success. As for French, I have found the reading 
of that beautiful language comparatively easy; but, I 
am now reading one of Emile Zola's works, entitled La 
Terre, quite bucolic in its nature, which requires much 
use of the lexicon. 

So I would advise all my young friends who may hon- 
or me by reading this story of my life, to be quite 
thorough in the early stages of any study ; if they expect 
to be proficient therein. 


The changes which have transformed a few compara- 
tively ignorant colored people of the day of my arrival 
here, into a multitude of cultured and refined persons of 
the present day, have been truly marvelous. Certainly, 
there were in Cleveland at that time a cultured and re- 
fined society of well-to-do colored people, who owned 
their own homes — possessed trades and definite occupat- 
ions and were fairly well educated; but they had not 
even thought of holding public offices, and depended upon 
a decision of our state Supreme Court for the right to 
vote — since the Constitution of the State of Ohio, then 
— as now — restricted the electoral to "all white male citi- 
zens;" but, since then, we have many times duplicated 
our numbers — have grown along intellectual, esthetic and 
financial lines, have added to our numbers many mem- 
bers in all the professional, artistic and mercantile pur- 
suits, and have been elected to serve in some of the most 
honorable public offices within the gift of a generous 

In the General Assembly of the State, we can name, 
in tiie regular order of their election, the following: 
1 — The writer of this narrative, 
2 — Honorable Jere A. Brown, 
3 — Honorable Harry C. Smith, 
4— Honorable William H. Clifford, 
5 — Honorable Henry T. Eubanks. 
In 1873 and continuously, until 1882, this writer was 
elected, tri-ennially, and for mne consecutive years, dis- 
charged the functions of Justice of the Peace of Cleve- 
land Township ; and during a portion of that time, Messrs. 
Parker Hare, Louis W. Turner and J. H. Washington — 
all colored men, were elected and discharged the duties of 
constable, in the same township. 

Thomas W. Fleming, Esq., a colored gentleman of 
great popularity and much executive ability, has, on three 


occasions, been elected a member of the Council of the 
City of Cleveland ; once, at Large. 

Mr. Fleming is, at this writing, chairman of the 
Council Committee on Police, etc. 

Numerous men of our race-class have been appointed, 
and most of them are now serving on our splendid police 
force; and what seems to this narrator one of the great- 
est achievements of our class, in Cleveland, is the fact 
that many of our educated, cultured and refined daugh- 
ters, after strict examinations, have been appointed 
teachers, in our public schools. 

Along the line of journalism, for many years, the 
colored people of Cleveland, have been represented by 
men of more or less ability, all of whom have rung true 
to the interests of our race. Taking them in order of 
time, I can now recall: H. C. Smith, R. A. Jones, L. W. 
Pulies, Welcome T. Blue, Nahum D. Brasher, Ormond A, 
Forte and "Professor" S. William, A. B. 

Could some of our old colored pioneers, who have 
gone to rest, come amongst us today, and note the won- 
derful progress which we have made, since their day — 
notably — old Father John Malvin, who gave of his time, 
money and almost, his life, in the anti-slavery cause, and 
Allen Medlin, J, R. Warren, Elisha Freeman, Benjamin 
S. Green, David Crosby, J. H. Weaver, Cicero M. Rich- 
ardson, George Vosburgh, Elders J. R. Warren and J, 
P. Underwood; Buckner and John Simmons, E. L. Sweet, 
and dear old centennarian, Mrs. Polly Simmons, not to 
mention many others, who did right valiantly in 
the cause of liberty, good government and worthy citi- 
zenship, how surprised and happy they would be! 

Truly, "This is the Lord's doing; it is marvelous in 
our eyes. 




Abbey, Westminster, 
Academy, Green, 
Adams, Seymour F., 117 
Adelphi (Hotel), 224 
Adnette, Dr., 224 
Adrian & Vallers, 131, 3, 4 
Akers, W. J., 349 
Alexander, John W. 
Allen, Senator, 144 
Allen, Temple, 108 
Allen, Ex-Governor, 156 
Alston, Rev. W. J., 15, 80, 110 
Alston, Oscar, 16 
Alston, Miss Mary, 80 
Alstons, The, 220 
Angier House, 60, 94 
Andersonville Prison, 96 
Andrews, Horace, 111 
Appian Way, 298 
Arnette, Bishop B. W., 179 
Atkinson, Rt. Rev., 13 
Augustus Caesar, 299 
Auntie Little, 27, 49 

Baptist Church, First, 61 

Baptist Church, Second- 6i 

Baldwin, E I., 107 

Bamfido, 306 

Baker, Hon. Newton D., 176, 177 

Babcock, Judge W. A., 163, 164, 65 
;B arris, Miss Emma G., Ill 
Saird, Samuel H., 91 
Bassett, C. O., Ill 
Bede, "Granny," 6 
Beecher, Henry Ward, 2-31 
Bethel Church, 58, 65 
Bennett, James Gordon, 306 
Bennettsville, 8, 126, 141, 145 
Benachie, "Old," 257 
Beltz, Edward, 166 
Berce, General, 116 
Bishop, Judge Jesse P., 117, 120 
Birch Hotel, 114 

Birch, Father, 114 

Bislette, Mgr., 302 

Bittinger, Rev. Mr., 87 

Blair, Mr., 9 

Blarney Stone, 168, 326 

Bliss, Theodore, 108, 109, 110. 385 

Bliss, George, 108, 336, 337 

Bliss, Anna Catherine, 335 

Bloch, Hon. J. C, 199 

Blee, Mayor Robert, 345 

Blue, Mr. Welcome, 359 

Booth, J. Wilkes, 59 

Boswell, James, 238 

Bokive, John Knox, 246 

Bohm, Ed., Esq., 159 

Boehne, Esq., 159 

Boniface, Pope, IV., 299 

Boiden, "Mother," 304 

Bragg, Cicero and Edwin, 30 

Brinsmade, Miss Eliza, 75 

Brasher, Nahum, 359 

Brinsmade, Col. Allan T., 75 


Brush, Chas. F„ 111, 308 

Brewington, Wm. R., 125, 6, 127, 

132, 134 
Brewington, "Jim," 125 
Brewington, John R„ 132, 133 
Brewington, Mollie, 132 
Brunner, Hon., 177 
Brown, Hon. Jere A., 181, 358 
Brown, Rev. J. T., 278 
Brougham Lord, 184 
Bruce, Robert, 236 
Bruce, Blanche K., 276 
Bright, John, 239 
Brown, Fayette F., 90 
Brown, John Box, 242 
Buxten, Rev. Dr., 13 
Buchanan, James, 44 
Burnette, Judge M. C, 286 
Burnette, House. 189 
Burton, Sen. T. E., 152, 348 
Burke, Judge Simmond, 162 
Bunnell, "Muck," 170 
Byron, Lord, 212 
Burns, Bobby, 238 


— c— 

Catacombes of Calixtus, 297, 299 

Carnegie, Andrew, 243 

Cardozo, Henry, 93 

Carter, Sophia', 147, 150 

Caine, Hon. A. C, 204, 205 

Calhon, John C, 156 

Carran, John J., Esq., 152, 169 

Carran, Thomas, Esq., 152 

Carpenter, Frank G., 157 

Caesar, Julius, 286, 298 

Callixtus, Saint, 2299 

Caesar, Augustus, 299 

Canon Gate, 244 

Carlyle, Thomas, 144, 238 

Carrubbers Close, 243 

Caroline Queen, 184 

Campbell, Gov. J. E., 189, 190 

Calton, Hill, 244 

Central High School, 61, 112. 77 

Cheatam, Ex. M. C, 257 

Chandler, Frank, 81 

Chase. W. Calvin, 276 

Chance, M. O., 272 

Chesnutt, A. J., 47 

Chesnutt, Chas. W., Esq., 125, 147 

Chestnut, of Sampson Co., 6 

Chestnut, Obedience, 6 

Chestnut, Alice, 6 

Chestnut, William, 6 

Chapel Hill, N. C, 16 

Christian, Oeorsre B.. 81 

Clark, Wm. T., 150, 154, 190 

Cleveland, Moses, 353 

Clay, Henry, 2, 156 

Cleveland, Ohio, 64, 65, 71, 73 

Clifford, Hon. Wm. H., 192, 358 

Clifford, Rev. Dr., 225, 230, 233, 

234, 346 
Clinton Park, 61 
Coliseum. Roman, 296 
Cook, 308 

Covert, Hon. John C, 153 
Colthurst, Sir George, 327 
Cowles, Hon. Edwin, lg3 
Cobb, Jas. A., Esq., 2276 
Cortelyou, Hon. Geo. B., 278 
Commercial Hotel, 79 
Cooley, Hon. Harris R., 282 
Constantine, The Emperor, 298 
Coxie, Michael, 312 
Cobden, Richard 
Couldock, An Actor, 59 


Coates, Cullem, Esq., 118 
Cook, Frank 139 
Covington, Harris, Esq., 142 
Cope, Hon. Oliver G., 173 
Combes, Florine A., 185 
Cork, Ireland, 326 
Conkling, Ben Roscoe, 237 
Crosby, David 
Creighton, Col., 95 
Cromwell, Oliver, 330 
Crane, Lieut. Col., 95 
Crossland, John W., 139 
Crowell, Gen. John, 118, 119 
Cushing, W. E., Esq., Ill, 112 
Curtiss, Councilman, 74, 191 

— D— 

Dartmouth College, 74 

Daily News. London, 266 

Dale, Dr. Ellis A., 125 

David, King, 244 

Dall, James. 81 

Dall, Andrew, 81 

Dancev, John C, 267, 276 

Davids, "Old Man," 80 

Dewhurst, Miss Anna, 90 

DeWitt, J. H., 101, 102 

DeWolf, Homer B., Esq., 154, 

155, 183. 
DeStael, Madame, 297 
Dick, Senator Chas., 218 
Dick, "Old," 45 
Dickinson, Miss Anna, 59 
Dickens, Chas., 307 
Douglass, Frederick, 12, 24, 231, 

241, 346. 
Douglass. Chas. and Lewis, 276 
Donald. Judge John R., 27, 28, 48 
Doublerbv Sleeper, 57. 102 
Dover, Hon. Elmer, 268 
Dred, Scott. 2?1 
Dublin, Ireland, 331, 332 
Dudlev, Col. C. W., 145 
Dundee, Scotland, 248 
Duncan, Rev.. 253 
Dunmauvier, Author, 322 
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 276 

— E— 

Eaton, General, 211 
Easterly. Joel-, Esq., 1422 
Edwards, S. J., Ceelstin. 225, 234 

Eddy, S. M., 154 

Edwards, Gen. Clarence R., 272, 

Eells, Mrs. Dan P., 115 
Eells, Dan P., 107, 114, 115 
ElCaney, Cuba, 271 
Eells, Rev. Jas., 104 
Ellis, Miss Arete, 25 
Ely, Senator Geo. A., 
Ellsler, John A., 59 
Ellsler, Mrs. Effie, 59 
Emmanuel, Victor, 299 
Eubanks, Henry T., 348, 358 
Estep, Judge Chas. J., 284 
Everett, K. G., 228 
Evans, Capt. W. B., 276 
Evans, Capt. W. B., 276 
Evans, DeScott, 168, 169 
Ewing, Harrison J., 183 

— F— 
Farmer, Mrs. Lydia Hoyt, 85 
Fabius, 299 

Farrelly, Rt. Rev. John P., 301 
Farrar, Canon, Fred'k Wm, 224, 

225, 230 
Fawkes, Guy, 33 
Fairchilds, President, 72, 220 
Ferdinands, Dr. Geo., 252, 255 
Finney, Rev. Chas., 72 
First Church, Oberlin, 72 
Fish-wife, 245 
Flariner's Cooper Shop, 29 
Fleming, Thos. W., Esq., 368 
Forest Hill, Cleveland, 220 
Forest City House, 59 
Foote, Judge Horace, 31 
Fox, Dr. J. B„ 185 
Ford, L. G., Esq., 185 
Foraker, Hon. J. B., 189 
Fortune, T. Thomas, 268 
Forth Bridge, 245 
Forte, Ormond A., 359 
Forum, Roman, 298 
Fremont, John C, 44 
Francisco, "Johnnie," 150 
Francarola, Incenzo, 314 
Freeman, Elisha, 359 
Freeze, Andrew, 77, 78 
Funchal, Madeira Island, 287 

— G— 
Gambetta, Leon, 231 
Gaston, WilKam, 1, 2, 5 

Gambier, Ohio, 16 
Gardner, A. S., 107 
Garver, Judge J. T., 118, 119 
Garfield, James A., 175, 206, 237, 

Garfield, James R., 206 

Garrison, William Lloyd. 240 

Garrett, Edward, 252 

Gallagher, Michael, 168 

Gary, P. M., General 266 

George, Lloyd, 233 

Genoa, Italy, 289 

Gestler, Swiss Tyrant, 

Gibson House, Cincinnati, 189, 

Gilpin, John, 39, 291 

Gillette, Mr., 114 

Gordon, Susan, Duchess of Man- 
chester, 256 

Giles, Saint, 243 

Giteau, Assassin, 175 

Gibraltar, Rock of, 288 

Glasgow, Scotland, 259 

Goulder, Harvey D., Ill 

Gordon, W. J., Esq., 198, 223 

Gordon Castle, 255 

Gordon, Duke of, 256 

Gothic Architecture, 311 

Graham, Dr. and Mrs., 294, 305 

Green, John P., 1 

Green, John R., 1, 20, 47 

Green, Temperance, 1, 5 

Green, Sarah R.. 100 

Green, Mrs. Sally, 15 

Green, Mrs. Annie Laura, 304, 353 

Green, Mrs. Lottie E., 353 

Green, Capt. Wm. R., 233, 277, 

Green, Mrs. Agnes, 301 

Green, Theodore B., Esq., 355 

Green, Miss Kittie Stanley, 100 

Green, Jesse Bishop, 354 

Green, Miss Clara Annie, 354 

Green, Miss Helen, 353 

Green, Mr. Rigdon, 277 

Green, Mr. Benjamin 

Green, James, 49 

Green, Shade, 50 

Green, Johnnie, 355 

Grant, Judge John G., 131 

Grant, U. S., 145 

Greelev. Horace, 146, 179 

Green Springs, W. Va„ 263 

Green, Truman Handy, 355 
Green, Mrs. Theodore B., 356 
Green, F. W., 153 
Griffin, Abmer, 220 
Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, 2 
Grosvenor, Gen. Chas., 178 

— H— 

Hadden, Hon. Alexander, 154, 

Hayes, Ex-Pres., 187 
Harris, Gov. Andrew L., 194 
Halm, Hon. Wm, 262 
Hawkins, J. R., 149, 150 
Hare, Parker, 152, 167, 358 
Hayes, Ex-Pres., 187 
Hardie, Kier, 333, 334 
Hazle, R. G., 44 
Hannah, "Aunt," 11, 27 
Hancock, Town Sergeant, 32 
Hancock, Richard W., 33, 56 
Harper's Ferry 
Hanna, Robert, 89 
Hanna, Doctor, 89 
Hanna, Senator M. A., 89, 114, 

Hanna, L. C, Esq., 89 
Hanna, Dan R., 347 
Harvey, A. H., 90 
Harding, W. G., 348 
Haworth, Jehu, 91 
Handy, Truman P., 104, 105 
Hawes, Rev. Dr., 108 
Harris, Andrew L., Gov., 194 
Harris, Colonel, 114 
Harris, Robert, 123, 124 
Harris, Bishop, 123 
Harrington, John W., 141 
Harvey, Jere, 17, 18 
Hathaway, Hon., 171 
Herrick, Hon. Myron T., 152, 342 
Heber, Bishop, 236 
Hebe, cupbearer 
Heisley, "Sir" William, 152 
Heller, C. R., 152 
Herrick, R. R., 154 
Herald, evening 
Heisel & Sons, 121 
Hiram College, 164 
Hedge, Hon. O. J., 172, 173, 174 
Hoardley, Gov. Geo., 170 
Hogarth, Painter, 
Holy Rood Palace, 244 

Holden, R. L., 118, 147 

Holmes, Thorp, 96 

Hood, Stephen, 154, 155 

Horner, R. R., 274 

Holand, Milton, 276 

Hood, Stephen, 154 

Hopkins, Theodore, Prof., Ill 

Hoyt, James M., 84, 86 

Koyt, Rev. Way land, 84 

Hoyt, Colgate, 85 

Hoyt, James H., 85 

Hoyt, Elton, 85 

Holyrood Palace, 244 

Homer's Iliad, 237 

Hotel Dieu, 322 

Holmes, Duncan, 123 

Home, John, 235 

Huntley, Scotland, 256 

Huntington, John. 150, 224 

Hume, David, historian, 238 

Hudson School, 77 

Hunt, Bvron, Esq., 114, 148 

Hudson, Col. J. L., 137 

Hoyer, Dr. J. L., 281 

— I— 

Ignatz, Saint 

Ingersoll, Miss Mary, 111 

Ingram, Hon. A. F. Winnington, 

Ireland, Archbishop, 274 
Isis, Temple of, 294 
Ives, Rt. Rev., 13 

James II, of England, 5 

James, "Elder," 82 

Jacobes, Mr., 110 

Jackson, Hon. Geo. H.. 200 

Jimmie "Irish," 29, 34 

Joiner, William A., 276 

Jones, "Uncle" Balaam, 29, 34 

Johnson, "Tom" L., 176, 201, 348, 

177, 178 
Johnson, Miss Phillis, 355 
Johnson, Wendell C, 355 
Johnson, Theodore G., 355 
Johnson, Miss, 75 
Johnson, Andrew, Ex-Pres., 4 
Jegerson, Thomas, Ex-Pres., 
Johnson. Dr. C. C, 355 
Johnson, Laura, 52 
Johnson, Clara Annie, 355 


Jones, R. A., 359 
Judd, Frank, 132 
Judy, John M., 264 

— K— 
Kaiser, Peter H., 154, 182 
Keep, Father, 72 
Kenyon College, 16 
Kellogg, John H., Sr., 123 
Kellogg, John H., Jr., 123 
Kennedy, Judge Thomas M., 344 
Kerruish, W. S., Esq., 159, 160 
Kerens, Col., 262 
King, Henry, 81 
Kingslev, Chas., 209 
Kline, Virgil P., 152 
Kiel, August, 166 
Killarney, Lakes of, 328, 329 
Kolbe, Geo. A., 159, 165 
Krugrer, Carl, 111 
Ku-Klux-Klan, 143 
Knox, John, 238, 243 

Laws, Rev. Dr., 239 
Langston, John M., 171, 172 
Labor Day, 188 
Lampson, Lieut. Gov., 194 
Laurinburgh. 132 
Lateran, St. John, 300 
Lake City, So. Carolina, 269 
Lewis, James, 59 
Leary, Sheridan 
Leonard, Miss Mary J., 75 
Leo, Mother Ann, 81 
Lee, River, 326 
Lewis, a farm-hand, 8 
Leader, The Cleveland, 153 
Leech, Mrs. Eliza, 225, 234 
Lendrum, Rev. R. A., 245, 246 
Leith, Mr. John, 252, 254 
Leonard, Rt. Rev., 227, 229, 338 
Lincoln, Abraham, 24, 97 
Lourie, Henry, 81 
Lourie, Hugh, 81 
lourie, Rev. Walter, 91 
Lowman, Dr. John H., Ill 
Loudin, Fred J., 225 
Livingstone, David, 238 
Livingston, John Knox, 137 
Lyons, Hon. Judson W., 276 
Luxembourg, Paris, 324 

— M— 

MacDuff, 69 
Maria, Cousin, 27 
Mayflower School, 74 
Mather, Samuel, 111 
Mathews, Rt. Rev., 228 
Maxamilian, Grand Duke, 310 
Mitchell, Lottie E., 354 
Mitchell, Rev., President of Wil- 

berforce, 187 
Morton, Levi P., 108 
Mentzendorf, L., 225, 234 
Malvin, John, 359 
Maxwell, Henry J., 128, 132, 141 
Mail and Express, New York 
Martineau, Harriet, 234 
Maccaulay, Historian, 238 
Marshall, Miss Josephine, 239 
Mary, Queen of Scotland, 243 
Mathew, Father, 326 
Mayo, Isabella Fyvie, 252 
MacKay, Rev., 253 
Marshall, Judge John, 161 
Malloy, Rev. Father, 304 
Marshall, Miss, 239 
Mather, Mrs. Samuel, 111 
elodeon Hall, 60 
Medlin, Allen, 359 
Meeker, Claude, 189 
Medill, Joseph, 153 
Menger, George, 165 
Merritt, Gen. John A., 267 
Meagher, Thomas Francis, 325 
Mitchell, Alexander, 42 
Milcha, John, 209, 230, 234, 236 
Miller, Mrs. J., 239 
Mix, R. E., 152 
Moorfield, W. Va., 263, 2#4 
Miller, Prof. Kelleyn, 276 
Monroe, Prof. James, 72 
Morris, Freeman H., 59 
Morgue, Paris, 322, 323 
Morgan, Prof., 72 
Morgan, Mr., 116 
Moor of Venice, 214 
Moody, Dwight L., 243 
Mueller, Jacob, 159 
Murray, Daniel, 276, 344 
Myers, Hon. Geo. A„ 268 


— Mc— 
MacDuff, 37 
McAlister, Col., Ill 
McCall, Charlie, 127 
McCarthy, The, 328 
McColl, Peter, 138 
McColl, Duncan D., 137, 140 
McCormich, Mrs. Edith, 217 
McCullock, Actor, 59 
McDermott, Mon. Mr., 186 
McFarland, W. C, Esq., 121, 151 
Mclntyre, Barry, 136 
McKinley, William, 89, 205, 206, 

McKinney, Judge Henry, 185 
McLaren, Duncan, 239 
McLaren, Walter Stowe Bright, 

McLaughlin, J. B., Esq., 169, 170 
McMahon, Rev. Fr. William, 301 
McQuaig, John, 138, 143 
McRae, Irene, 143 
McGrath, J. W., 152 

— N— 
Napoleon the Great, 325 
Napoleon Third, 310 
Naples, Italy, 289 
Newburne, N. C, 1, 56, 59 
Nelson, Miss Sarah A., 74, 75. 76 
Neff, William A., 87 
Neff, "Ike," 88 
Neff, Judge William B., 154, 180, 

Neff, Horace, Esq., 280 
Newton, H. Pope, 137 
Neuse River, 20, 32 
New York, 54, 55 
"Nick," an Italian, 290 
Nicholl, Mrs. Elizabeth Peace, 

Nicholl. Prof. John Pringle, 2240 
Notre Dame, 320, 321 
Norton, Prof. Sidney A., Ill 
Noble, Judge Conway W.. 152 

— O— 
Oberlm, Ohio, 16, 45, 62, 65, 72, 

O'Connell, Daniel, 240 
O'Donoghue, The, 330 
Old Stone Church, 60 
Otis, W. A., 107 
Outhwaite, Joseph, 111 

— P— 

Paine, Judge R. S., 155 
Parks and Boulevards, 223 
Park, Wade, 352 
Park, Gordon, 352 
Park, Rockefeller, 352 
Park, Clinton, 352 
Park^ Edgewater, 352 
Patterson, Dr. Maurice, 243 
Patterson, John, 62, 65 
Patterson, R. H., 242 
Patterson, Henry O., 65 
Parsley, O. G., 123 
Pavne, Senator Henry B., 181 
Park, Goodale, 190 
Parker, Senator Wilbur, 198 
Parker, Rev. Joseph, 225. 230. 

231, 232, 233 
Paderewski, Pianist, 226 
Paine, R. F., Jr., 157 
Paxton, Rev. B. W., 339 
Peck Prof. 72 
Perkins, Jacob B., 60, 198, 351. 

Perkins, Capt. Ralph, 351 
Perkins, E. R., 74, 75, 77 
Perkins, Henry B., 351 
Perkins, Simon, 353 
Perkins, Mourice, 153 
Pius X., Pope, 301, 303, 305. 
Pompeii, Italy, 294 
Public Square, Cleveland, 58 
Pulies,, L. W., 359 
Purvis, Dr., 277 
Phibbs, Geo. T., 167, 168 
Price, Mrs. Hattie, 50 
Press, Penny, 158 


Quartier, Latin, 319, 321 
Queen Mary, 243 

— R— 

Ramsay, Allan, 238 
Ramsay, Dean, 253 
Ranney, Judge Rufus P., 161 
Rankin, Pres. J. E., 261 
Reed, Thomas Buchanan, 134 
Rhodes, Dan P., 114 
Rice, Sarah, 3 
Ricks, Joseph H., 99 
Richards, Captain J. M., 100, 101. 


Rickoff, Andrew J., 117 
Richardson, C. M., 148 
Richardsons, The, 220 
Richardson, Dr. Geo. H. 276 
Richardson, Albert, 354 
Richardson, Fred, 354 
Richardson, Helen Green, 354 
Richardson, Inez M., 354 
Robinson, William, Esq., 154, 182 
Rome, Italy, 295 
Romulus and Remus, 296 
Riddle, Hon. A. G., 162 
Rollin, Charles, 98 
Rock, Cemetery, 105 
Rockefeller, John D., 75, 80, 81, 

210, 212, 223 
Rockefeller, Mrs. John D., 216, 

Rockefeller, Frank, 81 
Rockefeller's Church, 61 
Rouse, Deacon, 59 
Roderigne, Dr., 130 
Roosevelt, Ex-President, 273, 288 
Roper, Mr. Ed., 135 
Rude, Mrs. Sarah A., 75 
Ross, Castle, 328 
Rutland, Judge J. M., 137 
Russell, L. A., Esq., 178 
Ryan, Daniel, 202 
Ryan, W. R., 167 

— ~0 " " 

Saleeby, Mrs. F. M., 238, 244 
Sampson, James, 122 
Sampson, W<illiam, 122 
Sampson, Joseph, 122 
Sampson, B. K., 122 
Sampson, John P., 122 
Sampson, George W., 122, 26 
Sampson, Nathan, - 
Sampson, Susie, 123 
Sampson, Fannie, 123 
Sampson, Mary, 123 
Sampson, Minerva, 123 
Sampson, George W., Jr., 125 
Sampson, Fred, 125 
Sampson, Mrs. Hattie Dale, 125 
San Juan, Cuba, 271 
Sawyer, E. J., Esq., 136 
Sawyer, E. J., Sr„ 136 
Sangster and Family, 239 
Saterlee, Bishop H. Y., 277 
Scott, Governor, 139 

Scott, John H., 62, 64, 65, 67, 70 
Scott. Mrs. Celia, 63, 69 
Schurz, Carl, 159 
Schwab, Solomon, 185 
Schofield, Levi P., 191 
Schmidt, J. W., 159 
Scott, Sir Walter, 259 
Screen Anti-Bill, 196 
Scottron, Samuel R., 287 
Sheridan, Gen. Phil., 134 
Sherman, Senator John, 272, 348 
Shepherd, Col. Eliott F., 207, 228, 

Sharpe, L. G., 226, 234 
Shadd, Dr. Firmdn, 277 
Shakers, The, 81 
St. Peter's Church, 296, 300 
Simpson, Dr. Williams, 243 
St. John Lateran, 300 
Shurtliff, Prof., 72 
Siegel, General Franz, 159 
Skeene, Miss Kittie T., 213 
Skeene, Sarah R., 100 
Slade, Ed. P., Esq., 154 163 
Slade, Albert T., 163 
Smalls, Captain Robert, 143 
Smith, The Hon. Harry C, 192, 

200, 348, 358, 359 
Smithnight, Capt. Louis, 212 
Spencer, Sen. Frank O., 202, 204 
Smeal, Mr. William G., 258 
Smith, Pard B., 150 
Smith, W. G., Esq., 168 
Smith, Captain John, 83 
Spellman, Hon. H. D., 211 
Snider, Hon. C. W., 192 
Southern, Sr., 59 
Southern, E. H., 59 
Speight, Gov. Richard Dobbs, 2, 

27, 49 
Soane, Sir John, 226 
Spellman, Miss Laura C, 211 
Stanley, John Wright, 1 
Stone, Rosetta, The, 328 
Stanley, John, 1, 2, 5 
Stanley, Hon. Edw., M. C, 4 
Stanley, John C, 42, 43 
Stanley, John Stuart, 42 
Stanley, Mrs. Fannie, 42 
Sterling, Dr. Theodore, 111, 112 
Stuart, Cato J., 128 
Strimple, Judge Theodore, 184 
Stewart, J. M., Esq., 185 


Steels, Mrs. Margaret, M. 9., 250 

Stilson, Clarence, 111 

Strauther, Geo. W., 264 

St. Marco Piazzo 

St. Charles, 262 

Sturge, Joseph, 

Suthern, Rev. B. W„ 239, 278 

Sykes, Dr. J. W., 102 

Simmons, John, 359 

Simmons, Buckner 

Cimmons, Granny Polly. 359 

Stone, Julge Carlos M., Esq., 183 

Squire, Andrew, Esq., 152 

Sweeney, James, 152 

— T— 

Tanner, Rev. B. T., 107, 108 
Taylor, S. Coleridge, 225, 234 
Talmadge, Rev. T. DeWitt, 231, 

Tell, William, 236, 317 
Telley, Madison, 152 
Templeton, Mr., 256 
Testolini Bros., 265 
Thome, Prof. J. H., 106 
Thorpe, Hon. Freeman, 171 
Thrift, Mrs. Mattie Laurence. 234 
Thompson, James, Esq., 248, 249 
Thomson, Mrs., 248, 249 
Thomson Family, 251 
Thomson, James, Jr., 250 
Thieme, August, 159 
Theresa, Saint, 299 
Thwing, Pres. Chas. F., 344 
Thompson, James, 148 
Tillman, John 

Toro Mountain, Ireland, 329 
Tilden, Judge Daniel R., 161 
Titus, Roman General, 298 
Townsend, Hon. Amos, M. C, 272 
Townsend, Hon. Charles. 137 
Trent, River, 20 
Trenton, N. C, 39 
Treat, Wilson, 153 
Trilby, a fiction, 319, 322 
Troy Hill, 90 
Tullock, David, 256 
Turner, L. W., 152, 167, 368 

— U— 

Union Depot, 58, 95 
Underwood, Rev. J. P., 369 

— V— 

Vatican, Rome, 305 
Vanderbilt, W. K„ 207 
Venice, Italy, 265 
Vesuvius, The Volcano, 290 
Vestibule, Bill, 195 
Vickery, Judge Willis, 120 
Vienna, Austria, 308 
Virgil, The Poet, 237, 288 
Victoria, Queen, 326 
Vosburgh, George, 359 

__ w— 

Wagner, Carl, 57 
Wallace, Scotch Patriot, 326 
Waller, Owen Meredith, 276 
Washington, George, 261 
Washington, J. H., 152, 358 
Warren, Elder John R., 98 
Washington, Booker T., 24, 274, 

Watts, Isaac, 92, 286 
Wade, J. H., Esq., 198, 223 
Weatherley, J. W., 127, 229 
Warren, J. R., 359 
Weitzel, Hon. Mr., 176, 180 
Wellington, The Iron Duke 
Werner, of The Tower of Londo» v 

Weaver, J. H., 368 
Whitford, Col. John D., 350 
Whitworth, William, 81 
Wheeler & Russell, 96, 114 
White, Judge H. C, 170, 185 
White, Clarence Cameron, 34. 27i 
Westminster Abbey, 327 
White, John G., 152 
White, Linden C, 166, 167 
White, Hon. Geo. H., M. C, 207 
White, Milly, 34, 36 
Wightman, David L, 267 
Wightman, Miss Lucy, 267 
Witt, Stillman, 114 
Wilson, J. Finley, 277 
Williams, Harry A.. 234 
Winnkelried, Arnold Von, 236, 317 
Wigham, Miss Eliza, 241, 242 
Williams, Dr. Daniel Hale, 277 
Willard, A. M., Esq., 355 
Williams, "Prof." S., 359 
Woodward, Sarah G., 43 


Wood, David L., 151, 165 — Y— 

Woodsworth, The Poet 3&S~, York, "Aunt Betsey," 45 

Wright, George W., 121 Young, Arthur F.. Esq., 284 
Wright, Justice, S. C, 151 

Wilberforce University, 187, 188 — Z— 

_ x _ Zola, Emile, 356 

Zehring, Augustus, Esq., 118 

Xenophon, Greek Author/ ^ ' Zurich, Switzerland, 318